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2019年08月18日 09:51:46 | 作者:最新新闻 | 来源:新华社
The educational materials presented here今天展示的教育材料were developed by students and faculty是由爱荷华州立大学营养学of the department of food science and human nutrition和人体营养学系的at Iowa State University.学生和老师提供的Funding for this project was provided by grants该项目的资金由from the American Cancer Society Mid West美国中西部地区癌症协会and the Lance Armstrong Foundation.及兰斯,阿姆斯斯壮基金会提供The materials are intended for educational use这些材料仅用于教学and are not meant to provide medical advice.并非用以提供医疗指导We welcome your feedback about these materials.欢迎大家对这些材料做出反馈Please use the evaluation survey link on the homepage请用主页上提供的调查评价链接to provide your comments and suggestions.提交你们的评价和建议Nutrition and exercise during pregnancy.期营养及锻炼Many of you are wondering在场的大多数人都在想how this presentation will affect your lives.今天的演讲和自己的生活有什么关系呢First, typically everyone knows someone首先,每个人肯定都认识一些妇who is pregnant or is going to become pregnant.或者即将怀的女性With this knowledge, I hope to inform you藉此,我希望告诉大家of health conscious choices that you can share一些从健康角度出发的选择with people you know.大家可以和认识的准妈妈们分享Second, not only is a proper diet and exercise第二,正确的饮食和锻炼不仅对important for women during pregnancy,妇非常重要but also everyone else.对其他人也是如此These recommendations presented今天讲到的建议will not only benefit someone who is pregnant,不仅可以使妇受益but will also promote a good health of individuals.也有助于每个人的健康Because health problems are on the rise,由于健康问题越来越多it is important to understand how an improper diet我们必须知道饮食不当can affect your health会影响健康and create a wealth of diseases.而且会引发一系列疾病By informing women who are pregnant告诉妇or seeking to become pregnant about healthy choices,或打算怀的女性一些健康的选择we can prevent diseases from occurring.可以预防疾病It is a good way to start healthy nutrition habits一个好方法是尽早养成健康的营养习惯early on so the mother can continue it这样准妈妈们才能坚持throughout the childs life.至宝宝出生There has been much debate人们莫衷一是on the proper weight gain during pregnancy.无法决断期到底该增加多少体重Weight gain depends on many factors体重的增加基于很多因素including the pre-pregnancy BMI.包括前身体质量指数BMIIf BMI before pregnancy is low, a greater weight gain如果怀前BMI很低,那么建议during the pregnancy is recommended.在期体重多增加些For example, if BMI is less than 19.8,例如,如果BMI低于19.8the recommended weight gain建议增重is between 28 to 40 pounds.28至40磅On the other hand, if BMI is above 29,但如果BMI大于29the recommended weight gain那么建议增重is a minimum of 15 pounds.至少15磅The minimum of 15 pounds is based on the need这一15磅的最小值基于to gain support tissues for the baby.为婴儿获取持组织的需要An estimate of where the weight gains occurs预计了一些体重增加的部位in an average women includes the baby对一般女性而言at seven and a half pounds, breast tissue 2 pounds,婴儿重7.5磅,乳房组织2磅maternal stores, mainly protein and fat,母亲的储蓄主要是蛋白质和脂肪which is seven pounds, placenta one and a half pounds,达7磅,胎盘1.5磅uterus growth 2 pounds, amniotic fluid,子宫增重2磅,羊水which is the water around the baby, 2 pounds,也就是婴儿周围的水,重2磅additional maternal blood 4 pounds,额外的母血重4磅and other body fluids 4 pounds.其他体液重4磅To fully understand weight gain recommendations,为了大家能够充分理解增重建议it is important to define terms.定义一些词是非常重要的BMI is the abbreviation for Body Mass Index.BMI是身体质量指数的简写This is a measure of body fat这一数值体现了based on height and weight.基于身高和体重的脂肪含量To calculate, divide weight in pounds by height计算方法是,体重磅数除以身高英寸平方in inches squared and multiply by 703.然后再乘以703BMI calculation is the same for males and females.男性和女性的BMI计算的方法一致201503/362911本杰明·赞德拥有两种热情:一种是对于古典音乐,另一种是帮助人们认识对古典音乐的热情。以及寻找我们对于所有的新可能、新体验以及新的联系的热情。201503/362136So iodate, hydrogen peroxide, malonic acid碘酸根离子,过氧化氢,丙二酸in the presence of sulfuric acid在硫酸存在的条件下react to produce this compound反应生成这种化合物oxygen and water氧气和水But think about the reaction this way不过像这样考虑反应Its equivalent to saying that metal and plastic无异于说金属和塑料反应react to produce a bicycle生成自行车In reality, there are many steps实际有很多步骤that occur between those raw materials and the finished results发生在原材料和最终产品之间and the Briggs-Rauscher reaction is similarBriggs-Rauscher反应也是这样Here are the many subreactions that occur这里需要有很多子反应发生to get from the reactants才能从反应物to the products得到产物What we see is a cycle from colorless to amber to dark blue我们所看到的是从无色到琥珀色到深蓝色的循环And as these reactions run随着这些反应的进行the relative amounts of the reactants and the products反应物和产物的相对浓度dictate the color of the solution决定了溶液的颜色I2 is amberI2是琥珀色的I minus is colorlessI-是无色的and I three minus is deep blue when it interacts with starch in the solution而I3-在同淀粉溶液相互作用时是深蓝色的triiodide is formed when三碘阴离子能在iodine and iodide interact碘单质和碘离子相互作用时形成And this cycle continues until all the reactants are used up这个循环会一直持续,直到反应物被耗完为止Hope you enjoyed the and Ill see you next time但愿大家喜欢这个视频,下次再见201502/358217

But thats not really quite enough但是这些信息还不够for me to know exactly what this bug is,对我来说 必须清楚地知道这是什么so we grow it on plates like this,所以我要在培养皿里培养它and each of these dots每个像这样的菌落里has about a half-billion organisms in it.有将近五亿个有机体These discs here have got antibiotics in them这些小圆盘里含有抗生素 which leak out into the agar,并会释放到琼脂中and if you look at that one there,如果你看那里you can see theres a very, very,你会发现这个很大一块区域very, large zone of clearing什么都没有and thats because that antibiotic这是因为 is killing that organism,这种抗生素杀死了有机体but if you look at all the others,但若再观察其他的 theres no effect at all.根本就没有效果So this plate is telling us所以这个培养皿告诉我们that my patient has got a highly resistant organism,病人体内生有高度耐药性有机体and this explains why这就解释了shes not doing quite as well as she should,为什么她没有像预期的那样好起来so resistant to one, two, three, four, five antibiotics,对这五种抗生素都有耐药性sensitive to only one.只对一种敏感Our resistance to antibiotics我们对于抗生素的耐药性is a problem thats only getting worse.是一个日趋严重的问题201503/363652

A Y chromosome might make you a man, but it takes a more than genes to be manly.一条Y染色体决定了你是男性,但是有男子气概不仅仅是性别的问题。You Will Need你需要Tools工具Gym健身房Literature and films文学作品和电影Self-defense自卫Emotional stability情绪稳定Courage勇气Extreme conditions (optional)极端的环境(可选)Steps步骤STEP 1 Get the job done1.完成工作Identify tasks that need to get done. Use the appropriate tools for every job you take on.鉴别出需要完成的工作。每一项工作使用恰当的工具。Remember: a manly mans hands and brain are often his most effective tools.记住:对于一位有男子气概的男性,双手和大脑通常是最有效的工具。STEP 2 Build your body2.锻炼身体Hit the gym regularly -- a manly mans body should be fit for any task. Learn to play all major manly sports -- few things are as unmanly as a girly run, throw, or kick.经常去健身馆锻炼,有男子气概的男性的身体应该能够担负任何任务。学习所有有男子气概的体育项目。像女孩子一样跑,扔,踢打等动作最没有男子气概了。To make your workouts more manly, train in extreme conditions.为了让你的锻炼更加有男子气概,在极端的环境下锻炼。STEP 3 Study up3.仔细研究Study up -- classic manly literature and watch manly movies to find out how to master your desires, lead other people, and achieve your manly goals.仔细研究——阅读经典的男性文学读物,观看男性电影,看一下怎样掌控自己的渴望,领导其他人,达成更有男子气概的目标。STEP 4 Be a rock4.坚如磐石In an emotional situation? Be a source of stability for those around you. Push your feelings aside until youre alone and can display your emotions with manly dignity.处于非常多愁善感的境况?成为周围的人淡定的源泉。把自己的感情放在一边,直到自己一个人的时候。有男性尊严地展示自己的情感。STEP 5 Have some respect5.尊重Show respect to people who treat you with honor and stand up to those who dont. Have the courage to fight for justice -- a manly man knows hes responsible for defending others, no matter the personal cost.尊重那些尊敬你的人,敢于面对那些不尊重你的人。有勇气为正义而战——有男子气概的男性知道自己有责任不计个人代价保卫他人。The motto on Marylands state seal, translated from Italian, is ;Manly deeds, womanly words.;马里兰州的箴言翻译自意大利语,意为“行为果敢,语言温和”。 /201501/353126

The thing about antibiotics抗生素的特别之处在于is that theyre not like any other drug,它不像其他的药物that every other drug you take is for you and your body.其他的药物都是作用于人体The antibiotics are not for you at all.而抗生素却完全不是Theyre aimed at the bugs,它们作用于病原and in fact, the better the antibiotic,实际上 越好的抗生素the less effect it has on you.对人体的作用就越少But for Dr Gants patient, Kathleen,但对于甘特医生的病人凯瑟琳来说these risks are far outweighed by their life-saving potential.相比其风险 它能救命是最重要的Hi there!你好Hi, Ive come to see how you are today.我来看看你怎么样Well, I feel a lot better today.我今天觉得好多了Fantastic, fantastic. In what way?很好 很好 哪些方面有好转呢 I just feel more, erm, alert.我觉得清醒很多Getting back to normal, sort of thing.身体渐渐恢复 差不多这样吧The last one Dr Gant had left worked.甘特医生的最后一根救命稻草起效了In this ladys condition,照这位女士的情况来看she would have probably had less than 10% chance of surviving如果我们没有对她使用抗生素 had we not had an antibiotic to treat her infection,她存活的几率可能还不到百分之十which is extraordinary,现在来说是个不同寻常的 and that is close to a miracle.近乎奇迹的效果201503/364704

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