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佛山新世纪医院治疗龟头炎多少钱佛山市治前列腺炎的男科医院佛山新世纪医院前列腺炎多少钱 Science and technology科学技术Scientific publishing科技出版业Brought to book好书来了Academic journals face a radical shake-up学术期刊面临彻底改变IF THERE is any endeavour whose fruits should be freely available, that endeavour is surely publicly financed science.如果有人试图把成果免费公开的话,那他一定是科学资助者,Morally, taxpayers who wish to should be able to about it without further expense.确实,纳税人都希望不再花额外的钱来阅读科学著作,And science advances through cross-fertilisation between projects.并且科学的进步也是通过各个学科之间的相互促进吸收,Barriers to that exchange slow it down.而其间的交流障碍使这种进步慢了下来。There is a widesp feeling that the journal publishers who have mediated this exchange for the past century or more are becoming an impediment to it.在过去一个世纪,期刊出版商给人广泛的感觉就是他们调停了这种交流,甚至阻碍了这种交流。One of the latest converts is the British government.而最新的改变发生在英国政府身上,On July 16th it announced that, from 2013, the results of taxpayer-financed research would be available, free and online,它在7月16宣布,从2013年开始,由纳税人资助的科研成果都会在网上免费公开,for anyone to and redistribute.并且任何人都可以阅读和转发。Britains government is not alone.并不是只有英国政府这么做,On July 17th the European Union followed suit.17日欧盟也紧随其后,It proposes making research paid for by its next scientific-spending round—which runs from 2014 to 2020, and will hand out about 80 billion, or 100 billion, in grants—similarly easy to get hold of.建议下一个科研经费周期拿出800亿欧元来补贴类似易于获取资料的方法。In America, the National Institutes of Health has required open-access publishing since 2008.在美国,国家卫生研究所从2008年开始就要求开放出版业。And the Wellcome Trust, a British foundation that is the worlds second-biggest charitable source of scientific money, after the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, also insists that those who take its shilling make their work available free.仅次于比尔和梅林达·盖茨基金会的英国维康信托基金是世界上第二大科研资金获取来源,也坚持—要用我的钱就必须免费公开成果。Criticism of journal publishers usually boils down to two things.而期刊出版商对此的批判常常归结为两件事,One is that their processes take months, when the internet could allow them to take days.一是他们对资料的处理要花费数月,实际上有互联网他们只需要花费数天;The other is that because each paper is like a mini-monopoly, which workers in the field have to if they are to advance their own research,另一个原因就是由于每篇论文就像一个小型垄断,相关领域的工作者想要提升研究水平就必须得阅读那些论文,there is no incentive to keep the price down.这样根本没有动机把价格降下来,The publishers thus have scientists—or, more accurately, their universities, which pay the subscriptions—in an armlock.因此出版商就把那些科学家—准确来说是那些付钱订阅期刊的大学牢牢限制住了,That, combined with the fact that the raw material is free, leads to generous returns.再加上原始材料免费这一事实,这些常常为出版商带来了巨额回报。In 2011 Elsevier, a large Dutch publisher, made a profit of 768m on revenues of 2.06 billion—a margin of 37%.在2011年,荷兰出版商爱思唯尔从20.6亿欧元的投资中获取了7.68亿欧元的回报—利润达到了37%,如此高的收益被认为太过分,Indeed, Elseviers profits are thought so egregious by many people that 12,000 researchers have signed up to a boycott of the companys journals.因此爱思唯尔遭到了12000名研究人员的联名抵制。A golden future?未来一片光明?Publishers do provide a service.出版商也确实做了一些工作,They organise peer review, in which papers are criticised anonymously by experts.他们要对论文经行同业互查,And they sort the scientific sheep from the goats, by deciding what gets published, and where.并且还要对论文进行分类和挑选,决定是否出版和在哪里出版。That gives the publishers huge power.这就给了出版商很大的权利,Since researchers, administrators and grant-awarding bodies all take note of which work has got through this filtering mechanism,因为研究者、管理员和拨款奖励机构都在注意谁的论文通过了这个过滤机制,the competition to publish in the best journals is intense, and the system becomes self-reinforcing,在最好的期刊上发表论文的竞争非常激烈,出版系统就变得更加自我强化,increasing the value of those journals still further.也推高了那些期刊的价值。But not, perhaps, for much longer.或许以后不会再这样了,Support has been swelling for open-access scientific publishing:持开放科学出版业的呼声越来越强烈:doing it online, in a way that allows anyone to papers free of charge.把研究成果放到网上,让任何人都可以免费查阅。The movement started among scientists themselves,这个运动开始由科学家发起,but governments are now,但是现在政府也站了出来,as Britains announcement makes clear, paying attention and asking whether they, too, might benefit from the change.比如英国政府的通告就很清楚,它不仅在关注此事,还询问科学家们是否可以从这个变化中受益。The British announcement followed the publication of a report by Dame Janet Finch, a sociologist at the University of Manchester,Dame Janet Finch的报告发表之后英国政府才发出通告,which recommends encouraging a business model adopted by one of the pioneers of open-access publishing, the Public Library of Science.这位曼彻斯特大学的社会学家建议鼓励一种商业模式,这个方法被一家开放出版业的先锋—公共科学图书馆所采纳。This organisation, a charity based in San Francisco, charges authors a fee and then makes their papers available over the internet for nothing.公共科学图书馆是一家位于旧金山的慈善组织,它会付给作者一笔费用,然后再把他们的论文在网上免费公开。For PLoS, as the charity is widely known, this works well.对于公共科学图书馆来说,它的慈善事业广为人知,并且做得很好,It has launched seven widely respected electronic journals since its foundation in 2000.并且从2000成立开始,已经出版了7大类备受推崇的电子期刊,For reasons lost in history, this is known as the gold model.虽然由于各种各样的原因,它们都淹没在历史的尘埃中,这种方式被称为 “黄金模式”。The NIHs approach is different.国家卫生研究所的方法不一样,It lets researchers publish in traditional journals, but on condition that, within a year, they post their papers on a free “repository” website called PubMed.它允许传统学术期刊发表研究人员的论文,但是有一个条件,就是在一年之内他的论文会在一家名为PubMed网站的免费“知识库”中公布,Journals have to agree to this, or be excluded from the process.期刊出版商必须同意这么做,要么就会被排除在该程序之外,This is known as the green model.这就被称为“绿色模式”。Both gold and green models involve prepublication peer review.不管是黄金模式还是绿色模式都涉及到正式出版前的同业互查问题,But a third does away with even that.但第三种就不需要这样了,Many scientists, physicists in particular, now upload drafts of their papers into public archives paid for by networks of universities for the general good.现在很多科学家都为共同利益而把他们的草稿上传到由大学运营的网络公共档案馆中,Here, manuscripts are subject to a ruthless process of open peer review, rather than the secret sort traditional publishers employ.在这里,手稿都暴露在严格的同业互查之下,而不是被传统出版商私下分类。An arXived paper may end up in a traditional journal, but that is merely to provide an imprimatur for the research team who wrote it.一份被arXiv化论文可能会以传统期刊的出版而结束,但这仅仅只是为研究小组提供出版许可,Its actual publication, and its value to other scientists, dates from its original arrival online.它的实际出版物,还有对其他科学家的价值和原始数据都可以在网上找到。The success of PLoS, and the political shift towards open access, is encouraging other new ventures, too.科学公共图书馆的成功让其把政策转向开放阅览,这也鼓励了其他新的投资者。Seeing the writing on the wall, several commercial publishers are experimenting with gold-model publishing.在看到这些“不祥之兆”后,一些商业出版商开始尝试以“黄金模式”出版,Meanwhile, later this year, a coalition of the Wellcome Trust, the Max Planck Institute and the Howard Hughes Medical Institute will publish the first edition of eLife, an open-access journal with ambitions to rival the most famous journal of the lot, Nature.与此同时,在今年晚些时候,马普研究院和霍华休斯医学研究中心将与维康信托基金会合作,出版首期eLife电子期刊,这份开放阅览的期刊有信心与它们之中最著名的《自然》竞争,The deep pockets of these organisations mean that, for the first few years at least, this journal will not even require a publication fee.那些财大气粗的组织甚至想至少在头几年不对期刊收取出版费。Much remains to be worked out.仍然还有许多要解决的东西,Some fear the loss of the traditional journalscuration and verification of research.一些人担心会失去传统期刊的内容治理和调查核实,Even Sir Mark Walport, the director of the Wellcome Trust and a fierce advocate of open-access publication, worries that a system based on the green model could become fragmented.甚至维康信托基金会的主管和开放出版的坚定持者Mark Walport先生也担心基于绿色模式的系统会分崩离析,That might happen if the newly liberated papers ended up in different places rather than being consolidated in the way the NIH insists on.如果新式宽松论文政策被某些原因终结而不是如NIH所坚持走统一合并的路子,这一切就有可能发生。But research just published in BMC Medicine suggests papers in open-access journals are as widely cited as those in traditional publications.但是根据《BMC医学》最近公布的调查显示,开放阅览期刊被引用的广泛程度和传统期刊一样多。A revolution, then, has begun.所以一场革命已经开始了,Technology permits it; researchers and politicians want it.不仅技术上可行,研究人员和政客也需要。If scientific publishers are not trembling in their boots, they should be.如果传统科技图书出版商没有觉得胆战心惊的话,那现在就是时候了。 /201307/249938Plants may appear to be helpless in the face of hungry,toothy animals but many plants have evolved interesting systems of self-defense.植物在饥饿的咀齿动物面前似乎毫无防御,然而许多植物已经进化出了有趣的自我保护体系。Coarse meadow grasses are a good example.粗糙的蓝草是一个很好的例子。If you run your finger along a blade of coarse grass,you just might cut yourself.当你的手指滑过它的叶子,很可能将自己划伤。What makes it so sharp?它为什么如此锋利呢?A row of microscopic silica blades lines thegrass like tiny teeth, and most grasses have silica inside as well.因为在蓝草叶片边缘有一排细小的像牙齿似的硅片,并且大部分蓝草体内也含有硅。Although the silica doesn’tprevent animals from feasting on the grass, it is hard enough to wear down the animalsteethover time.虽然这些硅质不能阻止动物的尽情咀嚼,但它的硬度很高,长期食用会磨损动物的牙齿。Imagine trying to chomp that tough meadow grass with dull, worn teeth, you wouldn’tget too far!试想一下,用又老又钝的牙齿咀嚼那样的牧草,显然不会逍遥很久。The grasses must have evolved this bristling defense fairly early in their relationship with grazinganimals, because the anatomy of the animalsmouths has changed in response.蓝草一定很早以前就在与草食动物的“对抗”中进化出这种密集的齿状硅片。因为动物的口腔结构发生了相应的变化。The teeth ofmost mammals stop growing in adulthood.大多数哺乳类动物的牙齿在成年以后就停止了生长。But, the teeth of grazing animals like horses and cowshave evolved in a different way.但是马和牛等食草动物的牙齿,却产生了不同的进化。They continue to grow from the roots over the course of theanimalslives.它们从牙根不断生长,贯穿动物的整个生命周期。As the grassessilica blades wear away the teeth, continuous growth from the rootsat least partially compensates for the loss.由于蓝草的硅片磨损牙齿,从牙根不断生长的牙至少部分弥补了磨损。If an animal’s diet consists mostly of coarse meadowgrasses with silica blades, the animal still could develop extensive wearing and damage to its teeth.如果食草动物的食物以这种粗糙蓝草为主,那么磨损仍会加剧并对牙齿造成伤害。 201404/285009三水人民医院看泌尿科怎么样

佛山市顺德区中医院属于几级佛山新世纪医院割包皮全过成多少钱 佛山新世纪医院男性不育

杨和镇更合镇明城镇治疗早泄哪家医院最好Finance and Economics;Spanish banks;The long kiss goodnight;财经;西班牙业;漫长的晚安吻别;A bank merger sheds fresh light on a sickly industry;合并为沉疴已久的西班牙业带来一丝曙光;It may be Spains most short-lived public company. Just a few months after its July debut on the Spanish stockmarket, Banca Cívica this week agreed to sell itself to CaixaBank, a larger rival, at an 11% discount to its market price. The “take-under” is a sharp reminder of Spains property woes.它可能是西班牙史上最短命的上市公司。就在本周,Banca Cívica同意以低于市价11%的折扣把自己出售给其强劲的竞争对手Caixa,此时距离它去年七月在在西班牙股票市场首次公开发行仅过去不过数月。Banca Cívica的“贱卖”让人们猛然想起了哀鸿遍野的西班牙地产市场。Banca Cívica listed in the first place to meet capital targets set by the then Spanish government. Now it is one of the first casualties of rules set by the new government to get banks to set aside provisions and capital worth 50 billion Euro(66 billion Dollar) to cover losses on dud property loans. Faced with a capital and provisioning shortfall of 2 billion Euro, Banca Cívica accepted an all-share deal that valued it at a third of its book value. The combined entity will become Spains largest bank by assets, with around 15% of the retail market.前任西班牙政府制定的资本充足率目标对业影响甚广,首当其冲的便是Banca Cívica。新届政府成立后,又要求业对不良房地产贷款计提价值500亿欧元(660亿美元)资本的坏账准备金。由于资本不足,Banca Cívica的坏账准备金面临着20亿欧元的缺口,只得接受换股收购,以账面价值三分之一的价格将自己出售。合并后的企业实体以资产来计将成为西班牙最大的,占据大约15%的零售市场The deal may not be good for Cívicas shareholders, but it is positive for the system as a whole that a stronger bank is using its excess capital to clean up a weaker one. As part of the deal, CaixaBank will write down 3.4 billion Euro of Banca Cívicas assets, 3 billion Euro of which relates to property loans and foreclosures—more than the amount Banca Cívica was officially supposed to set aside and a sign that the current provisioning targets might still be insufficient. CaixaBank can afford to take the hit. Its core capital will drop by 1.7 percentage points, yet it is still on track to meet the 9% core-capital mark demanded by European regulators by the summer.这笔交易或许不符合Banca Cívica股东们的利益,但对整个市场来说却是个积极的信号,因为一家强大的将用它多余的资本为另一家虚弱清理不良贷款。作为交易的一部分,Caixa会对Banca Cívica的资产减记34亿欧元,这当中有30亿欧元与房地产贷款以及抵押品停止赎回有关——超过了之前Banca Cívica官方估计的处理金额,这很可能预示着目前的坏账准备金目标仍过低。Caixa能够承受这一资产减值的打击,虽然它的核心资本充足率将因此下降1.7%,但仍满足今年夏天欧洲央行规定的9%的的目标。Capital elsewhere is scarce, however. Most other lenders lack CaixaBanks powerful balance-sheet: they are focused on meeting a March 31st deadline to present their plans to the Bank of Spain on how to meet the new provisioning requirements. And just like its predecessor, the government is trying to minimise the cost of bank rescues to the taxpayer and to the countrys public finances, now firmly back in the bond-market spotlight. “Unfortunately, the capacity to recognise losses is extremely limited because, as things stand, there is no capital, private or public, for a convincing recapitalisation,” worries Tano Santos of Columbia University.然而,对于其他而言,资本仍很是稀缺。许多都没有Caixa那样强劲的资产负债表:它们正专注于在3月31日大限前向西班牙央行提交一份方案,说明自己如何实现新的准备金要求。和前任政府的做法相同,现任政府试图将附加于纳税人和国家财政身上的的救助成本最小化。政府力图重返债券市场的做法使其备受关注。“不幸的是,西班牙确认资产损失的能力有限。目前看来,无论是私人资本还是政府资金都十分欠缺,这让资本重组显得不可信。”哥伦比亚大学的塔诺桑托斯担忧地说道。The government used money from an industry-backed deposit guarantee fund (FGD) to inject capital and guarantee risky assets during the sale of two nationalised banks, Banco CAM and Unnim. Three more nationalised lenders will soon be auctioned and will also need money to smooth the way. But the pot is now nearly empty. The FGD could ask for extraordinary contributions from banks or raise debt backed by future annual contributions. But bankers grumble that this is like trying to get a sick patient to cure himself.政府在出售CAM和Unnim这两家国有的过程中,动用了业发起成立的储蓄担保基金(FGD)来为它们注入资本,并且为风险资产提供担保。另外三家国有很快也会被拍卖,这也需要钱来铺路。但是储蓄担保基金现在已经用的快见底了。FGD有两条路可以走:或者要求各家提供额外的资金;又或者以各未来每年注资的形式作担保来发行债券。但家们纷纷抱怨,这种做法好是比让病人自己抢救自己。One source of concern is BFA Bankia, which listed the day before Banca Cívica last summer and faces a provisioning and capital shortfall of 5.1 billion Euro. After deducting provisions aly taken in 2011, asset sales and the recent swap of preference shares in its parent group, BFA, for Bankia shares, the shortfall is closer to 2.7 billion Euro. Speculation that it might merge with CaixaBank was quashed by the latters deal with Cívica, but rumours swirl about other mergers.BFA Bankia现在尤其令人担忧。这家在去年夏天仅比Banca Cívica早一天上市。它面临的准备金和资本短缺达到了51亿欧元。该在2011年通过资产出售和向母公司互换优先股的方式筹集了一部分准备金,但仍面临着27亿欧元的资金缺口。此前曾有传言Caixa将与BFA Bankia进行合并,尽管随后发生的CaixaBank 与Cívica的合并交易使得谣言不攻自破,但有关其并购的各种传闻依然甚嚣尘上。Bankia says it can make it on its own. The shortfall will be covered by a combination of profits, balance-sheet shrinkage and more asset sales and preference-share swaps. Rodrigo Rato, the chairman, downplayed the challenges in its 2011 results presentation. “Bankia doesnt represent a systemic problem,” he said. “Bankia is systemic, but it isnt a problem.”Bankia宣称它完全能自力更生地筹集到准备金,短缺的资金将由未来盈利、收缩资产负债表以及出售资产和优先股互换来弥补。Bankia的董事局主席罗德里格拉托在2011年的业绩发布会上轻描淡写地谈起面临的挑战。“Bankia不存在系统性问题”他说道。“Bankia的确是一家系统性,但它不是问题。”All of which leaves the new government in a similar bind to the old one. Forcing a rapid clean-up of the sector risks soaking up scarce public money. But leaving the banks to muddle their way through has costs, too. Although the European Central Banks three-year loan programme has eased funding pressures on Spanish banks, a credit crunch is under way. Listed Spanish banks shrank their loan books by 3.7% in 2011, according to estimates by Exane BNP Paribas, an investment firm which expects the trend to continue this year and next. That risks worsening the economic situation, and the losses that lenders face. Tightening the screws on provisions is an important step, but the government may yet need another reform plan.所有这一切使得新政府陷入了一个与其前任相似的困境中。对风险资产的快速清理会导致公众资金的严重短缺。然而,如果放任业稀里糊涂地进行自救,也有各种各样的成本。尽管欧洲央行的三年期贷款项目已经缓解了西班牙的资金压力,但是信贷紧缩已经不可避免。根据法国巴黎的的估计,在2011年,西班牙上市的贷款发放收缩了3.7%。这家投行还预计,贷款紧缩趋势在今明两年仍会持续。信贷紧缩风险会进一步恶化经济环境,加剧的损失。要求提高准备金对于改革来说是关键一步,但是西班牙政府可能到了需要一个新的改革计划的时候了。 /201306/242476 禅城区医院男科佛山新世纪男科医院尿科

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佛山市第五人民医院治疗龟头炎多少钱 佛山市三水人民医院治疗生殖感染价格放心乐园 [详细]
佛山市第一人民泌尿科医院治疗阳痿多少钱
佛山新世纪男科医院包皮手术多少钱 顺德区第二人民医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱 [详细]
顺德区乐从医院男科医院哪家好
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泡泡门户佛山三水区治疗性功能障碍多少钱 高明中医院有治疗前列腺炎吗99典范佛山市中医院包皮手术多少钱 [详细]