明星资讯腾讯娱乐2020年02月28日 04:12:20
Mo Yan, is a famous contemporary Chinese writer. In 2012, He became the country#39;s first Nobel Literature Prize laureate。中国当代著名作家莫言获得2012年诺贝尔文学奖,这是首次有中国人获得这一奖项。Born Guan Moye, the author writes under the pen name Mo Yan, which means ;don#39;t speak; in Chinese。莫言原名管谟业,笔名“莫言”,意为“不要说话”。Mo Yan was granted an honorary PhD of Arts by OUHK (Open University of Hong Kong) and was appointed guest professor at the Qingdao University of Technology. Relying on a series of country literary works, Mo#39;s claim to fame came in the 1980s when he established a reputation for being a so-called root-seeking writer. His works were strongly influenced by magical realism and told the tales of numerous legends which took place in Gaomi, Shandong Province. Mo is renowned for his unique perceptions of reality, imaginative descriptions, de-familiarization processing, mysticism and a pioneering style。莫言是香港公开大学荣誉文学士,青岛科技大学(微)客座教授。他自1980年代中期以一系列乡土作品崛起,被归类为“寻根文学”作家。莫言的作品深受魔幻现实主义影响,写的是发生在山东高密东北乡的传奇。莫言在他的小说中构造了独特的主观感觉世界、天马行空般的叙述、陌生化的处理,塑造出神秘的对象世界,带有明显的“先锋”色。Biography人物年表Mo Yan was born on February 17, 1955 in Gaomi, Shandong Province. He attended primary school in his hometown and actually was forced to drop out because of China#39;s Cultural Revolution. He was sent to the countryside where he had to perform manual labor for many years。莫言1955年2月17日生于山东高密,童年时在家乡小学读书,后因文革辍学,在农村劳动多年。In 1976, Mo joined the PLA (China#39;s People#39;s Liberation Army) and held the posts of monitor, librarian, teacher and secretary。1976年,莫言加入中国人民解放军,历任班长、图书管理员、教员、干事等职。In 1981, he started his writing career and published several early works such as ;Dry River,; ;Autumn Stream; and ;Folk Music.;1981年,莫言开始创作生涯,发表了《枯河》、《秋水》、《民间音乐》等早期作品。In 1986, he graduated from the department of literature at the PLA Academy of Arts。1986年,莫言毕业于解放军艺术学院文学系。In 1991, he was granted a master#39;s degree in literature and art from the Lu Xun Literature Institute at Beijing Normal University。1991年,莫言毕业于北京师范大学(微)鲁迅文学院创作研究生班,并获文艺学硕士学位。In 1997, his full-length novel ;Big Breasts and Wide Hips; won the Da Jia Literature Prize, a money prize of 100,000 Yuan. Mo then left the army and started to work for regional newspaper Procuratorial Daily. He also wrote TV scripts for the department of film and television。1997年,莫言以长篇小说《丰乳肥臀》夺得“大家文学奖”,获得高达十万元人民币的奖金。随后,他脱离军界,转至地方报社《检察日报》工作,并为报社的影视部撰写连续剧剧本。In 2000, his novel ;Family Stories of Red Sorghum; was on the list of the 100 best Chinese fictional works of the 20th century, as selected by Asia Week. The movie ;Red Sorghum,; directed by Zhang Yimou, was adapted from this novel and won the 38th Berlin Film Festival Golden Bear Award.2000年,莫言的作品《红高粱家族》获《亚洲周刊》选为20世纪中文小说100强。这部小说改编的电影《红高粱》由张艺谋导演,获得了第三十八届柏林国际电影节最佳故事片金熊奖。In 2001, ;Sandalwood Penalty; was awarded with the prize of the ;Best Literary Book for Readers,; granted by Taiwan ed Daily News. This novel also won the Ding Jun Double Year Prize for Literature in 2003.2001年,莫言的作品《檀香刑》获台湾联合报读书人年度文学类最佳书奖。该作品在2003年又获得了第一届鼎钧双年文学奖。Though missing out on the 2005 Mao Dun Literature Prize, Mo did win the second Mass Media Award for Chinese Literature for Outstanding Achievements for his novel ;Forty-one Cannons.; The Open University of Hong Kong later granted him an honorary PhD of Arts.2004年,莫言的作品《四十一炮》获第二届华语文学传媒大奖年度杰出成就奖。可惜的是,2005年莫言与茅盾文学奖失之交臂。随后,他被香港公开大学授予荣誉文学士学位。His first chapter book ;Fatigue of Life and Death; got him the Fukuoka Asian Culture Award in 2006. According to the list of wealthiest Chinese writers published on December 15, 2006, Mo ranked twentieth, with his royalties amounting to 3.45 million Yuan. These facts and figures attracted wide public attention。2006年,莫言出版的第一部章回小说《生死疲劳》获得福冈亚洲文化大奖。同年12月15日,第一届中国作家富豪榜发布,莫言以十年345万元的版税收入,荣登作家富豪榜第20位,引发广泛关注。In July 2007, his collection of essays ;Say It, Mo Yan;, a representation of his spiritual journey, was published.2007年7月,莫言出版散文集《说吧,莫言》。这套书全面展示了莫言的心路历程。In 2008, ;Fatigue of Life and Death; won first prize at the second Dream of the Red Chamber Awards.2008年,莫言的作品《生死疲劳》获第二届红楼梦奖首奖。In December 2009, Mo#39;s full-length novel ;The Frog; was published. The book features Mo#39;s characteristically unique writing skills, containing four long letters and one drama. ;The Frog; tells the story of a female country doctor who has been practicing gynecology for nearly 50 years. Set to the backdrop of China#39;s 1960s family planning policy, it represented the arduous and complicated course of controlling the Chinese population growth, creating an inspirational female protagonist and at the same time revealing the pain and difficulties of that age. On August 20, 2011, ;the Frog; won the eighth Mao Dun Literature Prize。2009年12月,莫言出版长篇小说《蛙》。该作品的创作手法别具一格,由四封长信和一部话剧构成,通过讲述从事妇产科工作50多年的乡村女医生姑姑的人生经历,反映新中国近60年波澜起伏的农村生育史,描述国家为了控制人口剧烈增长、实施计划生育国策所走过的艰巨而复杂的历史过程;通过刻画鼓舞人心的女主角,表现一个时代的难和痛。2011年8月20日,《蛙》获得第八届茅盾文学奖。Mo was appointed guest professor at the Qingdao University of Technology and was also selected to act as vice-chairman of the Chinese Writers#39; Association on November 2011.2011年11月,莫言受聘请为青岛科技大学客座教授。2011年11月24日下午,中国作家协会第八届全国委员会第一次全体会议投票选出中国作协第八届全委会副主席,莫言当选副主席。The Nobel Prize in Literature for 2012 was awarded to Mo Yan, ;who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary,; the Swedish Academy announced in Stockholm on Oct. 11, 2012.2012年10月11日,瑞典皇家科学院诺贝尔奖评审委员会宣布,中国作家莫言获得2012年诺贝尔文学奖。委员会表示,莫言“将魔幻现实主义与民间故事、历史与当代社会融合在一起”。The Language and Cultural Press under Ministry of Education decided to add one of Mo#39;s novella ;A transparent carrot; in high school textbooks a couple of days after the annoucement for Mo#39;s winning as the literary laureate。莫言获得诺贝尔文学奖后,教育部直属的语文出版社决定将莫言作品《透明的红萝卜》收录在高中语文选修课程中。 /201210/204288

Giving birth to a child is a physical and emotional experience that#39;s as exhausting as it is exhilarating. Afterward, every new mom needs recovery time, even if she had a relatively easy birth. Factor in a C-section or other complications and the need for care after birth increases exponentially.新生命的诞生固然是让人高兴的大事儿,但生产的过程对新妈妈来说,无论是身体上还是心理上都是非常疲惫的。生产结束后,每个新妈妈都需要恢复时间,就算是生产过程相对轻松的妈妈也不例外。剖腹产和并发症等使得妈妈们在产后越来越需要得到护理。For many women around the world postpartum support comes from partners, family, and friends who rally to help out and give the new mom a chance to regain her strength and focus on bonding with her baby. The type of support moms get and the length of time they receive that support vary around the world.世界各国的女性在生产后都会得到各方的帮助持,有的来自家人朋友,有的来自团体组织,他们帮助新妈妈恢复体力,和新生儿之间建立亲子关系。不同地区的产妇所得到的的产假时长和照料方式也各有不同。In China and India, many new moms practice the tradition of postpartum confinement after the birth of a child. Confinement is a period of time, usually from 30 to 40 days after the birth of a child, when a new mom rests and avoids physical work.在中国和印度,许多产妇妈妈都有坐月子的传统。生下宝宝后30至40天,妈妈都要卧床休息,不做任何体力劳动。The mom stays home and is attended by close family and friends. Some women even hire a professional confinement ;lady; or maid. These helpers cook special recovery meals for the new mom, teach her how to bathe, swaddle, and care for her newborn, and tend to the baby when mom needs rest.新妈妈待在家里,由家人朋友悉心照料。有些人甚至还会专门雇“月嫂”,负责做产妇专用恢复餐、教会新妈妈如何给孩子洗澡、裹襁褓等等。要是妈妈累了要休息,她们还得照顾新生儿。In India the confinement period can last anywhere from 40 to 60 days depending on where the woman lives. In addition to rest and special meals, the ;confined; new mom might also receive a daily massage to soothe her body and help her blood circulation.在印度,产妇生活的地区不同,坐月子的时间也不同,但大都在40至60天左右。除了休息和特殊饮食,新妈妈在坐月子期间每天还要做,以放松身体、促进血液循环。Part of the reason confinement traditions aren#39;t more widesp is that forty days at home, with or without professional help, is a luxury that#39;s out of reach for most women.但并不是所有国家都有坐月子的传统。部分原因是不管有没有专业护理,在家待40天对于大多数女性来说都是可望不可即的奢侈生活。In fact, many new moms around the world have to go back to work as soon as possible after their child is born because they have no access to paid maternity leave.事实上,全球许多女性因为没有产假,在生下孩子后就立刻返回工作岗位。The U.S. is one of the only developed countries without a national paid maternity leave program. Compare that to countries like Sweden where new mothers and fathers are eligible for 48 weeks each of paid leave after the birth of a child, the UK (39 weeks) and Russia (28 weeks). Even India and Malaysia both offer 12 weeks of paid leave to their new mothers.美国是唯一一个不设国家带薪产假项目的发达国家。同其它国家相比,瑞典为新生儿父母各提供48周的带薪产假,英国有39周,俄罗斯有28周。即使在印度和马来西亚,产妇也有12周的带薪产假。The Duchess of Cambridge will live with her parents, Carole and Michael Middleton after giving birth to her first child. Carole’s younger brother, Gary Goldsmith confirmed that Catherine will indeed be using mum’s help.凯特王妃生下第一个孩子后将会回娘家,与父母卡罗尔和迈克尔住在一起。卡罗尔的弟弟加里·戈德史密斯确认说,凯瑟琳(即凯特王妃)的确需要妈妈的帮助。“The fact that they’re taking the baby to Carole’s for the first six weeks is genius,” Goldsmith said of the Middletons. ”Carole’s a brilliant mum – she is 10 years older than me and practised on me – and I think it’s the right thing to do. It will take the pressure off Kate.”谈起米德尔顿一家时,戈德史密斯说:“他们在产后前六周和孩子住在母亲家的决定十分正确,卡罗尔是个聪明能干的母亲。他比我大十岁,之前就照顾过我。我认为回家的做法很明智,凯特的压力会因此减轻不少。” /201307/249765




  Kissing may be one of the most wonderful ways of expressing love, affection, and happiness. Depending on who you#39;re kissing, there are tons of different ways to do it -- you kiss your kids much differently than you kiss your spouse.亲吻或许是表达喜爱、感情和幸福最美妙的方法之一。根据你亲吻对象的不同,有许多种不同的亲吻方式:亲吻孩子与亲吻爱人是截然不同的。But there are a lot of things I bet you don#39;t know about kissing (I know I was surprised!). Read on to learn some surprising things about smooching!然而我确信,关于亲吻这事儿,有许多事情是你不知道的(我知道我感到很惊奇!)读下面的文字来了解一下关于亲吻的一些令人惊奇的事情吧!1) Kissing is really, really good for you -- We all know kissing FEELS good, but did you know it#39;s good for your health too? Yep! Kissing improves skin, helps our blood circulate, prevents cavities, and can even relieve those pesky headaches! So don#39;t use the whole ;I have a headache; excuse the next time you want to get down and dirty!1. 亲吻真的、真的对你有好处。 我们都知道亲吻的时候感觉很妙,但是你知道这对你的健康也很有好处吗?是的!亲吻可以改善肌肤,促进血液循环,预防蛀牙,甚至还能减轻那些讨厌的头痛!因此下一次你想要拒绝他人的吻并觉得脏的时候,不要用“我头疼”当借口了!2) Kissing gets you high -- The endorphins (our body#39;s natural painkillers) released during a make-out session are reported to be a whopping 200 times more powerful than a dose of morphine. That would be why you feel giddy and happy after you#39;ve been kissing someone dreamy for a while!2. 亲吻让你兴奋。 据说亲热的时候所释放的内啡肽(我们身体里天然的镇痛剂)比一剂吗啡的功效强大200倍。这或许就是为什么你在与梦中情人亲吻之后感到幸福得快要晕过去了!3) Kissing is pretty germy -- A single kiss can pass on almost 300 different types of bacteria, and a long kiss can leave you with more than a million bacteria. Be sure to pass the mouthwash and brush your teeth before a good make-out session.3. 亲吻会传播很多细菌。 小亲一下可以传递将近300种不同的细菌,一个长吻则会给你留下超过一百万个细菌。一定要在好好亲热之前漱漱口、刷刷牙。4) Kissing can give you diseases -- Mono used to be called ;the kissing disease; before we learned that the illness can be picked up on other surfaces as well. One strain of herpes is also passed through kissing, so be careful who you kiss!4. 亲吻会让你生病。 传染性单核细胞增多症曾被称为“接吻病”,之后我们才知道这种疾病也可能通过其他表面染上。疱疹的破裂也可以因亲吻传播,所以要小心你亲的人!5) There#39;s no such thing as an ;Eskimo kiss; -- You learned as a kid that the act of rubbing noses was considered an ;Eskimo kiss.; It#39;s not true. Alaskans kiss the same way the rest of the world does.5. 没有“爱斯基吻”这一说。 你小时候所了解的相互擦鼻子的行为被称为“爱斯基吻”。这不是真的。阿拉斯加州人跟世界上其他地方的人一样也这样亲吻。6) Kissing is (sometimes) illegal -- There are some antiquated laws that exist around the U.S. In Ceder Rapids, Iowa, for instance, kissing strangers is illegal. In Hartford, Connecticut, it#39;s against the law to kiss your husband on a Sunday! Talk about the need for some new laws, huh?6. 亲吻(有时)是违法的。 在美国有些地区,比如爱荷华州的锡达拉皮兹,仍存在着一些古老的律法,规定亲吻陌生人是违法的。在康涅狄格州首府哈特福特,在星期天亲吻你的丈夫居然是违法的!该说说你对新律法的需求了,是吧?7) Kissing vacation -- The average person spends about 15 days of their entire life kissing. Talk about an extra-long vacation!7. 亲吻假期。 平均一个人会在一生当中花大约15天的时间来亲吻。说说这个额外的长假吧!8) Kissing burns calories -- French kissing is reported to use 34 different muscles in your face. A short peck can burn a couple of calories, while a passionate embrace can burn 26 calories a minute! Now THAT#39;S cause for celebration -- and eating a cupcake.8. 亲吻燃烧卡路里。 据说法式香吻会用到你面部的34块不同的肌肉。轻轻一吻会燃烧两卡,而一个深情的拥抱则会在一分钟内燃烧26卡!9) Lips are sensitive -- Lips are 100 times more sensitive than the tips of the fingers. Even genitals aren#39;t as sensitive as lips.9. 嘴唇很敏感。 嘴唇的敏感度比指尖的高达100倍。即便是私处也不及嘴唇敏感。10) Even primates do it -- Chimps kiss with open mouths (no tongue), and bonobos, the smartest of the primates, kiss with their tongues.10. 灵长类动物也会亲吻。 黑猩猩会张开嘴亲吻(不用舌头),灵长类动物里最聪明的倭黑猩猩用舌头来亲吻。Did any of these kissing facts surprise you?以上有关亲吻的真相是否有哪一条让你感到惊讶呢?BY:暖盈929 /201303/228904In the US and UK, having picnics is a summer tradition among friends and family. They are one of the highlights of the season. But before you enjoy some outdoor fun in the sun, choosing what to put in your picnic basket can be a headache. There’s plenty to consider, because picnic food needs to travel well and be easy to eat.在英国和美国,与朋友或家人外出野餐是项夏日传统,同时也是盛夏消遣的一大乐事。但在你沐浴阳光、享受户外活动的乐趣之前,野餐吃什么可是件令人头疼的事。你需要考虑到方方面面,因为野餐食物需要便于携带和食用。By introducing some traditional picnic foods, we hope to expand your choices beyond just buying sandwiches, cookies and snacks in the supermarket.这里,我们希望介绍一些传统的野餐美食来扩大你的选择范围,这样你就不仅仅局限于去超市购买三明治、饼干和零食这老三样了。US美国Cold fried chicken冷炸鸡Cold fried chicken served outdoors on a red-checkered tablecloth is the essence of picnic nostalgia in the US. Because fried chicken keeps well and is just as delicious cold as it is hot, it’s ideal for picnic situations.在美国,冷炸鸡配上红方格桌布是怀旧式野餐的精髓所在。因为炸鸡易于保存,冷热同样美味,是野餐时的理想食物。Chicken also appears on picnic s in other forms. You could enjoy a chicken salad, creamed chicken, or even chicken soup in a thermos for picnics on colder days.在野餐菜单上,鸡肉还以其他的一些菜式呈现。你可以享用鸡肉沙拉、奶油鸡、天冷时你甚至可以在野餐时用保温瓶带上一瓶鸡汤。 /201306/242922

  Overdid it , and think it might happen again? Before you start feeling guilty, know that taking a too-strict approach after a binge will most certainly backfire. One of the biggest mistakes I see is people beating themselves up and then trying to ;undo the damage; too fast. Here, the habits guilt-trippers get trapped in, and better ways to get on track.吃多了,担心会再吃多?在你有负罪感之前,还是了解一下大吃大喝后哪些过分严格的控制行为可不可取,这些只不过是事后诸葛亮,毫无用处。我发现人们最大的错误就是立即运动起来,试图迅速弥补大吃大喝带来的“伤害”。下面是一些有负罪感的吃货们经常做的事情,我们为此提出了更好地解决方案。1. Mistake: Weighing yourself错误一:称体重You know that your weight can fluctuate a lot from day to day—two pounds from water weight alone is totally normal. So if you ate too much last night, especially salty foods that can cause water retention, your scale will reflect it the next morning. Don’t subject yourself to unnecessary angst! Steer clear of the scale and focus on having a healthy day instead. (If you wait 48 hours to hop on the scale, your temporary water weight may well disappear by then.)要知道,人的体重每天变化是十分反复的——光喝水就能增加2磅体重,这是十分正常的情况。所以如果你昨天晚上吃的太多,尤其是吃了太咸的东西导致大量饮水,第二天早上你的体重便会增加。别让自己陷入不必要的焦虑!不要把注意力放在秤的数字上,不如想想如何健康度过每一天。(过48小时后再称称看,你会发现,那些暂时囤积的水的重量已经消失了。)2. Mistake: Skipping breakfast错误二:不吃早餐Still stuffed? Don’t blow off breakfast—if you do, I can pretty much guarantee you’ll have a bigger lunch or dinner than you want. Ample research shows that people who eat breakfast weigh less and eat healthier than people who skip it. If the thought of a big morning meal makes you queasy, have a little fruit and cottage cheese, a piece of toast with a light coating of peanut butter, or a small bowl of oatmeal and berries.还不饿?那也不能不吃早饭。如果不吃,我保你在午餐或晚餐时会吃的更多,大量研究表明比起不吃早餐的人来,按时吃早餐的人体重较轻,且饮食更健康。如果早上吃太多会觉得不舒,那就吃点水果,一些白软干酪,一片涂了花生黄油的烤土司,或一小碗浆果燕麦。3. Mistake: Going crazy at the gym错误三:在健身房疯狂运动If your usual workout routine is 20 minutes on the elliptical, don#39;t sign up for back-to-back Spinning, Zumba, and Ultimate Abs in an effort to torch off every last crumb. Jumping into a too-intense workout can raise your risk of getting injured. But don#39;t loaf around either: A brisk walk can help with digestion and soothe that bloated belly feeling.如果你平时只是在椭圆机上运动20分钟,那就千万不要为了燃烧脂肪而去参加诸如动感单、尊巴舞,或终极腹肌训练这种高强度的运动。突然增大运动强度很有可能会让你受伤。但也别偷懒,快走可以帮助消化,还能减小吃胀的大肚子。4. Mistake: Skimping on sleep错误四:少睡觉A new Columbia University study found that people are more likely to crave junky food, like pepperoni pizza, cake, and cheeseburgers, on four hours of sleep than they are on eight hours. Why? Possibly because your brain craves a quick energy boost from these foods to help it fire on all cylinders. Don#39;t cave in. Get a good night’s snooze the night of and after you overeat, to avoid getting in a bad eating cycle.哥伦比亚大学新的研究表明,和那些每天睡眠8小时的人相比,那些只睡4小时的更喜欢吃垃圾食品,比如蜡香肠披萨,蛋糕,芝士汉堡等。为什么呢?有可能是因为你的大脑希望能够快速的摄取能量。千万别上当。如果你吃多了,就好好地睡一觉,补充睡眠,防止陷入恶性的饮食循环。5. Mistake: Saying ;I#39;ll Never Eat ____ Again;错误五:说“我再也不吃____了”One of the worst things after a day of less-than-ideal eating is to make any absolute food promises. Swearing off carbs (or fried food, or sweets) may last for a few days or even a few weeks, but research shows that the best weight-loss plans allow for some indulgence in moderation. Don’t make any quick decisions or resolutions! The best thing you can do is just get back to your usual eating M.O.乱吃一天之后最怕的就是胡乱说出某些保。也许,你可以坚持几天(甚至几个星期)不碰任何淀粉类食物(或油炸食品,甜食等),但研究表明最好的减肥计划是要摄入这些食品的。所以千万别轻易下决定!最好的方法就是回归到你正常饮食规律中来。 /201302/224878Do you know how old your kids#39; arteries are?你知道自己孩子的动脉有多老吗?It#39;s a potentially important question as scientists increasingly uncover links between healthy habits in childhood and risk for heart disease later in life. And there are growing concerns about the cardiovascular health of millions of children in the U.S. who are considered obese or overweight.这个问题可能很重要,因为科学家们越来越多地发现,人们儿时的健康习惯与日后罹患心脏病的风险之间存在关联。在美国,被视为肥胖或超重的儿童数以百万计,围绕他们心血管健康的担忧正在与日俱增。A new study suggests there is a simple way to assess a child#39;s arterial health with a calculation based on an often-overlooked component of cholesterol: triglycerides.一项新的研究表明,有一种评估儿童动脉健康的简便方法,即以甘油三酯──胆固醇中一个常常被忽略掉的成分──为基础来进行计算。The calculation is the ratio of triglycerides to HDL, or good cholesterol. It can be easily determined from a standard cholesterol blood test. In the study, based on nearly 900 children and young adults, researchers at Cincinnati Children#39;s Hospital Medical Center found that the higher the ratio, the greater the likelihood a child would have stiff and damaged arteries.这就是要算出甘油三酯与高密度脂蛋白(又名有益胆固醇)的比值,这个数值通过一项常规的胆固醇血检便能轻易得出。该研究共涉及近900名儿童及青少年。辛辛那提儿童医学中心(Cincinnati Children#39;s Hospital Medical Center)的研究人员发现,这个比值越高,儿童动脉硬化或动脉受损的可能性就越大。#39;We are demonstrating vascular changes in supposedly healthy adolescents,#39; said Elaine Urbina, head of preventive cardiology at Cincinnati Children#39;s and lead author of the study. #39;Stiff vessels make your heart work harder. It isn#39;t good for you.#39; The study was published in the journal Pediatrics in April.图:如何从小预防心血管疾病该研究的首席作者、辛辛那提儿童医学中心预防心脏病学主管伊莱恩#8226;乌尔比纳(Elaine Urbina)说:“我们正在论那些据称身体健康的青少年的血管变化。血管硬化会加重你的心脏工作负担。这对你并无益处。”这项研究于4月份发表在《儿科学》(Pediatrics)杂志上。The problem is also called hardening of the arteries. In adults it typically arises from a combination of aging and the cumulative impact of blood pressure, cholesterol and other assaults on the walls of blood vessels over decades of life. It carries heightened risk for heart attacks, strokes and sudden death.这个问题也被称作动脉硬化。成年人之所以会出现动脉硬化通常是因为身体老化和血压、胆固醇及其他一些血管壁毛病长年累月影响共同作用的结果。而动脉硬化则会使人们罹患心脏病、中风或突然死亡的风险增高。When it shows up in children, it#39;s a sign of #39;accelerated aging,#39; Dr. Urbina said, and likely raises the risk of dangerous outcomes relatively early in adult life. The good news is that doctors believe health can be restored to young people#39;s arteries with regular physical activity and a healthy diet. This includes cutting back on sugary beverages and foods high in carbohydrates such as potatoes, white rice and pasta.乌尔比纳士说,当这个问题出现在儿童身上时,它就是“加速老化”的迹象,它还可能增高人们在青壮年时期罹患重病的风险。好消息是,医生们相信,通过进行常规的身体锻炼及保持健康的饮食,年轻人的动脉便能重获健康。保持健康的饮食包括要少喝含糖饮料、少吃像土豆、白米饭和意大利面这样的高碳水化合物食品。In late 2011, concern that a generation of children is growing up with aly established heart risks prompted federal health officials with the support of the American Academy of Pediatrics to recommend universal cholesterol screening for kids, preferably between ages 9 and 11.2011年末,出于对一代儿童将会伴随业已形成的心脏病风险成长起来的担忧,联邦健康官员在美国儿科学会(American Academy of Pediatrics)的持下推介了普遍适用于儿童──最适用于那些年龄在9到11岁间孩子──的胆固醇筛查机制。Generally, the focus of attention in such tests is LDL, or bad cholesterol, which at high levels has long been associated with increased chances of heart attacks and strokes. A large body of evidence shows that heart risk can be reduced by lowering LDL with one of a class of drugs called statins.一般来说,这类测试的关注焦点在低密度脂蛋白(又名有害胆固醇)身上。低密度脂蛋白偏高长期以来都与心脏病和中风机率增高息息相关。大量的据表明,通过用一类名为斯达汀(statins)的药物降低低密度脂蛋白可以减少心脏病发病风险。But high triglycerides and low HDL─the other components that are measured in a standard cholesterol blood test─are a hallmark reflection of the poor diets and sedentary lifestyles that researchers say are behind the wide prevalence of obesity among both children and adults. These markers may get less attention because efforts to develop drugs that prevent serious events by manipulating either component have come up short.但甘油三酯偏高且高密度脂蛋白偏低──后者是另一种在常规胆固醇血检可以测量出的元素──是饮食不良、久坐不动生活方式的一个特征体现。研究人员说,它们是众多儿童和成年人变得肥胖的原因。但这些诱因可能不再那么受人关注,因为人们研发药物的诸多努力成效不大──他们是通过控制其中任一元素来研发那些预防严重疾病的药物的。Triglycerides amount to an indicator of both fat and sugar in the blood stream. Dr. Urbina describes them to patients as having a backbone of fat with three (tri) sugars (glycerides) attached.甘油三酯相当于一项能显示出血液中脂肪和糖份含量的指标。乌尔比纳向患者形容说,这就像一根附带了三种糖(甘油脂)的脂肪脊柱。Other research has linked a high triglyceride-to-HDL ratio to arterial stiffness in adults. Dr. Urbina and her colleagues wondered whether a similar correlation existed in children and young people.其他的研究已将成年人甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白比值偏高的情况与动脉硬化联系了起来。乌尔比纳和她的同事想知道,在儿童和青少年身上是否也存在着一种与此相似的关联性。Participants in the study, who ranged in age from 10 to 26, underwent fasting tests for cholesterol, blood pressure, blood sugar and other heart-risk markers. They also had three different noninvasive tests that measure elasticity in blood vessels.该研究的参与者年龄在10到26岁之间,他们都做了胆固醇、血压、血糖和其他心脏病风险指标的空腹检查。他们还进行了三项不同的、旨在测量血管弹性的无创检测。One third of the participants were found to have stiff arteries based on one of the elasticity tests; 13% had abnormalities on two of the tests and 3% had arterial stiffness according to all three tests.结果发现,有三分之一的参与者在其中一项血管弹性检测中被查出有动脉硬化;13%的人在其中两项检测中被查出指标不正常;有3%的人在经过全部三项检查后被认定为动脉硬化。The researchers found a #39;progressive rise#39; in both heart-related risk factors and stiff arteries as the triglyceride-to-HDL ratio increased.研究人员发现,随着甘油三酯/高密度脂蛋白比值增高,心脏病相关的风险因素和动脉硬化状况也均随之“逐步上升”。The study wasn#39;t large enough or intended to establish when a ratio is #39;healthy#39; or when especially aggressive treatment is called for. That will require additional research. But scientists found that the 378 participants whose ratio was in the highest of three groups had an average ratio of 2.7.但该研究涉及范围不够广,或者说它并未打算去设立一个标准:即何时一个比值才算得上“健康”或患者什么时候需要实施特别积极的治疗。所以这就需要再进行额外的研究。但科学家们也发现,在三组当中比值最高的378名参与者的平均比值为2.7。What this shows #39;is that being overweight and the cholesterol problems that often accompany it have an important impact on your blood vessels,#39; said Sarah de Ferranti, director of preventive cardiology at Boston Children#39;s Hospital, who wasn#39;t involved with the study. A direct correlation to damaged blood vessels in kids hadn#39;t previously been shown.波士顿儿童医院(Boston Children#39;s Hospital)预防心脏病学主管萨拉#8226;德#8226;费伦蒂(Sarah de Ferranti)并未参与上述研究,她说,该研究告诉我们“体重超重和常常与之伴生的胆固醇问题会对你的血管产生重要的影响。”但之前的研究并未表明,儿童体内受损的血管与超重有什么直接的关系。Dr. de Ferranti, a pediatrician, said that based on the study, #39;I would worry more about my patients in the realm#39; of 2.7 or higher.儿科医生费伦蒂说,基于这项研究,“我将会更担心我的那些患者中比值等于或高于2.7的人。”The American Heart Association recommends adults maintain an HDL level of at least 40 milligrams per deciliter of blood (mg/dL) for men and 50 mg/dL for women, and preferably higher. Triglycerides for adults should be below 150 mg/dL, with lower being better. The ratio using these numbers is higher than that found in the study. That is partly because children generally have lower triglyceride levels than those of adults.美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)建议成年男子将高密度脂蛋白保持在至少40毫克/分升的水平,成年女子则为50毫克/分升,最好比这个数值再高一些。而成年人的甘油三酯水平则应低于150毫克/分升,数值再低些会更好。与该项研究中发现的数字相比,用这些数字算出来的比值会更高,部分原因在于儿童体内的甘油三酯水平一般比成年人更低。Dr. Urbina sometimes prescribes a prescription form of fish oil for patients with persistently high triglycerides; neither its benefit in children nor long-term impact among adults and children has been determined. Generally doctors are reluctant to give medications to children with the problem. Lifestyle change, including diet and exercise, is the mainstay remedy, although it poses big challenges.乌尔比纳有时会向甘油三酯居高不下的患者以处方药形式开出鱼油药方。但该药方对儿童是否有所裨益、对成年人和儿童是否会产生长期影响,迄今都尚无定论。一般来说,医生都不太愿意向患有此类疾病的儿童开药。尽管困难重重、充满挑战,但包括饮食和锻炼在内的生活方式的转变才是主要补救办法。A major strategy for doctors is getting kids to avoid or sharply reduce consumption of sugary beverages, including sodas and sports drinks, big contributors to triglyceride levels.医生的一个主要策略就是让孩子们不喝或者少喝包括苏打水和运动饮料在内的含糖饮料,这对改善其甘油三酯水平颇有裨益。#39;It#39;s incredibly difficult to scale a kid down to the recommended 50 grams of sugar when a juice box has 24,#39; said Heather Vanderhaar, of suburban Cincinnati. Ms. Vanderhaar#39;s two boys, Benjamin, 12, and Maxwell, 10, have a genetic condition that results in elevated triglyceride levels. They are working with Dr. Urbina to keep those levels under control.家住辛辛那提郊区的希瑟#8226;范德哈尔(Heather Vanderhaar)说:“一盒果汁就含有24克糖,这种情况下让孩子将饮用量减到推荐的50克,太难了。”范德哈尔太太的两个儿子──12岁的本杰明(Benjamin)和10岁的麦克斯韦(Maxwell)──他们天生的身体条件就会导致甘油三酯水平偏高。为了将体内的甘油三酯水平维持在可控范围内,他们一直在乌尔比纳那儿就医。#39;At this point they#39;re maintaining,#39; Ms. Vanderhaar said. School sports and bike riding are among their physical activities. The boys aren#39;t allowed soda, cookies or junk food. #39;We allow them to have treats but in moderation,#39; she said. #39;The thinking is if you start early, you can reverse any damage done to your arteries.#39;范德哈尔太太说:“他们目前病情稳定。”学校的运动和自行车骑行都在两兄弟的活动范畴之内。但他们不许喝苏打水、不能吃曲奇或垃圾食品。范德哈尔太太还说:“我们允许他们犒劳自己,但要适量。这么做是基于这样的想法:如果你早点行动,你还能修复动脉已受到的损害。”Molly and Kate Cassabon, 18-year-old identical twins from Waterville, Ohio, went for two years putting on substantial weight before their problem was diagnosed at age 10 as genetically high triglycerides that exceeded 800 mg/dL. Their grade school installed an automated external defibrillator out of fear that either of the girls could collapse at any moment from a heart attack.来自俄亥俄州沃特维尔(Waterville, Ohio)的同卵双胞胎莫莉(Molly)和凯特#8226;卡萨(Kate Cassabon)在10岁那年被诊断为先天性甘油三酯水平偏高──比正常值整整超出800毫克/分升,而在这之前的两年,她们长胖了不少。由于担心两中的任何一个人可能会因为突发心脏病而倒下,她们就读的小学安装了一个自动体外心脏除颤器。Dr. Urbina prescribes a prescription form of fish oil pills to help reduce triglycerides. Lately, work at portion control and a weekly session with a personal trainer contributed in March to #39;the most improvement they#39;ve ever shown#39; during a checkup with Dr. Urbina, their mother, Sally Cassabon, said. Their triglycerides dipped below 200 mg/dL, still short of a goal of below 150 mg/dL, but enough to help them each lose at least 25 pounds.乌尔比纳以处方药形式开出鱼油药丸用以帮助减少甘油三酯。双胞胎的妈妈萨利#8226;卡萨(Sally Cassabon)说,最近,孩子们在饮食上的份量控制和每周一次与私人教练的会面使她们在3月份接受乌尔比纳士检查时“表现出有史以来最明显的改善”。她们的甘油三酯已骤降至200毫克/分升以下,虽然还没有达到低于150毫克/分升的目标值,但足以帮她们减掉25磅(约合11.3公斤)。 /201305/240019



  That one thing you didn’t put away.那件事你没有处理好。That one task you left half-done.那个任务你也只完成一半。That one bill you didn’t pay.那个账单你也没付。All of those are small problems at first.最初这些都只是一些小事。However, they can quickly become big ones if left unchecked.但是如果你放任不管,这些事很快就会变成大问题。Big Problems Start Small大问题都是从小问题发展来的Very few big problems start as big problems.鲜少有问题一开始就是难题In fact, most problems start small.事实上,大部分的难题都是从小问题开始的But, when you neglect them or let them sit, they become big ones.但是,一旦你忽略了它们或放任不管,它们就会变成大问题。Most big problems started as small, easily addressed items.大多数的问题一开始都只是小问题,很容易处理。By not addressing them, you allowed them to grow into big issues.但不去解决,就是任其发展为大问题。In many cases, you are creating self-inflicted time management problems when you let these little things grow into bigger issues.在大部分情况下,小问题演变为大问题都是由你自己的时间管理引起的。Here are several Small Problems That Can Quickly Become Big Ones:下面列出了几种在短时间内小问题会演变为大问题的情况:Cleaning Up –清理That one thing that you sat on your desk. Add that to the afternoon you left without cleaning up. And the papers you didn’t put away. Soon, you are swimming in piles of stuff that needs to be cleaned up.一件你在桌旁就能干的事情。下午你留下了一桌子的东西没收,废纸也没有扔掉。很快的,你在游泳的时候一大堆的东西都在等着你去清理。Paying Bills –付账You let that one bill sit. You forgot about it and now it is overdue. Maybe you now have to pay a late fee, too. Ultimately, it can affect your credit rating and cause even bigger problems down the road.你把账单留在那里没付。之前你忘了,但是现在就已经过期了。也许你现在还得付滞期费。最终会影响到你信用卡的费率,甚至引发更严重的问题。Organization - You didn’t file that important paper. Now you are trying to complete something urgent and you cannot find it. Now your problem is compounded. You madly tear through your stuff looking for that one missing item.条理 你并没有把那些很重要的文件分类。现在你正忙着做些很紧急的事情,但是你却找不到了。所以现在你的问题就更多了。为了找到你丢失的东西,你疯狂地撕扯些别的东西。Email –邮件You let your email pile up. Or perhaps you are using your inbox as your todo list. Now, you suddenly find yourself with hundreds (or thousands) of emails in your inbox. Important items get missed or overlooked. Soon, your email is a mess of unanswered and un-replied to messages.你把邮件堆叠起来。或者你把你的邮件就按接收到的顺序排列。但是,现在你才发现在你的邮箱里有成百上千封的邮件,而那些重要的邮件却丢失了。很快的,你的邮箱就会变得一团糟,并且你还不能回复信息。Relationships –人际关系Small relationship problems become big ones when not addressed. Grudges grow, misunderstandings become mis-truths. And soon, what could have been addressed with a friendly conversation has turned into an adversarial situation.在人际关系上小问题不处理,就会变为大问题。怨恨会增长,误解也会演变为错误的事实。经过解决本可以变成一段友好的关系也会发展成一种很敌对的局面。Deadlines –截止日期Small projects are easy until you run them up against a deadline. Suddenly a small task has become a crisis at the eleventh hour. You may find yourself without the materials or information that you need to complete it.在截止日期前完成一些小项目是很容易的。但是小任务拖到最后就会变得很危险。很可能你没法找到你需要的材料或是信息去做完它。Don’t Let Small Problems Get Big不要让小问题变成大麻烦What small problems are you facing?那些小问题是你需要去面对的?Get to them before they grow into larger ones.在变得更糟之前去做好它。You can save yourself much time and stress by addressing them early.早早地处理好这些问题会节约很多时间,也会减少你的压力。Most problems start small… let’s keep them that way.大部分的问题都是从小事开始的,不要让小问题变成大问题。 /201308/252496


  We all face ill-wishers, when we set goals and begin to reach them, no matter at what stage we are now: sceptics, critics, people who taunt us or say that we won#39;t succeed in what we do.当我们设定了目标并开始去实现的时候,不论我们目前处于哪个阶段,我们都会遇到幸灾乐祸的人:有的人持怀疑态度,有的大肆批评,有的则奚落我们,或者预言我们在所做的事情上不会成功。Such people are a very powerful force, because even with ;innocent; jokes and comments they can make you slow down or even stop moving towards your goals.此类人具有超强的影响力,因为即便说了些;毫无恶意的;玩笑和话语,他们就能让你放慢甚至停下向目标前进的脚步。How to deal with ill-wishers? Of course, they are all different, but here are a few good general tips:如何应对幸灾乐祸的人呢?当然,他们各不相同,但是我们总结了以下几条应对一般情况的建议:1.First, learn to identify them.1.首先,学会认清他们。Sometimes we just do not realize that someone is our ill-wisher. They can be close friends or family members, so when they say negative things, we often believe them and take them to heart. You should remember that there is a big difference between realists and sceptics. Learn to listen to what others say, and note your reaction. If that upsets you and makes you feel depressed, then probably these people are your ill-wishers.有时我们只是意识不到某个人是希望我们不幸的人。他们可能是我们的挚友或家人,所以当他们说一些消极的话语时,我们通常会相信他们,把他们的话放在心上。你应该记住,现实主义者和怀疑论者是有很大区别的。学会倾听他人的话语,并注意你自己的反应。如果他们的话让你生气,让你感到沮丧,那么大概这些人就是希望你不幸的人。2.Think maybe they are right.2.思考一下或许他们是对的。As was mentioned above, sometimes they are just trying to be realistic. They may have good reasons for their negative attitude. Take a step back and think objectively why they have doubts and see a real obstacle, and if so, then try to figure out how to overcome it. If you really want to reach your goal, you will find a solution. If your ill-wishers are certainly wrong, just move on.如上所述,有时他们只不过试图现实一些。他们或许有很好的理由来说明自己消极的态度。退一步,客观地思考一下为什么他们有疑虑,认清真正的阻碍。如果真是如此,那么努力找到战胜阻碍的方法。如果你真的想实现你的目标,那么你就会找到解决办法。如果幸灾乐祸的人确实是错了,那你就继续前进吧。3.Reject any negative thoughts they bring.3.不接受他们带来的任何消极思想。Enemies will always try to bring to you their negative thoughts, which can raise doubts about your rightness. Then it can grow and affect the way you feel about your goals. Stop these negative thoughts as soon as possible! Replace them with positive beliefs. Do not let them beat you!敌人总是会试图将他们的消极思想带给你,这些思想会让你怀疑自己是否正确,然后会慢慢影响你对自己的目标的感觉。尽快摆脱这些消极的思想吧!让积极的信念取而代之。不要让它们打败你!4.Understand that you will always have enemies, and don#39;t take them to heart.4.懂得你总是会有敌人,不要把他们放在心上。In everyone#39;s life there is at least one enemy. You cannot avoid seeing them but you can avoid listening to them. Just smile and do not pay attention to their words. They will not be able to affect you if you ignore their words.在每个人的一生中,至少会有一个敌人出现。你不可避免会看到他们,但是你可以避免听信他们。只用微笑面对,不要在意他们的话语。如果你忽略他们的话,他们就不会影响到你。5.Try to win them over.5.努力把敌人争取过来。Sometimes ill-wishers are your close people and you can#39;t ignore them. If so, it is better to enlist the help of these people, rather than fight them. Try to do it as soon as possible. Tell them that it is very important to you, and you need their help. Tell them that you understand their concerns, but you really need a positive attitude and support. If they are your close people who care about you, they will become your best allies.有时候,幸灾乐祸的人就是跟你很亲密的人,你不能忽视他们。如果是这样,最好就是谋取这些人的帮助,而不是同他们斗争。尽快去争取他们。告诉他们这对你很重要,你需要他们的帮助。告诉他们你了解他们的担忧,但是你真的需要积极的态度和持。如果他们是和你关系亲密、关心你的人,他们会变成你最好的盟友。6.Laugh with them.6.跟他们一起笑。Sometimes people feel uncomfortable when you take some changes and in order to get rid of this discomfort, they come up with different jokes and begin to taunt you. They just do not know how else to react. Be aware of this and just laugh. If you take their words as nothing more but just a good joke, it disarms them. They can continue making jokes at you, but it won#39;t longer affect you if you#39;ll just laugh at them.当你做出一些改变时,有时人们会感到不安。为了消除这种不安,他们会讲许多笑话开始奚落你。他们只是不知道其他人会是如何反应。要注意这一点,而且只管笑吧。他们会继续拿你开玩笑,但是如果你只是随着他们一起笑的话,这将不再影响你。7.Have y-made counter-arguments and use them.7.用现成的论点反驳他们。Sometimes people are just misinformed about what is happening. They may misunderstand what you are doing. Think on all their arguments and prepare your counter-arguments. Conduct your small research and justify the correctness of your actions. Then try to ;enlighten; your ill-wishers. If you do it correctly, with a positive and sincere attitude, you can manage to make a person listen to you, and perhaps even change his opinion. If you fail, then at least you will be much better informed about their arguments and won#39;t let them give birth to doubts in your head.有时候,人们只不过是被误传了正在发生的事情。他们可能误解了你当前做的事情。思量一下他们的所有论点,准备好反驳的话语。小范围地进行一下研究,明你的行为是恰当的。然后努力;开导;那些幸灾乐祸的人。如果你的做法恰当,带着积极、诚恳的态度,你就能成功地让人听信你,甚至能改变他的观点。如果你失败了,那么至少你更好地了解了他们的观点,不会让他们使你的大脑再生疑虑。8.Be sure that you are doing something good.8.肯定你做的事情是好事。Sometimes there is nothing you can do about it. You can#39;t convince them, you can#39;t avoid them, you can#39;t laugh with them… Therefore, you should just ignore them and continue telling yourself that when you reach your goal, it will be a reward for enduring these people.有时候你对敌人也是束手无策。你不能说他们,不能躲避他们,不能跟他们一起笑……因此,你应该忽视他们,不断地告诉自己当你实现了自己的目标,这将是对忍耐这些人的回报。Remember that enemies will always exist in your life. But they are just an additional obstacle on the way towards your goal. If you look for solutions, you can defeat them or make them your allies.记住,敌人总是存在于你的生活中。但是他们只不过是你实现目标的道路上的额外障碍。如果你去寻找解决方法,你就能打败他们,或者让他们成为你的盟友。 /201208/196634

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