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来源:普及口碑    发布时间:2019年08月22日 01:00:06    编辑:admin         

McDonald’s shook up its leadership this week as it struggled to keep up with changing consumer tastes, appointing Steve Easterbrook, a veteran of UK high street restaurant chains, to replace Don Thompson as chief executive.最近麦当劳(McDonald’s)改组了领导层。正在努力跟上消费者口味变化的这家快餐业巨头,任命英国商业街连锁餐饮业老将史蒂夫#8226;伊斯特布鲁克(Steve Easterbrook)为首席执行官,换下唐#8226;汤普森(Don Thompson)。FT reporters around the world take a market-by-market look at the challenges facing the company.英国《金融时报》全球各地的记者分析了麦当劳在不同市场面临的不同挑战。US: left behind by shifts in dining habits美国:被饮食习惯的变迁抛在后面McDonald’s faces perhaps its greatest challenge in its home market. Critics charge that the company has been unable to cope with fundamental shifts in the restaurant business in recent years, writes Neil Munshi in Chicago.麦当劳在本土市场面临的挑战也许是其诸多挑战中最严峻的。批评者指责麦当劳没能应对近年来餐饮业发生的根本变化。Upstart rivals have been able to capitalise on consumer demand for food that is perceived as healthier and made with fresher, natural ingredients.异军突起的竞争者利用了消费者对新型食品的需求,人们认为这些食品更健康,食材天然,而且更新鲜。McDonald’s has built a global empire based on the consistency of its products, down to the thickness of fries and the number of pickles on a sandwich. But the age of the Big Mac and fries has given way to the age of organic kale and small-batch aioli.从薯条的粗细到汉堡上放几根酸黄瓜,麦当劳以产品的一致性为招牌,打造了一个全球帝国。但巨无霸和薯条的时代已经过去,取而代之的是有机甘蓝和小份蒜泥蛋黄酱的时代。In a sign of how drastically the restaurant game has shifted, McDonald’s will attempt to compete this year by expanding a customisable burger pilot programme to up to 2,000 US outlets, or one out of every seven stores. That will give consumers the chance to add bacon or mushrooms or caramelised onions to their Quarter Pounder.餐饮业的竞争已经发生了彻底的改变,迹象之一就是麦当劳今年决定把定制汉堡试点项目推广到多达2000家美国门店,也就是每7家美国门店就有1家推出这一务。顾客将有机会给自己的四盎司牛肉堡(Quarter Pounder)添加培根、蘑菇或者焦糖洋葱。Compounding McDonald’s home market challenges are the nationwide protests that have broken out over raising the minimum wage. The fast-food giant has become the poster child for the fight for a hourly wage — more than double the national minimum.令麦当劳在本土市场面临的挑战更加复杂化的是,全美各地爆发了要求提高最低工资的抗议。抗议者要求将最低工资标准提高到每小时15美元,相当于美国现行最低工资标准的两倍多,快餐业巨头麦当劳成了他们的靶子。A top US labour regulator recently ruled that the company might be liable for how its franchisees treat employees, dealing a blow to the entire franchise model.最近,美国最高劳工监管机构裁定,麦当劳可能要对旗下特许经营商对待员工的方式负责,这打击了整个特许经营模式。Steve Easterbrook, the incoming chief executive, confronted just such a challenge in the UK. He turned that market round through a campaign that included allowing consumers to ask what goes into McDonald’s food and promoting the upward mobility that so-called “McJobs” afford.即将上任的CEO史蒂夫#8226;伊斯特布鲁克曾在英国面临这一挑战。他发起了一项活动,允许消费者询问麦当劳所用的食材,并宣传所谓的“麦当劳工作”(McJobs)也能带来社会和经济地位上升的流动性,从而在英国市场扭转了局面。But the US is a market roughly 10 times the size of the UK. Turning round the brand on its home turf will be all the harder.但美国市场的规模几乎是英国市场的10倍。在本土市场挽回品牌声誉将困难得多。China: food safety concerns undermine brand中国:对食品安全的担忧削弱品牌声誉Food safety comes near the top of any league table of public concerns in China, soMcDonald’s was hit hard when an undercover television investigation accused the company last July of using a mainland supplier that relabelled expired meat, writes Patti Waldmeir in Shanghai.如果要对中国公众关心的问题列一个榜单,食品安全几乎可以在任何榜单上居首。因此,去年7月一家中国电视台进行卧底调查,指控麦当劳的一家国内供应商给过期肉重新贴上标签,这件事给麦当劳带来沉重打击。McDonald’s said earlier this month that same store sales in the Asia-Pacific, Middle East and Africa region continued to suffer the effects of the scandal, dropping 4.8 per cent in the fourth quarter, year on year.麦当劳上月早些时候报告,亚太、中东和非洲地区的同店销售额持续受到该丑闻的影响,2014年第4季度同比下降4.8%。“Consumers in China are still leery of the brand and haven’t really been convinced that McDonald’s has supply chain issues under control,” said Benjamin Cavender of China Market Research in Shanghai.“中国消费者对这个品牌仍抱有戒心,他们还没有真正被说,相信麦当劳已经控制了供应链问题,”中国市场研究集团(China Market Research Group)的本杰明#8226;卡文德尔(Benjamin Cavender)在上海表示。Foreign fast food brands such as McDonald’s and Yum’s KFC have long enjoyed a reputation for cleanliness, quality and safety on the mainland, which has faced a string of food quality scandals in recent years. These included the scandal of melamine in infant milk, which killed six babies and sickened several hundred thousand.在中国内地,麦当劳和百胜餐饮集团(Yum Brands)旗下的肯德基(KFC)等外国快餐品牌多年享有清洁、优质和安全的美誉。近年中国爆发一连串食品安全丑闻,包括婴儿奶粉添加三聚氰胺,该事件造成6名婴儿死亡,数十万婴儿需要就医。But recently, supplier scandals have hit both big US chains hard, with KFC facing several successive allegations of substandard supplier practices. Yum Brands was also targeted in the July expired meal allegations.然而最近,供应商丑闻冲击了这两大美国快餐连锁品牌,肯德基连续数次受到供应商操作不合标准的指控。去年7月,百胜也同样被指控使用过期肉。The Shanghai government responded to the media exposé by closing down the affected factory of Shanghai Husi Food Co, a subsidiary of US food group OSI, and detaining staff.对于媒体曝光的事件,上海市政府的回应是查封涉事的美国福喜集团(OSI)子公司上海福喜食品有限公司(Shanghai Husi Food Co),并刑拘了一些员工。Problems with food quality have also coincided with other trends that have challenged western fast-food brands, industry analysts say. “Fast-food consumers in China have shifted away from their original curiosity about western fast food, and nowadays they are pickier and more focused on health,” said Shi Jun, catering industry analyst at Beijing-based Alliance PKU Management.行业分析师表示,食品质量问题出现之际,其他潮流也对西方快餐品牌构成了挑战。“中国的快餐消费者已不再像最初那样对西方快餐感到好奇,现在他们更挑剔、更关注健康,”总部位于北京的北大纵横管理咨询公司(Alliance PKU Management)的餐饮业分析师史俊说。“McDonald’s is facing more pressure from fast-casual restaurants and Chinese quick-service chains as consumers look at alternatives that they increasingly view as more healthful and safer,” said Mr Cavender.“随着消费者把目光投向他们越来越觉得更为健康和安全的替代品,快速休闲餐厅和中式快餐连锁店给麦当劳带来了更多压力,”卡文德尔说。KFC remains the clear market leader with 4,600 outlets, more than double the 2,000 McDonald’s. But Dicos — a Taiwanese-owned fast-food chain strongest in lower-tier cities, with cheaper s — recently eclipsed the US burger chain with 2,200 stores. It planned to have nearly 3,000 by the end of last year.肯德基在中国的门店有4600家,比拥有2000家门店的麦当劳多出一倍多,是这个市场遥遥领先的领跑者。但餐品更为便宜、在二三线城市势力最强的台资快餐连锁店德克士(Dicos),不久前以2200家门店的数量超过了麦当劳。按照德克士的计划,该集团截至去年底已将门店增加到近3000家。India: legal dispute eats away early advantage印度:法律纠纷侵蚀了先发优势McDonald’s ought to be well-positioned to profit from surging demand for convenient, clean and affordable meals in India. The market for Western-style fast-food is still relatively small, but growing rapidly as a young population increasingly grabs meals on the go, or celebrates special occasions by dining out, writes Amy Kazmin in New Delhi.印度市场对方便、清洁和价格适中的餐饮需求激增,麦当劳应该处于有利地位,能够从中获利。印度的西式快餐市场规模仍相对较小,但增长很快,越来越多的年轻人在忙碌的生活中匆匆解决一餐,或者外出就餐以庆祝特殊的时刻。An early Western arrival into India’s competitive food market, McDonald’s worked for years to overcome a fundamental problem. Its core product offering — beef burgers — is taboo for India’s Hindu-majority population.作为较早进入印度竞争激烈的食品市场的西方餐饮品牌,多年来麦当劳努力克一个根本层面的问题:其核心产品是牛肉汉堡,而在大部分人口为印度教教徒的印度,牛肉是禁忌。Although it has finally found a recipe to appeal to Indian palates — through ample chicken and vegetarian offerings — McDonald’s is locked in a bitter legal dispute with an estranged former partner, which has stymied the chain’s expansion.尽管麦当劳最终找到了迎合印度人口味的“菜谱”——借助多种鸡肉和素食产品,但该公司与前合作伙伴闹翻,双方纠结于激烈的法律纠纷,阻碍了这家连锁餐饮公司扩张的步伐。McDonald’s is fighting entrepreneur Vikram Bakshi for control of Connaught Plaza Restaurants, their erstwhile joint venture, which owns and operates 185 McDonald’s restaurants in north and east India.麦当劳正在和企业家维克拉姆#8226;巴克希(Vikram Bakshi)争夺双方过去建立的合资企业Connaught Plaza Restaurants的控制权。该企业拥有并经营印度北部和东部共185家麦当劳餐厅。McDonald had sought to buy Mr Bakshi out of the venture since 2008, but the two sides had deep differences on pricing. Simmering tensions finally erupted in 2013, when McDonald’s ousted Mr Bakshi from his role as managing director of the joint venture, after 18 years.自2008年以来,麦当劳试图买断巴克希在合资企业所持股份,但双方在价格上分歧颇深。不断发酵的紧张最终在2013年爆发,麦当劳宣布任职18年的巴克希将不再担任该合资企业的董事总经理。Mr Bakshi has since filed a lawsuit before India’s Company Law Board, accusing McDonald’s of mismanagement. Last month, the Delhi High Court issued a stay order, preventing McDonald’s from proceeding with international arbitration in London, as the company says it is entitled to do under the terms of its joint venture agreement with Mr Bakshi.此后巴克希在印度的公司法委员会(Company Law Board)对麦当劳提起诉讼,指控麦当劳管理不当。去年12月,德里高级法院下发了一项暂缓令,阻止麦当劳将案件提交到伦敦进行国际仲裁。麦当劳表示,根据其与巴克希签订的合资条款,它有权采取这一行动。McDonald’s is expanding in India’s prosperous south and west region, where its other Indian partner, Hardcastle Restaurants, was converted from a joint venture into a master franchisee in 2010.麦当劳正在印度繁荣的南部和西部地区扩张,活跃在这些市场的另一家印度合作伙伴Hardcastle Restaurants已在2010年从合资伙伴转型为主加盟商。But McDonald’s dispute with Mr Bakshi is allowing rivals such as Domino’s, KFC and Subway, to erode its former lead.但麦当劳与巴克希的纠纷让达美乐比萨(Domino’s)、肯德基和赛百味(Subway)得以蚕食麦当劳过去的领先地位。McDonald’s was India’s biggest Western fast-food chain in 2008 with revenues of Rs6.6bn, according to Euromonitor data. That was more than double Domino’s sales of Rs3.2bn. KFC, with revenues of Rs1.5bn, lagged far behind.根据咨询公司欧睿(Euromonitor)的数据,2008年麦当劳是印度最大的西方快餐连锁企业,收入为66亿卢比,是销售额为32亿卢比的达美乐比萨的两倍多,而收入仅为15亿卢比的肯德基远远落在了后面。McDonald’s revenues in India hit Rs14.2bn last year. But Yum Brand’s KFC had nearly caught up, with Rs12.5bn in sales. Domino’s, which in India is operated by Mumbai-listed Jubilant Foodworks, surpassed McDonald’s with revenues of Rs16.2bn.去年,麦当劳在印度市场上的收入达到142亿卢比。但百胜旗下的肯德基几乎赶上了麦当劳,销售额达到125亿卢比。达美乐比萨在印度的业务由孟买上市的Jubilant Foodworks运营,其去年收入达到162亿卢比,超过了麦当劳。Japan: consumer backlash against cost cuts日本:缩减成本引发消费者反弹McDonald’s Japan had its own management shake-up in the summer of 2013 when the US head office brought in Sarah Casanova, a 24-year McDonald’s veteran, to run the local unit. The chain had enjoyed nearly a decade of strong growth in its second-biggest market. But sales in Japan — with some 3,100 outlets — started slowing as consumers became disgruntled with its service and food offerings, writes Kana Inagaki in Tokyo.2013年夏季,麦当劳日本改组了管理层。美国总部指派在麦当劳工作了24年的老将萨拉#8226;卡萨诺瓦(Sarah Casanova)执掌日本部门。在此前的近10年期间,麦当劳在其第二大市场日本实现了强劲增长。但是随着消费者对麦当劳的务和食品产生不满,其在日本约3100家门店的销售额开始放缓。The McDonald’s brand became synonymous with cost cuts and a push for efficiency, highlighted by the backlash in late 2012 when Japanese stores pulled s from its counters to shorten the time taken by customers placing orders. Angry consumers punished the chain by dragging its sales down for almost all of 2013, excluding May and June.麦当劳的品牌成了削减成本追求效率的代名词,这一点在2012年末表露无遗。当时麦当劳门店将菜单从柜台撤下,以求缩短顾客点单的时间,此举引发了消费者反弹。愤怒的消费者对麦当劳的惩罚就是拉低了该公司2013年除5月和6月外几乎全年的销售额。But instead of stemming the slide in sales, Ms Casanova’s term has been plagued by a series of troubles that began with a chicken safety scare at its China-based supplier last July. Delays in imports of US potatoes forced the chain to ration sales of its French fries in December.但是卡萨诺瓦的团队未能专注于遏止销售下滑,而是遭遇一连串麻烦的困扰——从去年7月中国供货商爆出鸡肉安全问题开始。去年12月,美国土豆进口的延误迫使麦当劳限量供应薯条。The problems were capped by a flood of complaints that came to light this month when objects — from a human tooth to pieces of vinyl and a bracelet — were found inside its products. McDonald’s Japan, which is half owned by the US group, now expects its first annual loss in 11 years, totalling Y17bn (4m), after sales tumbled by double-digits since July.这还不算,今年1月媒体曝光日本麦当劳食品里竟然发现牙齿、塑料片、手镯等异物。一半股份在美国总部手中的日本麦当劳,自去年7月以来销售额出现两位数下降,现在预计将面临11年以来首次年度亏损,总计170亿日元(合1.44亿美元)。“McDonald’s is aly no longer a must-go place. They must regain consumer trust or else people would just not be interested in them any more,” said Nomura analyst Kyoichiro Shigemura.“麦当劳不再是必去之地。他们必须重新赢得消费者的信任,否则人们将不再对他们有兴趣,” 野村券(Nomura)分析师重村京一郎(Kyoichiro Shigemura)说。Ms Casanova has promised steps to ensure food safety through increased audits of suppliers. McDonald’s Japan also plans to remodel its stores and offer a wider line-up of s, with better pricing.卡萨诺瓦承诺,将通过加强供应商审核等措施确保食品安全。日本麦当劳还计划改造其门店,以更实惠的价格提供更丰富的菜品。But analysts say it will be a hard road ahead to restore confidence in a market known for its finicky and picky consumers. When Ms Casanova appeared at a news conference in July, she was criticised for failing to appear apologetic enough. Three months later when she spoke again, she wore a dark suit with her hairstyle in a tight updo.但分析师们表示,在以消费者挑剔闻名的日本市场,恢复信心的道路将非常坎坷。卡萨诺瓦去年7月出席一个记者会时,外界批评她未能展现足够的歉意。当她3个月后再度发言时,她穿了深色西并梳了一个高发髻。“A new start is always a good thing,” she said.“新的开始总是件好事儿,”她说。Russia: burger business caught up in geopolitics俄罗斯:卷入地缘政治的汉堡业McDonald’s has long been portrayed as a success story in Russia, but over the past six months the fast food company has fallen foul of deteriorating relations between Moscow and the US, writes Courtney Weaver in Moscow.麦当劳在俄罗斯一直被描述为成功典范,但在过去6个月期间,这家快餐企业成了美俄关系恶化的受害者。In late July, as the EU prepared its strongest sanctions against Russia to date, a regional branch of Russia’s consumer protection agency suddenly announced that certain McDonald’s items ranging from its cheeseburgers to Caesar wraps did not meet Russia’s health safety standards. This was either because they contained evidence of E-coli or because they contained more carbohydrates and calories than the stated, according to the agency.去年7月,就在欧盟准备对俄罗斯出台截至当时最严厉的制裁之际,俄罗斯消费者保护机构的一个地方分部突然宣布,包括芝士汉堡和凯撒卷在内的某些麦当劳产品不符合俄罗斯的健康安全标准。该机构宣称,这些产品要么含有存在大肠杆菌的据,要么碳水化合物和卡路里含量超过菜单上标明的份量。In late August, the agency’s federal branch went further, temporarily shutting down four McDonald’s outlets, including its flagship location on Moscow’s Pushkin Square — McDonald’s first ever restaurant in Russia and one of its biggest locations by sales in the world.去年8月,该机构的联邦分部更进一步,暂时关停4家麦当劳门店,包括位于莫斯科普希金广场(Pushkin Square)的旗舰店,当年这是麦当劳在俄罗斯开设的第一家门店,也是按销售额计算世界上最大的麦当劳门店之一。By October, 200 out of McDonald’s 440 Russian restaurants were under government investigation, with as many as nine McDonald’s outlets closed during the period.到去年10月,麦当劳在俄罗斯的440家门店中有200家受到了政府调查,多达9家门店在那期间关闭。The Russian agency, known as Rospotrebnadzor, has since finished its inspections and all the McDonald’s outlets that were closed have been reopened. However, the difficulties for McDonald’s in Russia are continuing.自那以来,俄罗斯联邦消费者权利保护和福利监察局(Rospotrebnadzor)已结束了检查,所有关闭的麦当劳门店重新开业。然而,麦当劳在俄罗斯面临的困难依然存在。The fast-food group is now the subject of dozens of Russian court cases related to the agency’s findings, the FT’s Russian sister paper Vedomosti reported on Thursday.英国《金融时报》的报纸、俄罗斯《纪录报》(Vedomosti)近日报道,上述政府机构的调查发现已导致麦当劳在俄罗斯面临几十起诉讼。Some of the court complaints relate to McDonald’s lack of a centralised laundromat for its employees’ uniforms, while others take issue with the layout of McDonald’s kitchens and the separation of different food products. McDonald’s counters that the layout required by Rospotrebnadzor does not reflect modern food industry standards when many food products are processed.一些诉讼涉及麦当劳没有集中的员工制洗衣房,另一些诉讼则杯葛麦当劳的厨房布局和对不同食物的分隔。麦当劳反驳称,俄罗斯消费者保护机构要求的厨房布局,并不反映现代食品行业对于生产经营多种食品的标准。Other court cases relate to McDonald’s alleged mislabelling of its food products.另一些诉讼案指控麦当劳在食品上贴的标签有错。Russia’s consumer protection agency and health ministry have repeatedly insisted that the McDonald’s investigations have nothing to do with the geopolitical backdrop.俄罗斯消费者保护机构和卫生部一再坚称,对麦当劳的调查与地缘政治大背景无关。But in the past few months, McDonald’s has figured in close to 100 Russian court cases, Vedomosti reports. In the previous seven years, it only figured in 10.但据《纪录报》报道,过去几个月,麦当劳被卷入了近100起俄罗斯法庭诉讼。而在之前的7年间,涉及麦当劳的诉讼案仅有10起。Latin America: regional woes hit revenues拉美:区域性困境冲击收入Paula, a McDonald’s worker in S#227;o Paulo, says she cannot think of anything worse than eating hamburgers for lunch every day, writes Samantha Pearson in S#227;o Paulo.圣保罗的麦当劳员工葆拉(Paula)说,她想像不出比天天午餐吃汉堡更糟糕的事。“You saw what happened to the man in that documentary from America, right?” she said, referring to Super Size Me, the 2004 documentary in which film-maker Morgan Spurlock eats only at McDonald’s for a month.“你也看到那部美国纪录片里的人怎样了,对吧?”她说。她指的是2004年的纪录片《超码的我》(Super Size Me),摄制该片的根#8226;斯普尔洛克(Morgan Spurlock)在一个月里只吃麦当劳。However, after a string of complaints, Paula and the rest of Brazil’s McDonald’s employees now have the option of eating a typical Brazilian meal of rice, beans and beef in their breaks instead.然而,在一连串的抱怨后,葆拉和巴西麦当劳的其他员工现在可以选择在休息时吃传统的巴西餐——米饭、豆子和牛肉。The option is even available to customers for R (US) if they look hard enough, she said, pointing to the small print at the bottom of the .葆拉指着菜单底部的一行小字说,即使顾客也可以花23巴西雷亚尔(合9美元)购买这样的一餐——如果他们看的够仔细的话。Catering to local tastes in the region, however, is not the only challenge for Arcos Dorados, the Buenos Aires-based company that owns the exclusive right to operate McDonald’s restaurants in 20 Latin American and Caribbean countries.迎合当地人的口味并不是Arcos Dorados面临的唯一挑战。这家总部位于布宜诺斯艾利斯的公司拥有20个拉美和加勒比国家麦当劳餐厅的独家运营权。In the three months to September 30, the company recorded consolidated revenues of 4m, down 11.5 per cent from the previous year. Arcos accounts for only about 6 per cent of McDonald’s global sales.截至去年9月30日的3个月里,该公司的合并收入为9.4亿美元,同比下降了11.5%。在麦当劳全球销售额中,来自Arcos的销售额仅占6%。The problems at Arcos are largely related to local competition and the macroeconomic environment of its five main markets, said Martha Shelton, equity analyst at Itaú BBA.Itaú BBA的股票分析师玛莎#8226;谢尔顿(Martha Shelton)说,Arcos面临的问题大多与5个主要市场的当地竞争和宏观经济形势有关。Brazil, Argentina, Mexico, Puerto Rico and Venezuela make up 80 per cent of the company’s sales, in that order, she said.谢尔顿表示,该公司80%的销售额来自5个国家,按高低排序依次为巴西、阿根廷、墨西哥、波多黎各和委内瑞拉。In Venezuela, Arcos has been hit by the country’s deepening economic crisis and shortfalls of basic goods — McDonald’s restaurants across the country even ran out of fries this month, according to local media. In Argentina, high inflation has weighed on profits.在委内瑞拉,不断加深的经济危机和基本物资的短缺困扰着Arcos。据当地媒体报道,上月该国的麦当劳餐厅竟然没有薯条可卖。在阿根廷,高通胀影响了盈利。“We expect Arcos Dorados’ growth strategies to reflect efforts in minimising exposures to these two countries,” said Moody’s in a note.“我们预期,Arcos Dorados的增长战略将反映出把这两个国家的风险敞口降到最低的努力,”评级机构穆迪(Moody’s)在一份简报中表示。In Brazil, which accounts for more than half of Arcos’s sales, currency depreciation and a slowdown in consumption, even during the World Cup last year, have eroded profits.巴西市场占Arcos总销售额的一半以上。在巴西,货币贬值和消费放缓削弱了麦当劳的盈利,即使世界杯也未能扭转局面。In Mexico, Arcos has also struggled to compete with the informal market — the man selling tacos on the street corner who even extends credit to his best customers. “That will always cause difficulties for hamburger chains,” said Itaú’s Ms Shelton.在墨西哥,Arcos还要竭力与非正规市场展开竞争——街角卖墨西哥卷的小贩甚至愿意让关系最好的客人赊账。“这总会给汉堡连锁品牌造成许多困难,”Itaú BBA的谢尔顿说。Europe: ideas laboratory hit by economic downturn欧洲:经济衰退冲击创意实验室Steve Easterbrook’s reward for his successful stint at the head of the UK division was to be appointed president of McDonald’s Europe. When he quit in 2011 to head PizzaExpress, Europe was MacDonald’s fastest-growing region, writes Roger Blitz in London.史蒂夫#8226;伊斯特布鲁克负责麦当劳英国分部运营时表现非常出色,作为回报,他被总部任命为麦当劳欧洲区总裁。2011年他从麦当劳跳槽到PizzaExpress出任首席执行官时,欧洲是麦当劳增长最快的区域。Commonly a laboratory for the company’s new ideas, McDonald’s Europe was attracting customers with high-end beef, breakfast and garden wraps.欧洲通常是麦当劳新创意的试验场。当时欧洲麦当劳正以上乘牛肉、早餐和田园卷吸引顾客。Mr Easterbrook’s strategy suited recession-hit Europe. Cash-poor Europeans swallowed their misgivings about the godfather of American-imported fast-food culture and stepped gingerly inside McDonald’s restaurants — lured by some tailored offerings.伊斯特布鲁克的战略很适合经济衰退的欧洲。在一些量身定制产品的诱惑下,手头拮据的欧洲人按捺住对美式快餐文化“教父”麦当劳的疑虑,小心翼翼地迈进了这家连锁餐厅的大门。France got a McBaguette, and gave McDonald’s its most profitable international market. Sales across more than 1,200 restaurants in France topped bn.推出麦法棍(McBaguette)的法国,是麦当劳最为盈利的国际市场。1200多家法国门店的销售总额高达50亿美元。But its most recent results suggest that, as in other markets, many European consumers are now spoilt for choice when it comes to fast food. Fourth-quarter same-store sales dropped 1.1 per cent and operating income was down 14 per cent.但最新结果似乎表明,就像在其他市场那样,可供欧洲顾客选择的快餐太多了。去年第4季度,同店销售额降低了1.1%,运营利润降低了14%。While the UK was doing well, the company was suffering from “consumer confidence issues” in Russia and Ukraine and weakness in France and Germany.虽然英国的业绩还不错,但麦当劳在俄罗斯和乌克兰遭遇“消费者信誉危机”,在法国和德国也不太景气。Competition comes from top-end burger chains, plus fast-food businesses focusing on specialities such as Japanese and Mexican food.竞争来自于高端汉堡连锁品牌,以及像日本料理、墨西哥美食等特色风味快餐。McDonald’s is still expanding across Europe, pushing up actual sales. But the decline in like-for-like sales means that the performance overall is “fragile”, said Euromonitor analyst Karla Rendle.麦当劳依然在欧洲市场扩张,这推高了实际销售额。但是欧睿分析师卡拉#8226;伦德尔(Karla Rendle)说,同店销售额的下滑表明,麦当劳的总体表现比较“脆弱”。“The poor economic climate in countries such as Greece and Italy will have also impacted McDonald’s sales,” she added.“在希腊、意大利这样的国家,低迷的经济形势也影响了麦当劳的销售额,”她补充道。“McDonald’s three main challenges — brand image, market positioning and changes — are the same for Europe as they are for the US and the rest of the world.”“对于麦当劳的三大主要挑战——品牌形象、市场定位、菜单变革,欧洲麦当劳与美国乃至世界其他地方的麦当劳面临着相同的境况。” /201502/360794。

India, Bangladesh and China are most at risk from river floods, with an increasing number of people threatened because of climate change and economic growth in low-lying regions, a study said on Thursday。本周四公布的一份研究称,印度、孟加拉共和国、中国为洪水多发区,由于气候变化和低洼地区的经济发展,越来越多的人们将受到洪水的威胁。The U.S.-based World Resources Institute think-tank and four Dutch research groups estimated that some 21 million people worldwide were affected by river flooding in a typical year。总部位于美国的世界资源研究所和四个荷兰研究小组估计,通常全球每年有2100万人饱受洪水之灾。;That number could increase to 54 million in 2030 due to climate change and socio-economic development,; their report said。报告中提到:“由于气候变化和社会经济发展,这个数字在2030年会增长到5400万。”People living in 15 emerging nations, led by India, Bangladesh, China, Vietnam andPakistan, accounted for almost 80 percent of all those affected by floods in an average year, it said. In India alone, almost five million people were at risk。受灾人口主要分布在15个国家,以印度、孟加拉共和国、中国、越南和巴基斯坦为首,占到全球每年受灾人口的80%。报告中说,仅仅印度每年就有将近500万人受洪水影响。The ed States had 167,000 people exposed to floods in a average year, the most for any developed nation, putting it 18th on a ranking of more than 160 nations。美国每年有16.7万人受洪灾影响,居于发达国家之首,在160多个国家中位居第18名。The U.N. panel of climate scientists said last year that global warming would lead to more risks of floods, heatwaves, storms, downpours, landslides, air pollution, water scarcity, sea level rise and storm surges。联合国气候小组的科学家去年表示,全球气候变暖使发生洪灾、热浪、风暴、暴雨、山体滑坡、空气污染、水资源短缺、海平面上涨、风暴潮的危险性增加。Thursday#39;s study estimated that billion of annual global gross domestic product was exposed to river floods every year, led by India on billion and Bangladesh on .4 billion. This amount could rise to 1 billion by 2030. it said。据该报告估计,每年全球因洪灾或会损失大约960亿美元生产总值,印度损失最高(140亿美元),其次是孟加拉共和国(54亿美元)。并且这个数字在2030年会升至5210亿美元。;There will be a huge increase in risk, especially in South East Asia,; Hessel Winsemius, an author of the study at Dutch independent research institute Deltares, told Reuters。该报告的一位作者、独立研究所荷兰三角洲研究所(Deltares)的埃塞尔#8226;文塞缪斯(Hessel Winsemius)告诉路透社:“灾害会大幅增加,特别是东南亚。”Such flooding can also impact multinational companies which sp their production capacity -- monsoon floods in Thailand in 2011 killed more than 800 people and closed many factories -- including some making parts for firms such as Intel and Apple。洪水还会影响生产力各地遍布的跨国公司。比如2011泰国的季风洪水导致800多人死亡且使许多工厂停工,其中包括为跨国公司如英特尔、苹果务的配件制造工厂。Many cities on flood plains were expected to expand in coming years, putting more people and businesses at risk. Multinational companies should think more about flood risks, including back-up suppliers or insurance from vulnerable areas。未来几年,洪泛平原的城市将不断扩大,这将更多的人和产业置于危险之中。跨国公司应该更多地考虑到洪灾,设立后备供应商或为易受灾地区购买保险。Developing nations are working to adapt。发展中国家正为适应洪灾而努力。Thailand, for instance, is experimenting with floating homes that can rise up above the waters on pontoons filled with styrofoam。比如泰国正在试验漂流屋,洪水来临时,这些置于泡沫浮舟上的漂流屋可以漂浮在水面。 /201503/363755。

As President Obama wraps up his three-day visit to India this week, it’s a fitting time to take a closer look at a country that may well be the world’s fastest-growing major economy over the next two years. Though confronting great challenges, India has amazing opportunities with the promise of shared prosperity for its 1.25 billion citizens. But in order to make this promise a reality, India’s government and business community must work together to tackle some of its challenges and realize its economic growth potential.本周,美国总统奥巴马将结束对印度为期三天的访问,现在近距离观察这个国家或许正合时宜。未来两年,印度或许将成为全世界增长最快的大型经济体。虽然面临严峻的挑战,但印度仍有绝佳的机会实现让12.5亿国民共同繁荣的承诺。为了达到这一目标,印度政府和商界必须精诚合作,共同应对各种挑战,充分实现其经济增长潜力。In order for India to secure its economic future and provide for its citizens, the country needs to increase its GDP by 9% a year in order to become a trillion economy over the next 20 years. Why trillion? Because anything less would not secure India’s social and economic future. In fact, India needs to create 10 to 12 million jobs every year for the next 20 years in order to keep up with its rapidly growing population.印度若想使其经济拥有一个光明的未来,并养活其庞大的人口,就必须保持9%的年均GDP增长速度,进而在未来20年内成为10万亿美元经济体。为什么是10万亿?因为低于这个水平,印度就无法保障其社会与经济的未来。事实上,未来20年,随着人口的快速增长,印度每年必须创造1000万至1200万个工作岗位。India’s private sector has an opportunity to create jobs and grow the economy. According to PwC’s 2015 CEO Survey,73% of Indian CEOs expect to boost headcount within the next 12 months, and this is highest compared to any other country in the world. Sixty-two percent of Indian CEOs are very confident in their companies’ growth over the next 12 months — significantly higher than the 39% global average. Finally, 84% of India’s CEOs believe there are more growth opportunities for their companies today than three years ago – again, the highest percentage in the world. This sentiment is driven both by long-term growth prospects in a country with an emerging middle class of 600 million people, and by the more immediate catalyst of a clear mandate for India’s Prime Minister Narendra Modi, who was elected just last May.印度的私营部门有机会创造就业,并拉动经济发展。根据普华永道会计事务所2015年对印度CEO所做的调查, 73%的CEO预计在未来12个月将增加员工人数,这一比例高于其他任何国家。62%的CEO对公司在未来12个月的增长前景非常有信心——远远高于39%的全球平均水平。最后,84%的CEO相信,相比三年前,自己的公司现在有更多发展机会——该比例同样超过其他国家。这种信心来源于6亿新兴中产阶级为整个国家带来的长期发展前景,以及纳伦德拉o莫迪去年五月份高票当选印度总理所产生的催化效应。But creating jobs and growing the economy cannot be achieved by India’s private sector alone. The Indian government, led by Modi, must work with businesses to implement the reforms necessary to boost the country’s economic growth and development—here, it faces three major challenges:但创造就业和发展经济,仅靠私营部门不可能实现。莫迪领导的新政府必须与商界精诚合作,推行必要的改革,促进国家经济增长和发展——但在这方面,它将面临三个主要挑战:First, India’s education system presents a major challenge.While India produces quality talent from its most elite institutes, the vast majority of graduates from its primary and secondary education are not sufficiently skilled. That, combined with a recent national survey indicating declining ing levels in schools, does not bode well for India’s ability to develop the educated and skilled labor force needed to fill new positions. Over the next two decades, India must deliver high-quality, formal education to seven million additional children each year in order to meet the country’s demands for skilled labor. Doing so won’t be easy with traditional education strategies, given that just over 3% of India’s GDP is targeted at education, compared with an average of more than 6% across the rest of the world.首先,印度的教育系统面临一个重大挑战。虽然印度最顶级的学院可以培养出优秀的人才,但大多数小学和中学毕业生能力不足。而且最近的全国普查显示,学生在校的阅读水平在持续下降,这对于印度而言并非好兆头,将使得它难以培养出填补新工作岗位所需的熟练劳动力。未来二十年,印度必须为每年新增的七百万儿童提供高质量的正规教育,才能满足国家对熟练工人的需求。按照传统的教育策略很难实现这一目标,因为印度GDP中仅有3%被用于教育,而世界其他国家的平均水平则超过6%。While reforming the country’s education system is clearly a job for the government, business must play a role and work with the government to ensure a strong pipeline of educated and skilled talent. The recent effort to foster skill development through the National Skill Development Corporation is one such attempt at creating a skilled workforce.很显然,改革教育体制将是印度政府的工作之一,但公司也必须发挥自己的作用,需要与政府合作打造一个强大的管道,以不断输出接受过教育的技术型人才。国家技能发展公司近期促进技能培养的努力,便是为培养熟练工人进行的一次尝试。Second, India’s economy will not achieve sufficient growth through traditional, linear approaches. As President Obama meets with Prime Minister Modi, increasing bilateral trade and investment has certainly been on their agenda. Over the weekend, they resolved key issues in a long-stalled nuclear deal that for years kept U.S. nuclear companies from doing business in India. More needs to be done, however. Trade and investment, both public and private, must focus on productivity and innovation. This will require foreign direct investment that will drive technological spillovers and consequently, will drive innovation. According to PwC’s recent research, a 9% growth scenario in India will be unattainable unless the country makes a strong push in innovation and Research amp; Development, tripling its Ramp;D spend from 0.8% to 2.4% of GDP over the next two decades.其次,按照传统的线性方式,印度经济将无法实现充分的增长。提高双边贸易和投资,当然是奥巴马和莫迪重点磋商的议题之一。美国的核能公司一直无法在印度开展业务,上周末,双方停滞多年的核能谈判取得突破。但这还远远不够。公共和私营领域的贸易与投资必须将效率与创新作为核心。这需要能够推动技术外溢,进而带动创新的外国直接投资。普华永道近期的调查显示,未来二十年,印度政府必须大力推动创新和研发,将其研发投入在GDP的占比从0.8%提高到2.4%,才有可能实现9%的增长目标。This is not news to India’s CEOs. The country’s business leaders are concerned with a variety of challenges hindering innovation, Ramp;D and foreign investment. These issues include bribery, corruption, volatile energy costs, and the availability of key skills. Critically, 82% of the Indian CEOs surveyed by PwC said that a government priority should be ensuring adequate infrastructure, while 68% think their government has been ineffective in doing so.对于印度的CEO们来说,这不是什么新闻。印度的商界领袖对于妨碍创新、研发和外国投资的各种挑战非常担忧。这些问题包括贿赂、腐败、不稳定的能源成本和关键技能的缺失。普华永道调查的印度CEO中,有82%表示政府的首要任务应该是确保充足的基础设施,但有68%的受访者认为政府在这方面并不称职。Finally, attracting foreign investments presents a serious challenge, with international businesses wary of India’s regulatory landscape, issues related to corruption and an infrastructure in need of significant upgrade. In order to boost investor confidence, Modi has launched a diplomatic offensive to court foreign governments and investors. By the end of this month —and less than a year into his five-year term — the prime minister will have visited or hosted the leaders of the ed States, Australia, Brazil, China, and Japan, among others. However, if India is to attract American companies and investors, it must meet its significant domestic challenges head on.最后,吸引外国投资面临严峻的挑战,印度的监管政策、腐败问题和亟需大规模升级的基础设施,令外国公司非常谨慎。为了提高投资者的信心,莫迪向外国政府和投资者展开魅力攻势。截至本月底,上任不足一年(任期五年)的莫迪访问或接待的外国领导人包括美国、澳大利亚、巴西、中国和日本等。但印度若想吸引美国公司和投资者,必须正面应对国内的严峻挑战。As India seeks a growth trajectory of 9%, the nation will be attempting one of the largest democratic nation building exercises in recent history. As it does so, the opportunities for U.S. and Indian businesses, entrepreneurs and investors are enormous.如果印度实现9%的发展速度,这个最大的民主国家将书写近代史中最辉煌的经济建设篇章之一。在此过程中,美国和印度的企业、创业者和投资者将迎来巨大的机遇。 /201502/360386。

Earlier this year, the best company at surveying the rich in China announced that more than 60% of the people it surveyed had aly immigrated to another country, or were considering doing so.今年早些时候,在调查中国富豪方面最有发言权的胡润百富公司(Hurun Report)宣布,它所调查的中国富豪中有超过60%的人已经移民到其他国家,或者正在考虑移民。The question for the Hurun Report, which publishes an annual China rich list, was why? Was pollution driving people abroad, weariness over China’s political crackdowns, or something else entirely?胡润百富公司每年都会公布中国富豪排行榜,它所面临的问题就是要探寻上述现象背后的。究竟是环境污染、对于中国政治高压的厌倦还是完全由于其它方面的因素驱使富人们要离开中国呢?It turns out the questions also nagged Rupert Hoogewerf, founder of Hurun. At the time, his best guess was that pollution and the desire to park some assets abroad were driving rich Chinese to the ed States, Canada, and Australia—the top three destinations for those leaving China.其实,这些问题也在困扰着胡润百富公司的创始人胡润。他猜测可能性最大的原因是,环境污染和希望把部分资产配置在海外的想法正在驱使中国有钱人移民到美国、加拿大和澳大利亚这三个中国移民首选的目的国。But to find out for sure, he conducted a follow-up survey that is being released today, and Fortune got exclusive early access. Hurun teamed with Visas Consulting Group to ask 141 wealthy Chinese questions about emigration and where they’re moving their money. The researchers discovered that three factors drove emigration from China, with each factor accounting for 20% of the responses:但为了找到确切,胡润展开了一项跟踪调查,此项调查的结果将于今天公布,《财富》亦获得了这份调查结果的独家预览版。胡润百富公司联合汇加顾问集团(Visas Consulting Group)向141位中国富豪征询了一系列关于移民和财富转移目的地的问题。研究人员发现,主要有三大因素驱使富豪们移民国外,且每个因素在答复响应中都占据了20%的比重。People moved because they wanted better options for their children’s education; they were distressed about the growing pollution problems plaguing China’s cities; and they were concerned about food safety in the country, which in the latest scare involved tainted dog treats.富人们离开中国是因为他们希望子女能够接受更好教育;困扰着很多中国城市且日益严重的污染问题让他们苦恼不已;他们也对中国的食品安全问题感到忧心忡忡,新近爆发的食品安全恐慌甚至涉及遭到污染的宠物零食。“Again and again, when talking to people on an individual basis, those are the issues they raise,” says Hoogewerf.胡润说:“在针对个体的调查过程中,这些问题都是他们所反复提及的。”Maybe most surprising, two-thirds of those emigrating, or considering doing so, are also considering giving up their Chinese nationality.也许最令人惊讶的是,在那些正在移民或正考虑移民的富豪中,有三分之二的人也正在考虑放弃自己的中国国籍。As I wrote in March, just as Beijing was coming out of the throes of a smoggy winter, those who can avoid China’s pollution and food scares are doing so. It’s troublesome for the Chinese government because experts conclude that big improvements to the air remain at least a decade away, not to say anything about China’s food safety or its education system.正如我在三月份的一篇文章中所写到的,就像北京正在摆脱冬季雾霾的笼罩一样,那些有能力避开中国环境污染和食品安全恐慌的人们也在做着相同的事情。中国政府对这个问题感到颇为棘手,因为有专家推断,中国的空气质量出现显著改善至少需要十年时间,而解决食品安全或教育体制问题更不知要等到何年何月。The Hurun survey produced other interesting results. As a percentage of their total wealth, rich Chinese invest on average 16% abroad. The most popular investment choice is real estate and the U.S. is the overwhelming favorite destination. Los Angeles ranks as the most popular city to buy real estate, followed by San Francisco and New York. Vancouver ranked as the third most popular city. Detached villas were the preferred type of housing, followed by apartments and townhouses.胡润的这份调查报告还得出了其它一些有意思的结论。中国富豪海外投资占总资产的平均比重为16%。房地产是最受欢迎的投资选择,作为移民首选国家的美国在受青睐程度上远远超出了其它国家。洛杉矶成为了最受欢迎的海外置业城市,紧随其后的是旧金山和纽约。温哥华在最受欢迎的移民城市中排在第三位。独立别墅是中国富豪移民们最偏爱的住宅类型,其次是公寓和连栋别墅。Those surveyed all had assets worth more than million and on average were worth million.所有被调查对象的资产价值都超过了100万美元,平均财富价值达到了700万美元。The top destinations for rich emigrating from China are as follows:中国富豪们的首选移民目的地如下图所示(从上至下依次为美国、加拿大、澳大利亚、欧洲、新西兰、新加坡、香港和日本): /201406/304913。