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2020年01月25日 16:03:42

赣州做隆鼻手术安全吗Wherever Chinese go,the custom of drinking tea follows. Tea was first discovered by the Chinese. Tea is an indispensable part of the life of a Chinese. A Chinese saying identifies the seven basic daily necessities oil,salt, soy sauce,vinegar, and tea. The custom of drinking tea as fuelrice has been ingrained in the Chinese for over a thousand years. In Tang Dynasty,a man named Lu Yu created the first compendium in the world on tea,Book of Tea .This work helped to popularize the art of tea drinking all across China.无论中国人走到哪里,都不会改掉喝茶的习惯。茶最先由中国人发现,它是中国人生活中不可或缺的组成部分。有一句中国谚语将基本的日常必需品称为柴、米、油、盐、酱、醋、茶。一千多年以来,饮茶的习俗已经在中国人心中根深蒂固。唐朝时,一个名叫陆羽的人写了世界上第一部关于茶的著作—《茶经》,这部书有助于在中国推广饮茶艺术。Tea is made from the young,tender leaves of the tea tree. The differences among the many kinds of tea available are based mainly on the roasting and fermentation of the tea leaves. Through fermentation,the originally deep green leaves become reddish-brown in color. The longer the fermentation,the darker the color. Depending on the length of the roasting and degree of fermentation,the fragrance can range from floral to fruity to many.茶是用茶树的幼嫩叶子做成的。现有的许多茶叶种类之间的区别主要在于对茶叶的烘烤和发酵的方法。通过发酵,原先深绿色的叶子颜色就变成红褐色。发酵的时间越长,颜色就越暗。根据烘烤时向和发酵的程度,香味也会有花香、果香以及麦香之分。Tea is China#39;s national drink. It contains vitamins,chlorophyll,essential oils, and fluoride. It is a diuretic capable of improving the eyesight and increasing alertness,so Chinese believe that frequent tea drinkers enjoy a longer life span. Its medical properties and benefits to the human body have actually been scientiflcal1y proven,and tea has come to be generally recognized as a natural health food.茶是中国的民族饮品。茶叶中含有维生素、叶绿素、精油以及氟化物。它具有利尿、明目、提神的功用,因此中国人认为经常喝茶的人能够长寿。茶叶的药用功能及其对人体的好处实际上已经得到了科学的明,同时茶叶已经被公认为天然的健康食品。Tea drinking customs饮茶的习俗There are several special circumstances in which tea is prepared and consumed.To show respect; In Chinese society,the younger generation always shows its respect to the older generation by offering a cup of tea. Inviting and paying for their elders to go to restaurants for tea is a traditional activity on holidays. In the past,people of lower rank served tea to higher ranking people. Today, as Chinese society becomes more liberal,sometimes at home parents may pour a cup of tea for their children,or a boss may even pour tea for subordinates at restaurants. The lower ranking person should not expect the higher rank person to serve him or her tea on formal occasions,however.在许多特殊场合上要进行泡茶和饮茶,作为一种礼貌的表示,在中国社会中,晚辈经常通过敬茶来表示对长辈的尊敬。在节假日里,邀请长辈到餐馆喝茶并为其埋单则是传统的活动。过去,级别较低的人要向级别较高的人上茶。如今由于中国社会变得更加自由,因此有时父母在家中可能会为子女倒茶,甚至老板在饭店里也可能为下属倒茶。但是在正式的场合中,级别较低的人不应指望级别较高的人为自己倒茶。For a family gathering:When sons and daughters leave home to work and get married,they may seldom visit their parents. As a result, parents may seldom meet their grandchildren. Going to restaurants and drinking tea,therefore, becomes an important activity for fami份gatherings. Every Sunday, Chinese restaurants are crowded,especially when people celebrate festivals. This phenomenon reflects Chinese family values.用于家庭团聚:当子女离家工作或结婚之后,他们可能很少见到自己的父母,父母也可能很少见到自己的孙子孙女。因此,去餐馆喝茶便成为家庭团聚的一种重要活动。中国的餐馆在每个周日都十分拥挤,尤其是当人们庆祝节日的时候。这种现象反映出中国人重视家庭的价值观。To apologize:In Chinese culture,people make serious apologies to others by pouring tea on them. That is a sign of regret and submission.表示歉意:在中国文化中,人们常通过为别人倒茶来表示郑重的歉意。这是道歉和顺从的一种表示。To express thanks to your elders on one#39;s wedding day:At the traditional Chinese marriage ceremony,both the bride and groom kneel in front of their parents and serve them tea. That is a way to express their gratitude. In front of their parents,it is a practice for the married couple to say,“Thanks for bringing us up.Now we are getting married. We owe it all to you”The parents will usually drink a small portion of the tea and then give them a red envelope, which symbolizes good luck.在成亲之日表示对长辈的谢意:在传统的中国婚礼仪式中,新娘和新郎都要跪在自己的父母面前为他们敬茶。在自己的父母面前,一对新人通常说:“感谢你们的养育之恩。现在我们已经成亲了,这全都要感谢你们啊。”父母则通常要饮一小口茶,然后再给这对新人红包,这象征着好运。Expressing gratitude for tea对上茶表示感谢After a person#39;s cup is filled,that person may knock their bent index and middle fingers (or some similar variety of finger tapping) on the table to express gratitude to the person who served the tea. Although this custom is common in southern Chinese culture such as the Cantonese, it is generally not recognised nor praciced in other parfis of China.当别人给你的杯子倒了茶之后,你可以将食指和中指弯曲敲一敲桌子,以表示对七茶人的谢意。虽然这个习俗在诸如中国南方的广东等地区十分普遍,但是中国的其他地区通常并不承认或流传这种习俗。This custom is said to have originated in the Qing Dynasty when Emperor Qianlong would travel in disguise through the empire. Servants were told not to reveal their master#39;s identity. One day in a restaurant, the emperor, after pouring himself a cup of tea,filled a servant#39;s cup as well. To that servant it was a huge honour to have the emperor pour him a cup of tea. Out of reflex he wanted to kneel and express his thanks. He could not kneel and kowtow to the emperor since that would reveal the emperor#39;s identity so he bent his fingers to knock on the table to express his gratitude and respect to the emperor.这个习俗据说起源于清朝。当时乾隆皇帝要在全国微出访,他告诉自己的仆人不得透露自己的身份。乾隆皇帝有一天在餐馆里给自己倒了一杯茶之后,又给仆人倒了一杯茶。对于这位仆人来说,皇帝为他倒茶是极大的荣幸。他条件反射地要跪下来表示感谢。由于这会暴露皇帝的身份,因此他不能跪下来向皇帝叩头,于是他弯起手指在桌上敲了几个,以表示自己对皇帝的谢意和敬意。Tea Wares茶具Though not as strict as the tea ceremony in Japan,certain rules govern the Chinese understanding of tea. Take tea wares as an example.Green tea goes with white porcelain or celadon without a cover; scented tea with celadon or blue and white porcelain with a cover; black tea goes well with purple clay ware with white inside glaze,or with white porcelain or warm colored wares or coffee wares; and Oolong tea is also excellent in purple clay ware. In a word,the harmonious combination of function,material,and color of tea ware is essential to brewing excellent tea.虽然不像日本的茶道仪式那么严格,但还是有些规定主宰着中国人对茶的理解。以茶具为例,绿茶要放在没有盖子的白瓷或青瓷中泡;花茶则要用带盖子的青瓷或蓝白色瓷器中泡;红茶则以里面为白釉的紫砂茶具泡制为宜,或是采用白瓷、暖色调的茶具,或是泡咖啡的器皿;乌龙茶也适合用紫砂茶具泡制。简而言之,茶具的功能、材料以及颜色的和谐统一对于泡出好茶来至关重要。Tea wares consist of ovens,teapots,cups,tea bowls, and trays and so on.Nowadays with the development of tea procedure,we can make。cup of tea wit with a single porcelain cup. In the following paragraphs,we will focus on the most essential tea ware-tea cups and teapots.茶具分为茶炉、茶壶、茶杯、茶碗以及茶盘。如今随着泡茶过程的发展,我们可以只用一个瓷碗来泡茶。在下面的章节中,我们将关注最重要的茶具—茶碗和壶。The custom of drinking tea propelled the development of the porcelain industry. Tang scholars preferred green porcelain from Shaoxing,Zhejiang Province.This kind of green porcelain was like crystal or jade with elegant design and exquisite decoration. Since the true color of tea was set off beautifully in this dainty cup(ou in Chinese ),it was number one in Lu Yu#39;s Book of Tea .As to function,the size and design of the cup best suited to the tea drinking habit of that time allowed for cooking tea powder with green onion,ginger, dates,tangerine peels and mint, Then drinking the whole soup.饮茶的习俗推动了瓷器业发展。唐朝的士大夫喜欢浙江省绍兴的青瓷。这种青瓷宛如带有精致图案和精美装饰的水晶或一般。由于茶的本色在这种玲珑的杯子(贩)中得到映衬,因此它在陆羽《茶经》中排名第一。杯子的功能、大小以及设计都适合当时饮茶的习惯,并且能够将茶叶粉末与绿色的洋葱、姜、枣、陈皮以及薄荷一起熬制,然后饮用所有的汤汁。The preference for green porcelain or white porcelain was suddenly changed to black glazed teacups in the Song Dynasty. Scholars emphasized the white foam that formed when boiled water was added to the teacup. The most desirable foam was white,best presented in black tea ware. Black glazed tea ware from Fujian was dominant, while purple clay tea wares emerged in Yixing,Jiangsu.到了宋代,人们对青瓷或白瓷的偏爱突然转到了黑釉茶杯上。士大夫们注重把开水加入茶杯中要形成白色的泡沫。最理想的泡沫颜色是白色,而且最好用黑色的茶具来盛放。产自福建的黑釉茶具则成了主流,而紫砂茶具在江苏宜兴出现了。In the beginning of the Ming Dynasty,tea was made by pouring boiled water onto loose tea leaves. The tea liquor turned yellowish white,so snow-white teacups replaced the black-glazed tea ware of the Song Dynasty. In the middle of the Ming,with the advent of purple clay tea ware,focus was not limited to the color contrast of tea liquor and tea ware,but switched to the fragrance and taste of tea. The production of various teapots came to its pinnacle at the time.到了明朝初年,茶是用沸水倒进散茶叶中泡成的。茶的汁水变成黄白色,因此雪白的茶杯便取代了宋代的黑釉茶具。在明朝中期,随着紫砂茶具的出现,人们的注意力就不局限于茶水和茶具之间的颜色对比了,而是转移到茶的芬芳与口感了。各种茶壶的生产在当时达到了巅峰。Tea wares made for the royal family in Jingdezhen,Jiangxi,shone brilliantly among numerous tea wares. New designs of teapots and cups increased continually with the development of tea types.在无数茶具中,江西景德镇进贡给皇室的茶具发出了璀璨的光。随着茶的种类的发展,新的茶壶和茶杯的款式也不断增加。Brewing Chinese tea泡中国茶There are many different ways of brewing Chinese tea depending on variables like the formality of the occasion the means of the people preparing it and the kind of tea For example, green teas are more delicate than oolong teas or water as a result. being brewed. black teas and should be brewed cooler.根据场合的正式程度、人们泡茶的途径以.及所泡茶的种类等要素,有许多种不同的泡中国茶的方式。例如,绿茶要比乌龙茶或红茶更娇嫩,因此不要用开水来泡。Chaou brewing茶顾The chaou is a three piece teaware consisting of a lid,cup/ bowl,and a saucer,which can be used on its own or with tasting cups on the side. Chaou brewing is usually employed in tea tasting situations,such as when buying tea,where neutrality in taste and ease of access to brewing leaves for viewing and sniffing is important. This method of serving is often used in informal situations,though it can also be used in slightly more formal occasions. Chaou brewing can be used for all forms of teas though lightly oxidized teas benefit most from this brewing method.茶贩是一套三件的茶具,由盖子、杯子/碗以及茶碟组成,既可以单独使用,也可以使用旁边的品茶杯。通常在品茶的时候使用茶C}}L泡茶,例如购买茶叶之时,选择口味适中、泡出的茶叶易于观察和闻,这是十分重要的。这种上茶的方法经常用于非正式的场合,但它也可以用于比较正式的场合。各种类型的茶都可以用茶匝泡茶,但是这种泡茶方式最有利于泡略受氧化的茶叶。1. Boil water,or heat to specified temperature for tea,which is 800C for Oolong tea.1. 将水烧开或是煮到特定的温度来泡茶,乌龙茶要煮到80度;2. Heat chaou with boiling water.2. 用开水加热茶贩;3. Add leaves to line bottom of chaou.3. 将茶叶加人到茶的底线;4. Rinse tea leaves and drain.4. 将茶叶漂净并把水倒干;5. Slip water along the side while pouring into cup to 2/3 full5. 将水倒入杯中至三分之二深处并同时用水把边上测一下;6. Wait for 30 seconds,pour the tea.6. 等待30秒后倒茶;7. Serve.7. 上茶。Teapot brewing茶壶泡茶This is a tradition of the Minnan people and Chaozhou or Chaoshan people have made this Kungfu cha famous. Kungfu cha teapot brewing uses small Yixing purple clay teapot to“round out; the taste of the tea being brewed. Yixing teapot brewing sides towards the formal,and is used for private enjoyment of the tea as well as for welcoming guests. The following steps are one popular way to brew tea in a form widely accepted to be a kind of art. This procedure is mostly applicable to Oolong teas only.这是闽南人的传统,而潮州或潮汕人则让这种功夫茶名声大噪。泡功夫茶使用的是宜兴紫砂茶壶来使泡出来的茶味道更加“圆润”。用宜兴茶壶泡茶比较正式,而且也可以用于私人品茶和迎客。下面就是常用的泡茶方法,这种泡茶形式被公认为是一门艺术。这一过程大多数情况下只适用于乌龙茶。1. Boil water.1. 将水烧开;2. Rinse the teapot with hot water.2. 用热水将茶壶洗净;3. Fill the teapot with tea leaves up to one third of the height of the pot.3. 将茶叶加人茶壶中并一直满到茶壶的三分之一高度;4. Rinse the tea leaves by filling the pot with hot water up to half full and draining the water immediately leaving only tea leaves behind.(This step, and all sub- sequent steps involving pouring water, should be performed in a large bowl to catch any overflow.4. 用热水倒进茶壶中一半高的位置,然后立刻将水倒掉并只留下茶叶在里面(这个步骤和下面的所有步骤都需要在大碗中倒水,以防止有水溅出。5. Pour more hot water into the teapot and pour water over the teapot in thelarge bowl. Bubbles should not be permitted to be formed in the teapot. The infusion should not be steeped for too long:30 seconds is an appropriate maximum.5. 将更多的热水倒进茶壶并将水从茶壶中倒人一个大碗,茶壶中不允许出现泡沫。泡茶的时间不能太长,合适的时间最多为30秒;6. Pour the first infusion into small serving cups within a minute by continuously moving the teapot around same flavor and colour. over the cups. Each cup of tea is expected to have the same flavor and colour.6. 通过不断移动茶壶给各个杯子倒茶,在一分钟之内将第一遍冲的茶倒进上茶的小杯子中。每一杯茶都要有同样的香味和色泽;7. Pour excess tea from the first infusion,and all tea from further infusions,into a second teapot after steeping. It is possible to draw five or six good infusions from a single pot of tea,but subsequent infusions must be extended in duration to extract maximum flavour:the second infusion extended by approximately ten seconds to 40 seconds,the third extended to 45.7. 在浸泡之后,将第一遍冲的多余的茶和之后所冲的茶都倒进第二个茶壶中。一壶茶可以冲五六遍,但是之后所泡的茶时间必须延长,以便最大限度地泡出香味。第二遍泡茶时间大约要延长10秒,这样就要泡40秒,而第三遍则要泡45秒。This form of the art of brewing and drinking tea is deeply appreciated by many people,including non-Chinese. Many people are enthusiastic about the art;they enjoy not only the taste of Chinese tea,but also the process of brewing it. The tea culture involved is attractive besides the relaxation it generates,allowing them to purportedly forget all the trouble in their life during the process of brewing,serving and drinking tea. Some people enjoy serving others with a cup of tea not just because they want to share their excellent tea but also their peace of mind with others.这种泡茶和饮茶的艺术形式深受人们的欣赏,这其中还包括外国人。许多人对这门艺术充满热情;他们不仅喜欢品尝中国茶,而且还喜欢泡茶的过程。此外,其中的茶文化还十分吸引人,因为据说它能够让人在泡茶、上茶、饮茶的过程中忘却生活中的一切烦恼,从而使人轻松。有些人喜欢给别人上一杯茶,这不仅是因为他们希望分享美茶,而且还想和别人分享自己的平和心态。 /201506/378846赣州做双眼皮多少钱Milk Pastry乳饼 Milk pastry, looking like white tofu, is a kind of cheese made by Bai people in Dali district and Sani people in Lunan district of Yunnan Province. In Bai language it is called “ yond bap”, which means making of milk or goat milk. Milk pastry made of goat milk is of the best quality. Either fired or raw milk pastry with the flavorings of sugar and salt tastes great.乳饼是云南大理白族人和路南撒尼人制作的一种奶酪(cheese)的名称。白语称为yond bap用牛奶或山羊奶制成。用山羊奶制成的质量最好。白色块状。酷似豆腐块。 沾白糖、椒盐生吃或者下油锅煎吃都很爽口。There is a story about the origin of milk pastry. A long time ago, when winter comes people herd sheep flocks in weed-rich areas which are far from villages. Over the long distance from pastures to the villages, fresh milk has aly gone sour. As a result, quite much goat milk is wasted.关于乳饼制作的起源有着这样一个传说,相传在很久以前,每逢冬季来临,人们就要把羊群赶到水草丰盛的地方去放牧,而水草丰盛的地方又远离村镇,从牧场把鲜奶运回村镇时,鲜奶已变酸。所以牧民们每天都要倒掉许多雪白的羊奶。A smart young man is inspired by the preparation of tofu of his neighbor and after repeated experiments he comes up with the recipe of milk pastry. By adding physalis (a kind of rare vegetable) to goat milk, the tofu-like milk pastry he makes is bursting with the delightful smell of milk, and is tasty and refreshing. Being easy to preserve, process, and transport, soon the recipe of milk pastry is widely sp and welcomed.有一位聪明的年轻人从邻居制作豆腐的过程中得到启示,经过反复实酸浆点羊奶制作乳饼的方法。用此种方法制作的乳饼色白如豆腐,奶香飘溢,食之嫩滑爽口。乳饼比羊奶更易贮藏运输和加工食用。因此乳饼制作方法不胫而走,广为传播。 /201504/371737MOSCOW — After a law went into effect last summer banning obscenities in public performances, the playwright and director Ivan Vyrypaev excised the curse words from one of his plays, “The Drunks,” for its Russian debut at the prestigious Moscow Art Theater. Some actors played the new version straight, he said, while others winked to make clear what was cut.莫斯科——去年夏天,俄罗斯开始实施一项禁止公共表演中出现脏话的法律。为了自己的剧作《酒鬼》(The Drunks)能在著名的莫斯科艺术剧院举行俄罗斯首演,编剧兼导演伊万·维里帕夫(Ivan Vyrypaev)也删除了剧中的脏话。他说,新版本上演时,有些演员不动声色,也有些演员在脏话被删除的地方挤眼示意。A quiet man of 40, Mr. Vyrypaev was circumspect about the law. “Of course my plays lost something, but my artistic life hasn’t been ruined,” he said in an interview, adding that he also had to pull three plays by other playwrights from the Praktika Theater here, where he is artistic director.40岁的维里帕夫生性温和,他对这项法律极为慎重。“当然,我的剧本失去了某种味道,但我的艺术生命还没被毁掉,”他在采访中说。维里帕夫是莫斯科普拉克提卡剧院(Praktika Theater)的艺术总监。他补充说,他还不得不撤掉该剧院其他编剧创作的三部话剧。Later, Mr. Vyrypaev said, Praktika presented other plays with curse words after President Vladimir V. Putin said in a meeting with writers that while Tolstoy and Chekhov didn’t need cursing, “You, the writers, know best.”维里帕夫说,弗拉基米尔·V·普京总统(Vladimir V. Putin)在一次与编剧的座谈会上说,托尔斯泰和契诃夫不需要使用脏话,“你们这些编剧最了解这一点”。不过,在那之后,普拉克提卡剧院还是上演了其他一些含有脏话的剧目。The advance and retreat was telling. Cultural figures in Russia today describe a climate of confusion and anxiety in which the law banning obscenities, as well as a 2013 law that criminalizes acts offending religious believers, are often ignored unless someone wants them applied. Critics say the new laws are stifling free expression and pulling the country backward.这种时进时退的做法很说明问题。俄罗斯的文化名人们认为当前的文化气候令人困惑和忧虑。2013年,俄罗斯一项法律宣布冒犯宗教信徒的行为属于违法,然而这项法律以及这项禁止使用脏话的法律经常被民众忽视,除非有人想要执行。批评者认为,这些新法律扼杀自由言论,导致国家走向倒退。During Soviet times, “At least we knew the rules,” said Irina Prokhorova, a publisher and vocal critic of the government. “This is a little bit different, because there are no rules, no official censorship.” Ms. Prokhorova likened the climate to the 1930s, when the Nazis labeled art degenerate. “This is aesthetic fundamentalism,” she said. The law on religious believers is particularly slippery. “Who are those believers? What do they believe in? No one talks about this,” she added.出版人伊琳娜·普罗霍罗娃(Irina Prokhorova)经常直言不讳地批评政府。她说,在苏联时期,“至少我们知道有哪些规定”,“现在这种情况有点不同,因为没有规定,没有官方审查”。普罗霍罗娃把目前的文化气候比作20世纪30年代,当时纳粹认为艺术是堕落的。“这是审美上的原教旨主义,”她说。她补充说,关于宗教信徒的那项法律尤其模糊。“那些信徒是谁?他们信奉的是什么?没人说明这些。”This week, a debate has been raging after it emerged on Sunday that Russia’s culture minister had ousted the director of a state-run theater in Siberia on the grounds that a production of Wagner’s “Tannh#228;user,” with a backdrop in which an image of Christ was placed in the crotch of a naked woman, had run afoul of the law against offending religious believers — even after a judge last month dropped the case as groundless.周日,俄罗斯文化部长罢黜了西伯利亚一个国营剧院的经理,理由是该剧院排演的瓦格纳(Wagner)作品《唐怀瑟》(Tannh#228;user)的布景将耶稣形象放在一个裸体女人的胯部。文化部长认为这冒犯了宗教信徒,触犯了法律。不过上个月,一位法官判定该案理由不足。该案引发热烈争论。Russia has a thriving theater scene and a constitution that bans top-down, Soviet-style censorship. But in a time of economic turmoil and growing nationalism, with society polarized in unpredictable and emotional ways over the new laws and the war in Ukraine, cultural figures say the message from the government is clear: Fall in line with the emphasis on family and religious values, or lose funding, or worse.俄罗斯的舞台艺术蓬勃发展,宪法禁止自上而下的苏联式审查制度。但是如今俄罗斯经济动荡,民族主义情绪高涨。面对新法律和乌克兰战争,整个社会出现不可预料的分化情绪。文化名人们说,政府的信号很明确:文化界要与政府强调家庭和宗教价值观的政策保持一致,否则会失去资金持,甚至遇到更糟的状况。“It’s about betrayal — those who betray are put in the Ninth Circle of Hell, like in Dante,” Kirill Serebrennikov, a prominent theater and film director and the director of the Gogol Center, a cornerstone of Moscow’s theater scene, said in a recent interview here. The result, he said, was to put writers and directors “between Scylla and Charybdis — between censorship or self-censorship.”“这其实是在惩罚背叛,就像但丁(Dante)的《神曲》那样,背叛者被打入第九层地狱,”著名戏剧和电影导演、果戈里中心(Gogol Center)主管、莫斯科戏剧界巨擘基里尔·谢列布连尼科夫(Kirill Serebrennikov)前不久在莫斯科接受采访时说。他说,结果是将剧作家和导演们置于“腹背受敌的境地,既要接受审查,又要自我审查”。That day, Mr. Serebrennikov was puzzling over a report in Izvestia, a newspaper seen as close to the Kremlin, that scholars from a research institute were evaluating whether recent theater productions had “distorted” classic Russian texts. They included his production of Gogol’s “Dead Souls” at the Gogol Center and productions of “Boris Godunov” and “The Karamazovs,” based on the Dostoyevsky novel, both mounted by the popular director Konstantin Bogomolov at other theaters.接受采访当天,谢列布连尼科夫正为《消息报》(Izvestia,该报被认为与政府关系密切)上的一则报道感到迷惑:一家研究机构的学者们正在评估近期的上演的戏剧是否“歪曲”了俄罗斯经典文学著作。遭到评估的作品包括谢列布连尼科夫在果戈里中心排演的果戈里《死魂灵》(Dead Souls),以及著名导演康斯坦丁·戈莫洛夫(Konstantin Bogomolov在其他剧院排演的《鲍里斯·戈杜诺夫》(Boris Godunov)和根据陀思妥耶夫斯基(Dostoyevsky)的同名小说改编的《卡拉马佐夫兄弟》(The Karamazovs) 。“The goal is to show us that we can’t interpret classical Russian literature at all, or to say that it’s not Russian literature, it’s Kirill Serebrennikov’s fantasy,” Mr. Serebrennikov said. He added that if theaters were to lose public funding, they would be unlikely to find it from private sources.“这项研究的目的是向我们表明,我们完全不能阐释经典俄罗斯文学,或者是说这些作品不是俄罗斯文学,而是基里尔·谢列布连尼科夫的幻想,”谢列布连尼科夫说。他补充说,如果剧院失去公共资金持,也不可能得到私人资助。In an interview last month in his office here, Vladimir Medinsky, Russia’s culture minister, said it was the prerogative of experts at the research institute to look into Russian culture, such as the plays in question. “Maybe, that’s their right to do this,” Mr. Medinsky said. But he said the academics’ findings wouldn’t have repercussions for the theaters.上个月,俄罗斯文化部长弗拉基米尔·梅金斯基(Vladimir Medinsky)在自己的办公室接受采访时说,那所研究院的专家们有天然的权利研究俄罗斯文化,包括大家讨论的这些戏剧。“也许那是他们的权利,”梅金斯基说。不过,他说学者们的发现不会对剧院造成影响。Holding a mobile phone whose case had a picture of Mr. Putin in sunglasses and a camouflage parka above the pop song lyrics “they can’t catch us,” Mr. Medinsky dismissed criticism that the ministry was effectively stifling free expression by funding only projects that it believes meet family- and religious-values standards or that portray Putin’s Russia in a positive light.当时梅金斯基手上拿着一部手机,外壳上印有普京戴墨镜、穿迷大衣的照片,下面还有一句流行歌曲歌词“他们抓不到我们”。有人批评说,文化部只资助那些它认为符合家庭和宗教价值观标准、或者正面歌颂普京统治下的俄罗斯的项目,因此严重扼制了自由言论。梅金斯基否定了这种批评。“The less they spend their life on Facebook, the less garbage they will have in their heads,” he said of government critics. (Anti-government dissent has been concentrated on social media after the Duma passed a law in 2012 restricting public rallies.)“他们在Facebook上花的时间越少,头脑中的垃圾就越少,”在提到政府批评者时,他这样说(从2012年俄议会下院杜马通过了限制公开集会的法律后,反政府异见主要集中出现在社交媒体上)。In the interview, which took place before he ousted the Siberian theater director, Mr. Medinsky was aly highly critical of the “Tannh#228;user” production. It played four performances to sold-out houses of 1,700 at the Novosibirsk State Academic Opera and Ballet Theater before representatives of the local Russian Orthodox Church complained in February.接受采访时,梅金斯基尚未罢黜西伯利亚剧院经理,不过对《唐怀瑟》演出非常不满。该剧在新西伯利亚国家学术剧院(Novosibirsk State Academic Opera)和芭蕾舞剧院(Ballet Theater)共演出四场,场场满座,共有1700名观众观看了演出。2月份,当地的俄罗斯东正教教会代表提出抗议。This week, Mr. Medinsky replaced the theater’s director with a loyalist, Vladimir Kekhman, who said he would remove “Tannh#228;user” from the repertory. (Before becoming the director of a theater he renovated in St. Petersburg, Mr. Kekhman was a business magnate who imported bananas to Russia.)本周,梅金斯基任命忠于政府的弗拉基米尔·凯科曼(Vladimir Kekhman)担任西伯利亚剧院的新主管。凯科曼称,他将把《唐怀瑟》从演出剧目中除去(凯科曼曾在圣彼得堡修复一家剧院,担任主管,之前是往俄罗斯香蕉进口行业的巨头)。While that case has resonated, with supporters rallying around the theater and critics rallying in support of the Russian Orthodox Church, the law banning obscenities has had a more concrete effect on theater and film. Introduced by a group of lawmakers including Stanislav Govorukhin, a member of Parliament and a popular film and television director during the Soviet period, the law sets fines and 90-day suspensions for violations.这起事件引起了很大反响,该剧的持者在剧院外集会,而该剧的批评者们也集会持俄罗斯东正教教会。不过,禁止脏话的法律对剧院和电影业有更切实的影响。这项法律规定,违反者将受到处罚并被勒令停业90天。提出这项法律的立法者包括下议院议员斯坦尼斯拉夫·戈沃鲁欣(Stanislav Govorukhin)。他是苏联时期的著名电影和电视导演。In the interview, Mr. Medinsky defended the law and said there were no plans to revise or revoke it.在采访中,梅金斯基维护了这项法律,称没有计划修改或废除它。Unlike the average English-language expletive thrown into everyday conversation, in Russian, cursing resonates as extremely crude; it has its own grammar and is never used in polite conversation. It is not uncommon for some older theatergoers to gasp when curses are uttered onstage.不像英语,脏话在俄语日常对话中极少出现,被认为极其粗鲁。脏话有自己的语法,在礼貌的交谈中从不出现。当舞台上出现脏话时,年长观众感到惊讶的情况并不罕见。Some directors see the anti-obscenity law as a distraction from far more worrisome issues. “Imagine Tony Soprano ruling the country, and Tony Soprano issues a law against obscenities,” said Alexander Zeldovich, the director of the critically acclaimed 2011 dystopian film “Target.”有些导演认为,禁止脏话的法律是在转移人们对其他严重问题的关注。“想像一下,如果是托尼·索普拉诺(Tony Soprano)统治这个国家,而他颁布法律禁止说脏话会是什么情形,”导演亚历山大·泽利多维奇(Alexander Zeldovich)说。他2011年的反乌托邦影片《标靶》(Target)广受好评。But film professionals are divided. The director Valeria Gai Germanika, 31, known for her coming-of-age films, said she didn’t mind cutting the cursing from her 2014 film “Yes and Yes.”但是电影专业人士对此意见不一。31岁的导演瓦列里娅·加伊·(Valeria Gai Germanika)以成长电影闻名。她说,她不介意去除她2014年影片《是的是的》(Yes and Yes)中的脏话。“We dubbed it again, and I actually think it became even better,” she said in a telephone interview. Asked if such choices should be made by artists themselves or the government, Ms. Gai Germanika said: “There’s a law, and I’m not going to fight against it. Actually, all those great films made in the Soviet era had no swearing, and people learned about the country through them.”“我们重新配音,实际上我觉得修改之后反而变得更好了,”她在电话采访中说。当被问及这样的选择应该由艺术家还是政府做出时,她说,“有这样的法律,我不打算对抗法律。实际上,苏联时期所有精的电影都没有脏话,人们通过那些电影去了解那个时代。”Some theaters say they’re simply ignoring the law. “We don’t abide by it, because we think it’s anti-constitutional,” said Yelena Gremina, a co-founder of Moscow’s scrappy Teatr.doc, known for its politically charged productions inspired by real-life events.有些剧院称,他们不理会这项法律。“我们不遵守它,因为我们认为它违反宪法,”敢作敢为的莫斯科Teatr.doc剧团的联合创始人叶连娜·格里米娜(Yelena Gremina)说。该剧团以上演受真实事件启发创作的政治剧目闻名。But there is genuine concern, especially after members of the performance group Pussy Riot were jailed in 2012 on charges of hooliganism after singing an anti-Putin song in a Moscow church.不过,人们的确感到忧虑,尤其是在2012年表演团队Pussy Riot在莫斯科一座教堂演唱反普京歌曲被判处流氓罪入狱之后。“After Pussy Riot, everything is serious; they put those girls in jail for two years,” said Alexander Rodnyansky, a leading film producer, most recently of the Oscar-nominated “Leviathan,” which Mr. Medinsky had criticized for its negative portrayal of Putin’s Russia. (Before it was shown last fall, the film was redubbed to remove the curses.)“在Pussy Riot事件之后,一切都变得很严肃。他们判那些女孩入狱两年,”著名电影制片人亚历山大·罗德尼扬斯基(Alexander Rodnyansky)说。他最新制作的影片《利维坦》(Leviathan)获得了奥斯卡提名。梅金斯基批评该片对普京统治下的俄罗斯的描绘过于负面(去年秋季该片上映前,重新配音,去除了脏话)。Creative artists say they are deeply worried about the direction of the country, but they find no shortage of material.创意艺术家们说,他们为俄罗斯的未来感到极为担忧,但他们绝不缺乏素材。“Putin is a process,” said Mr. Vyrypaev, the director. “I treat him like hydrogen sulfide. If you breathe too much, you’ll die. But it’s still part of nature.”“普京是一个过程,”导演维里帕夫说,“我把他看做硫化氢。吸入过多硫化氢,人会死。但它是大自然的一部分。” /201504/370013定南县疤痕修复多少钱

赣州俪人整形医院美容去痣赣州第一附属医院激光除皱手术多少钱A:What happened to your fist?A:你的拳头怎么了?B:This guy tried to get away with a fast one, on our first date!B:这家伙使花招想逃脱,在我们第一次约会的时候。A:He tried to kiss you?A:他想亲你?B:No! He tried to get away!B:不,他想离开~~ /201505/373720赣州市南康区第一人民医院祛痘多少钱赣州大腿脱毛

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