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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年11月20日 16:51:37
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Mobile malware took off in 2011. That is when hackers began serious attacks on mobile phones, says David Emm, principal security researcher, at Kaspersky Lab, a cyber security company.手机恶意软件从2011年开始迅速发展。网络安全公司卡巴斯基实验室(Kaspersky Lab)的资深安全研究员戴维#8226;埃姆(David Emm)称,当时黑客开始大举攻击手机。“At that point, the data became worth stealing, and since then growth has been exponential,” Mr Emm says. He estimates 1m new malicious codes were found on devices in 2015. “The actual number of attacks is much bigger than this because each program tends to be used many times.”“当时,手机数据变得有盗取价值,从那以后手机恶意软件呈指数级增长,”埃姆称。他估计,2015年期间发现了100万个新的手机恶意代码。“实际攻击次数远大于此,因为每个程序往往被多次使用。”Early attacks focused on causing handsets silently to call premium rate numbers. Then hackers diversified into phishing — creating spoof websites that trick people into revealing account numbers and login details.早期的攻击方式都集中在导致手机暗中拨打收费高昂的电话号码。后来黑客们转向网络钓鱼——利用诈骗网站诱导人们透露账户号码和登录资料。Phishing still accounts for the overwhelming number of attacks on mobiles, says Mr Emm, although ransomware — locking data and demanding payment for its release — is also big, accounting for 17 per cent of the total across all platforms, according to Kaspersky’s research.埃姆称,尽管网络钓鱼仍然占据对手机攻击的绝大部分,但是勒索软件(锁定数据,要求付款才解锁)的比例也很大。根据卡巴斯基的研究,勒索软件在囊括所有平台的恶意软件中占17%。Most phone attacks are on handsets that use the Android operating system because of its large market share and flexible, open technology. Apple’s iPhones use proprietary technology which is more difficult to breach.针对手机的多数攻击以搭载Android操作系统的智能手机为目标,原因在于Android巨大的市场份额以及灵活、开放的技术。苹果(Apple) iPhone搭载的系统采用专有技术,攻破难度更大。“Android is like having a room with lots of doors as opposed to a cave with a single entrance,” Mr Emm says. But Apple is not immune.“Android就像是一个有很多门的房间,而不是只有一个入口的山洞,”埃姆称。但是苹果也并非免疫。In 2015, many app developers unwittingly downloaded a malicious version of Xcode — Apple’s official tool for building apps — from a file-sharing website. Among scores of apps infected were WeChat, a messaging app popular in China, and CamCard, a popular business card er in the US.2015年,很多app开发商无意间从文件分享网站下载了恶意版的Xcode(苹果官方制作app的软件工具)。数十款app被感染,其中包括在中国颇受欢迎的即时信息app微信(WeChat)以及美国高人气名片识别软件CamCard。Although Apple vets the apps sold through its app store, the infected programs were not initially detected. They were made available and widely used.尽管苹果对在其应用商店(App Store)上架的app进行审查,但是被感染的软件最初没有被探测到。它们被提供下载,并且被广泛使用。Mobile phone security is challenging because devices are designed to connect in many different ways, says Ben Johnson, chief security strategist at Carbon Black, a security software company. “Whether it is a text message, email, web browsing, Bluetooth or near-field communication (NFC) connectivity, each method of communication is a potential attack route.”安全软件公司Carbon Black的首席安全策略师本#8226;约翰逊(Ben Johnson)称,由于手机可以通过多种方式连接,手机安全具有较大挑战性。“无论是文本短信、电子邮件、浏览网页、蓝牙还是近距离通信技术(NFC),每一种通信方式都可能成为攻击途径。”As human interaction is the main purpose of a mobile device, Mr Johnson adds, there are more chances to trick users. “People are much more likely to click on malicious images or s sent to a mobile phone than to a PC, because it feels more familiar and natural.”约翰逊称,由于人与人之间的交互已经成为移动设备的主要目的,在手机端诱骗用户的机会更多。“与使用电脑相比,人们在手机上点击恶意图片或视频的可能性更高,因为它感觉更熟悉,点起来更顺手。”Phones are also often set to connect automatically and display quick preview images, data or text. “This makes it possible to exploit a system without the recipient opening or ‘clicking’ anything,” Mr Johnson says.此外,手机往往被设置为自动连接以及快速预览图片、信息和短信的模式。“这使得恶意软件可以在接收者不打开或‘点击’的情况下钻系统的空子,”约翰逊称。Defending against the most serious attacks is difficult, says Ian Evans, a vice-president and managing director at VMware Airwatch. “If the main source of the threat is a nation state agency, you’re best to just throw your phone away.”VMware Airwatch的副总裁兼董事总经理伊恩#8226;埃文斯(Ian Evans)称,很难抵挡那些技术含量最高的攻击。“如果主要的威胁源是某个国家机构,你最好把手机扔了。”However, simple steps can help against more common hackers. You should use a passcode or complex PIN on your device to protect it in case of loss or theft, says Mr Evans. “And it is best to avoid connecting to public WiFi networks. If the WiFi is not encrypted, somebody could intercept data including passwords. If you have to do so, make sure you always use a virtual private network to connect to sensitive resources.”然而,一些简单的步骤可以帮助你应付比较普通的黑客。埃文斯称,你应该在设备上使用通行密码或者设置复杂的个人识别码(PIN),以防手机丢失或被盗。“最好避免连接公共WiFi网络。如果WiFi没有加密,别人可以拦截包括密码在内的个人数据。如果你不得不连接公共WiFi,确保自己总是使用虚拟专用网络(VPN)连接敏感资源。”Also, do not “jailbreak” your mobile devices, he says. This is a process whereby users remove operating system restrictions so that they can customise their phone and download apps not normally allowed. “Jailbreaking negates your warranty and exposes you to more potential malware,” says Keiron Shepherd, senior security specialist at F5 Networks, a cyber security company.此外,他称,不要把你的移动设备“越狱”——指用户解除操作系统限制,以便对自己的手机进行定制化设置,并下载通常被禁止的app。“越狱意味着放弃你的保修权利,并使手机暴露于更多的潜在恶意软件,”网络安全公司F5 Networks的高级安全专家吉仑#8226;谢泼德(Keiron Shepherd)称。Phones with hardware-based encryption tend to offer stronger protection than software encryption, says Mr Evans. “The encryption key is stored on a chip, which acts like a safe.” But Android handsets continue to lack dependable hardware-based encryption, Mr Evans says.埃文斯称,硬件加密对手机的保护往往强于软件加密。“加密密钥存储于芯片中,就像保险箱一样。”但据他介绍,Android手机仍然缺少可靠的硬件加密手段。Sometimes phones are compromised during production, as happened in 2014 when a factory-installed “Trojan horse” was found on the Star N9500 Android smartphone, made in China and sold by companies such as Amazon and eBay. It enabled hackers to operate the phone remotely and, being embedded at the factory, could not be removed.有时,手机在生产过程中就已经被植入了恶意软件,就像2014年Star N9500智能手机被发现预装了“特洛伊木马”一样。该款Android手机在中国制造,在亚马逊(Amazon)和eBay等平台出售。黑客可以通过木马远程操控手机,而木马嵌入工厂预装的软件中,无法清除。The next battleground between hackers and phone owners will be biometric data such as thumbprints, iris or voice profile. At present, hackers rarely use biometrics to circumnavigate security because there are many easier paths, says Mr Shepherd. “This is likely to change. The problem is that if your password is discovered you can quickly change it, whereas once biometric data are compromised, that’s it.”黑客与手机用户之间的下一个战场将是生物特征数据,比如拇指纹、虹膜或语音。谢泼德称,目前黑客很少利用生物特征来绕过手机安全屏障,因为还有很多更容易的突破方式。“这种情况很可能会改变。问题是如果你的密码被别人知道了,你可以很快换一个密码,但是一旦生物特征信息被获取,那就完了。” /201603/429325In the annals of anti-monopoly case law, Chinese rice noodle and tableware cartels do not rank up there with the Standard Oil trust, the petroleum cartel that was famously prosecuted in 1911 under the US Sherman Antitrust Act.在反垄断判例法记录中,中国的米粉和餐具消毒卡特尔不可与标准石油(Standard Oil)托拉斯同日而语。1911年,美国法院根据《谢尔曼反托拉斯法》(Sherman Antitrust Act)裁定标准石油托拉斯为非法石油垄断组织,这是一个著名的判例。But in time these two much lesser known cartels, targeted by Beijing regulators shortly after the implementation of China’s 2010 Anti-Monopoly Law, may become famous in their own right. They were among the first cases in an enforcement campaign that has since ensnared the likes of Mercedes-Benz and Qualcomm. It could also soon have implications for multinationals’ ability to safeguard intellectual property in the world’s most coveted market.然而,中国这两个鲜为人知的卡特尔或许也会因为其自身的原因扬名世界——2010年,在中国《反垄断法》(Anti-Monopoly Law)实施一年多后,它们便被北京方面的监管部门盯上了。它们是反垄断执法行动中首批被调查的对象,这之后梅赛德斯-奔驰(Mercedes-Benz)和高通(Qualcomm)之类的公司相继中。这场执法行动很快还可能威胁跨国企业在中国市场上保护自身知识产权的能力,而中国是全世界最令人垂涎的市场。In both instances, the National Development and Reform Commission imposed small penalties for price collusion on more than a dozen rice noodle makers and service providers that wash, sterilise and wrap tableware in plastic for restaurants. Stephen Harris, a competition attorney with Winston amp; Strawn in Washington DC, says both cases were a signal to Chinese companies by NDRC that “new laws exist and there’s a cop on the beat”.在两个案例中,中国的国家发改委(National Development and Reform Commission)对十多家米粉制造商以及7家为餐馆提供套装消毒餐具的餐具消毒企业处以小额罚款,原因是这些企业串通涨价。华盛顿特区温斯顿-斯特朗律师事务所(Winston amp; Strawn)的反垄断律师斯蒂芬#8226;哈里斯(Stephen Harris)称,两起案件都是发改委向中国企业发出的警告——“新法律已经实施,警察在盯着呢”。The NDRC’s investigations into allegedly anti-competitive behaviour by domestic firms culminated with an Rmb200m (.2m) fine for China’s largest liquor maker, Wuliangye, two years ago. But it takes rather more money to get the attention of multinationals, and the NDRC achieved just that in 2013 with the first in a series of investigations against foreign manufacturers of milk powder, auto parts, premium cars and semiconductors.发改委对中国本土企业所谓反竞争行为的调查,以两年前中国最大白酒制造商五粮液(Wuliangye)被处以2亿元人民币(合3220万美元)罚款达到巅峰。但是,要引起跨国企业的注意,还得开出更大的罚单。2013年,这个目的达到了——发改委开启了针对外国制造商的第一起调查,随后的一系列反垄断调查席卷了奶粉、汽车零部件、豪华车以及半导体领域的外国制造商。Foreign firms accused of anti-competitive behaviour by the NDRC have generally been hit with much higher fines than their domestic counterparts. Qualcomm agreed to pay a Rmb6.1bn penalty in February, while Mercedes and Audi were fined Rmb350m and Rmb250m respectively.被发改委指控存在反竞争行为的那些外国公司最后收到的罚单金额,一般比被罚的国内企业高得多。今年2月,高通同意付61亿元人民币的罚款,而奔驰和奥迪(Audi)则被分别处以3.5亿和2.5亿元人民币的罚款。In all three instances, the fact the penalties could have been much worse has blunted some of the criticism that the NDRC has been deliberately targeting foreign companies — a charge the regulator has consistently denied.有人批评发改委在故意拿外国企业开刀,而在以上3个案例中,罚款金额原本都可能更高,这一事实缓和了部分这样的批评。发改委对这一批评始终予以否认。Qualcomm’s penalty could have required much more costly changes to its business model. The San Diego company’s shares actually rose on the news. Mercedes and Audi, meanwhile, were penalised for infractions in just one province each. In theory, they could have had to pay much more had NDRC’s investigators ferreted out wrongdoing in all of China’s 32 provinces, autonomous regions and directly administered municipalities.对高通的处罚原本可能包括要求其改变商业模式,那样的话代价要高昂得多。被罚的消息公布后,这家总部位于美国圣地亚哥的公司的股价事实上还上涨了。与此同时,奔驰和奥迪受到的处罚分别针对它们各自在仅一个省份的不法行为。理论上讲,如果发改委查出它们在中国内地全部的32个省、自治区和直辖市的不法行为,它们被处以的罚款可能会高得多。That suggests the NDRC’s investigations of multi#173;nationals, like the ones into domestic firms before them, were to a large degree motivated by the desire to send a wake-up call to the foreign investment community rather than secure maximum fines.这意味着,发改委对跨国企业的调查,很大程度上是出于想要敲打一下外企,而非想要获得尽可能高的罚金,正如发改委之前对国内企业的调查一样。So what next now that the NDRC has so effectively got its intended message across? Only one previously disclosed investigation has yet to be resolved — that involving Microsoft and the State Administration of Industry and Commerce, which also polices aspects of the 2010 Anti#173;Monopoly Law.既然发改委已经颇有成效地传达了其意图,那么接下来会发生什么?目前只有一个之前披露过的调查尚未有结果——该调查涉及微软(Microsoft)和中国国家工商行政管理总局(State Administration of Industry and Commerce,简称工商总局),后者也是反垄断执法机构。Mr Harris and his colleagues at Winston amp; Strawn — who represent both Qualcomm and Microsoft but said they could not comment on either case — are warning multinationals about a new set of SAIC guidelines that could force them to share intellectual property with their Chinese competitors. The rules, designed to “prohibit abuse of intellectual property rights to eliminate or restrict competition”, were promulgated early last month and take effect on August 1. Just as western regulators have occasionally forced operators of telecoms networks and electricity grids to share their “essential facilities” with competitors, the SAIC could compel “dominant” companies to share intellectual property when it constitutes “an essential facility of manufacturing and business operations”.温斯顿-斯特朗律师事务所的哈里斯及其同事们同时代理高通和微软,但是他们表示两起案件均无法置评。他们警告跨国企业称,中国工商总局的新一套指导方针可能会强迫它们将知识产权共享给中国竞争对手。《关于禁止滥用知识产权排除、限制竞争行为的规定》于上个月公布,将于8月1日生效。就像西方监管部门偶尔迫使电信网络和电力网络运营商与竞争者共享其“关键设施”一样,当这些知识产权构成“制造和商业运营的关键设施”时,中国工商总局可能会迫使“占主导地位的”企业把知识产权分享出来。If it were to do so, the SAIC would be following the EU in applying the essential facilities doctrine to intellectual property. But the EU has only forced companies to share intellectual property in a very small number of exceptional circumstances, while the US has refused to do so.若果真如此,中国工商总局将步欧盟(EU)后尘,将关键设施理论应用到知识产权上。但是,欧盟只是在极少数特殊情况下强迫企业共享知识产权,而美国则拒绝这么做。In a rare public comment on the new rules, one SAIC official has said the regulator will be “cautious” in applying them. For multinationals wary of being forced to transfer technology in China, the uncertainty is a worrying but useful reminder that the country’s anti-monopoly law is very much a work in progress. Very few if any of them took note of the implications for their own industries of the NDRC’s prosecutions of the domestic rice noodle and tableware cartels. It is a mistake that they should not make twice.在就新规发表的一次罕见公开中,中国工商总局一名官员称该部门将“谨慎”应用新规。对于担心在中国被强迫转让技术的跨国企业而言,这种不确定性是个令人担忧、也很有用的提醒,即中国的反垄断法很大程度上还是半成品。发改委起诉国内米粉和餐具消毒卡特尔的时候,跨国企业中很少(如果有的话)有哪家注意到了此事对它们自己所在行业的影响。这个错误它们不应再犯第二次。 /201505/376507

Apple Inc opposed a court ruling on Tuesday that ordered it to help the FBI break into an iPhone recovered from a San Bernardino shooter, heightening a dispute between tech companies and law enforcement over the limits of encryption.苹果公司上周二对联邦法院的一项裁决提出异议。法院裁决苹果应协助联邦调查局入侵圣贝纳迪诺击案凶犯的手机。这也使得这家科技公司和执法机构关于解密权的争论达到了白热化。A public letter, signed by Apple CEO Tim Cook and published Tuesday, warns that complying with the order would entail building ;a backdoor to the iPhone;. Such a move would threaten the security of Apple#39;s customers, it said.苹果CEO蒂姆·库克的一封署名公开信也于上周二发布,信中警告称,遵循这项指令将牵涉到为iPhone预留后门,此举将威胁苹果用户的安全。Earlier on Tuesday, Judge Sheri Pym of U.S. District Court in Los Angeles said that Apple must provide ;reasonable technical assistance; to investigators seeking to unlock the data on an iPhone 5C that had been owned by Syed Rizwan Farook.在周二的早些时候,洛杉矶地区法院法官雪莉·皮姆做出裁决,要求苹果公司必须向解锁赛义德·里兹万·法鲁克iPhone 5C手机数据的调查人员提供“合理的技术援助”。That assistance includes disabling the phone#39;s auto-erase function, which activates after 10 consecutive unsuccessful passcode attempts, and helping investigators to submit passcode guesses electronically.据悉,要求苹果公司提供的技术援助包括暂停“自动擦除”功能,允许调查人员通过电子手段提交猜测的密码等。“自动擦除”功能会在连续10次输入错误密码后激活。Syed Farook and his wife killed 14 people in the December shooting before both were killed by police. Investigators had obtained permission to retrieve data from the phone but had been unable to search the device as it had been locked with a user-generated numeric passcode.去年12月,赛义德·法鲁克夫妇二人制造的击案导致14人遇难,之后二人被警方击毙。调查人员已获准从凶犯手机检索数据,但由于手机被用户设定的数字密码锁住,他们无法检索设备。The FBI has been investigating the couple#39;s potential communications with Islamic State and other militant groups. ;Apple has the exclusive technical means which would assist the government in completing its search, but has declined to provide that assistance voluntarily,; prosecutors said. U.S. government officials have warned that the expanded use of strong encryption is hindering national security and criminal investigations.FBI正在调查这对夫妻是否和“伊斯兰国”以及其他武装组织有联系。检察官称:“苹果有独特的技术手段可以帮助政府完成搜查,但是苹果公司拒绝提供帮助。”美国政府官员已经对此发出警告称,高级加密的广泛使用已经妨碍了国家安全以及犯罪调查。In a letter to customers posted on Apple#39;s website, Cook said the FBI wanted the company ;to build a backdoor to the iPhone; by making a new version of the iPhone operating system that would circumvent several security features.在苹果官网公布的一封致用户公开信中,总裁库克表示,FBI要求公司为其建立“通向iPhone的后门”,具体做法是通过创建一个可绕过几项安全措施的新iPhone操作系统。 /201602/427466

  The co-founder of the famous Swatch watch says the Apple Watch could result in big losses for Swiss watchmakers. “Apple will succeed quickly,” Elmar Mock told Bloomberg. “It will put a lot of pressure on the traditional watch industry and jobs in Switzerland.”著名的斯沃琪手表的联合创始人艾尔玛o默克说,Apple Watch可能将导致瑞士钟表制造商遭受重创。他对彭社表示:“苹果公司很快就会取得成功,这将给瑞士的传统制表业带来巨大压力。”Mock said he believes the Apple could sell 20 million to 30 million Apple Watch units yearly. All told, Switzerland exported 28.6 million watches last year, according to Bloomberg. “Anything in the price range of 500 francs to 1,000 francs is really in danger,” Mock said. “I do expect an Ice Age coming toward us.”莫克表示,他认为苹果公司每年可以卖出2,000万至3,000万只Apple Watch。据彭社统计,去年瑞士腕表出口总量为2,860万只。默克称:“价格在500至1,000瑞士法郎的产品都将面临危险。我似乎看到一座冰山正迎面袭来。”The Apple Watch ranges in price from 9 for entry-level models to ,000 for the most expensive luxury version, Apple announced Monday. The Apple Watchwill begin shipping on April 24, with a preview and presale period starting April 10. Despite Mock’s estimates, it’s still unclear how many Apple Watch units the company will actually sell. Analysts’ guesses are ranging from 8 million on the low end to 41 million on the high end, with the sp owing to a lack of data about the still-embryonic smartwatch market.苹果公司在周一宣布,Apple Watch基本款的价格为349美元,最高档的版本售价为17,000美元。Apple Watch将于4月24日开卖,预售期从4月10日开始。尽管默克给出了这样的预测,但目前外界并不确定苹果公司将出售多少Apple Watch。分析师猜测Apple Watch的销量将达到800万至4,100万,之所以有如此大的差距,是因为目前处在萌芽状态的智能表市场并没有太多数据可供参考。Swatch, a Swiss company, was founded in 1983 and later gained worldwide recognition for its sometimes outlandish, highly colorful designs.瑞士腕表公司斯沃琪成立于1983年,之后凭借色丰富的奇特设计在全球腕表市场占据一席之地。 /201503/364396

  NAO, The Humanoid Robot Helps Students Master Handwriting Skills智能机器人指导书写Just a few weeks ago, NAO, the humanoid robot made headlines when it became Mitsubishi Bank#39;s first non-human employee. Now the cute 23-inch tall robot that weighs a mere 5.5 kilograms (12.7 pounds) is in the news again. This time around NAO is helping students develop good handwriting skills.就在几周前,NAO智能机器人成为三菱第一位非人类职员的消息备受热议。现在,这个高23英尺,重量只有5.5kg(12.8磅)的可爱机器人又再一次引起人们的注意。这次的新闻主要是有关NAO帮助学生矫正字体。What#39;s interesting about the NAO CoWriter is that it teaches kids while pretending to learn writing skills from them. The process begins with a student showing NAO alphabet magnets of the word they want it to write. The cute robot carefully studies the Quick Response (QR) codes assigned to each alphabet and then tries to write them on a digital tablet. The assignment is then handed to the ;teacher; who makes the appropriate corrections and returns it to the robot for a redo. NAO CoWriter tries again, using the corrections to improve. The duo continues until the ;teacher; is satisfied with his/her robot student#39;s penmanship. NAO CoWriter有趣的地方是通过模拟让孩子们纠正它的书写的方法来帮助孩子改进。首先,学生会展示给NAO他们想写单词的磁性的字母;随后,它会认真研究每个字母上的二维码,然后试着在平板上写出来。平板上的作业由“老师”批改后,再返还给机器人订正。NAO CoWriter这时会按照“老师”的批改再次拼写改正。这个过程会一直持续,直到“老师”满意机器人学生的书写为止。Researchers believe that this innovative role reversal not only improves the student#39;s handwriting skills but also helps boost his/her confidence. Of course, while NAO appears quite the novice learner to the students who range from six to eight years in age, the activity is carefully orchestrated. 研究者相信这种角色互换不仅能帮助学生改进书写,还能增加他们的信心。虽然,NAO比6-8岁的学生表现稍差一点,但整个演示过程还是比较和谐的。Unveiled on March 3rd at a Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI), held in Portland, Oregon, the NAO CoWriter is still in the prototype stage. While the classroom trials to test the long-term effectiveness of its mathematical algorithms were successful, there is still more to be done. In the upcoming summer months, further tests will be conducted to measure the robot#39;s success in the learning process and also to see if it is user-friendly enough to be incorporated into a daily classroom routine. If all goes well, NAO may become an even more frequent sight at schools around the world. Buckle up! School is about to get more exciting!NAO CoWriter在3月3日俄勒冈州波特兰举行的HRI大会上首次亮相,现在处于初始发展阶段。虽然在课堂上测试它算法的长期可行性进展比较顺利,对于在孩子学习过程中的有效性检测和是否能够用在日常教学中这两点,还有待进一步检测。如果一切顺利,NAO将在全球学校中广泛应用。所以,让我们对更加有趣的课堂拭目以待吧。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201509/394956。

  Two of China’s largest online companies have agreed to combine in what will be the country’s largest private market merger, with a potential valuation of as much as bn according to people familiar with the matter.中国两大互联网公司美团网(Meituan)和大众点评网(Dianping)同意合并。这宗合并将成为中国规模最大的非公开上市企业合并交易——知情人士称,潜在估值最高可达200亿美元。By coming together, Meituan.com and Dianping Holdings will dominate in China’s market for providing everything from movie tickets to discount restaurant coupons and home delivery of food.美团和大众点评合并后,将主宰中国很大一块市场,业务从电影票到餐厅折扣券和外卖送餐等等。Meituan, had about 52 per cent of the Rmb77bn (.1bn) online-to-offline services market in the first half of the year, according to researcher Analysys International, while restaurant review app Dianping accounted for about 30 per cent.研究机构易观国际(Analysys International)数据显示,今年上半年,中国“线上到线下”(O2O)务市场规模为770亿元人民币(合121亿美元),团购网站美团约占其中的52%,餐厅网站大众点评约占其中的30%。The combined group will pose a greater threat to other established players, notably search engine Baidu’s consumer services platform Nuomi. Baidu in June said it would invest Rmb20bn in its Groupon-like site in an effort to make it the number two player in the market by the end of the year.合并后的新公司将对其他既有同行构成更大威胁,特别是搜索引擎百度(Baidu)旗下的消费者务平台糯米网(Nuomi)。今年6月百度表示,将向糯米投资200亿元人民币,力图让其在今年年底前变成该市场排名第二的企业。With Meituan backed by ecommerce giant Alibaba and Dianping by social media and gaming group Tencent, the merger marks a decision to forgo a expensive price and subsidy war and focus on creating scale.美团的背后是电商巨头阿里巴巴(Alibaba),大众点评的背后是社交媒体和游戏集团腾讯(Tencent),此次合并标志着两家公司决定放弃代价高昂的价格与补贴战并关注于打造规模。Despite the differing sizes and valuations, the tie-up is being billed as one of equals. The two company heads will become co-chief executives of the new company, which will have two head offices, one in Beijing where Meituan is based and one in Shanghai, Dianping’s home.尽管两家公司规模和估值不同,但双方的合并被称为“对等合并”。两家公司的首席执行官将成为新公司的联席首席执行官,新公司将设立两个总部,一个是美团总部所在地北京,另一个是大众点评总部所在地上海。The deal will give existing management a significant share of the merged unit. Sequoia Capital Management, which has been an investor both in Meituan and Dianping in almost all of their financing rounds, will be a big beneficiary, along with other stakeholders including Alibaba and Tencent.这宗交易将让现有管理层在合并后的新公司中占据一大块股份。红杉资本(Sequoia Capital Management)在美团和大众点评两家公司的几乎所有融资回合中都有投资,该公司以及包括阿里巴巴和腾讯在内的其他股东将成为重大受益者。 /201510/402718

  

  The Earliest and Longest Man一made Canal一Jinghang Canal京杭大运河Jinghang Canal is called canal for short. It is known as the greatest chi-na ancient project with the Great Wall. Since being founded in 5th ten-tury,the canal has had two large-scale expeditions within Sui and Yuan two dynas-ties. Having the length of 1794 kilometers,15 times longer than Suez Canal and 32 times Panama Canal,Jinghang Canal is the main sea line combining the north and the south in our country.京杭大运河简称运河,与万里长城并列为中国古代最伟大的工程之一。始建于公元前5世纪,后经隋、元两次大规模扩建。全长1794千米,是苏伊士运河的16倍,巴拿马运河的33倍,是中国重要的一条南北水上干线。The canal begins from Beijing and ends in Hang Zhou crossing Tianjing,He-bei,Shangdong,Jiangshu and Zhejiang,linking not only Haihe River,the Yellow River but also Huaihe River and Yangtze River. So it is the second prime channel only following Yangtze River in China.它北起北京,南至杭州,经过北京、天津、河北、山东、江苏、浙江六省市,沟通了海河、黄河、淮河、长江、钱塘江五大水系,是中国仅次于长江的第二条“黄金水道”。Though the canal cannot be wholly open to navigation currently,its seasonal navigation length has reached 1100 kilometers,mainly distributed in the south of Huanghe River. It reduces the burden of railway goods transportation,especially for the short and middle distance transportation of coal and building material,mak-certain difference in promoting the district economic and enforcing the north-communication. The canal continues to play an important role in ocean ship-目前,大运河虽不能全程通航,但季节性通航里程已达1100千米,主要分布在黄河以南的山东、江苏和浙江三省。对分担铁路的货流,特别是承担煤炭、建材等的中短途运输任务,对发展地区经济,加强南北交流,起到了一定的作用。今天,大运河将继续发挥其重要的作用。The whole course of the Great Canal covers seven sections:the one from the city zone of Beijing to Tongxian County is called the Tonghui River, from Tonpxian County to Tianjin called the North Canal,from Tianjin to Linqing called the South Ca-nal,from Linqing to Tairzhuang called the Lu Canal,from Tairzhuang to Huaiyin called the Central Canal,from Huaiyin to Yangzhou called the Inner Canal,and across the Yangtze River the one from Zhenjiang to Hangzhou called the Jiangnan Canal.京杭大运河是由人工河道和部分河流、湖泊共同组成的,全程可分为七段:(1)通惠河:北京市区至通县(今北京通州区);(2)北运河:通县至人津市;(3)南运河:天津至临清;(4)鲁运河:临清至台儿庄;(5)中运河:台儿庄至清江;(6)里运河:清江至扬州,人长江;(7)江南运河:镇江至杭州。 /201512/410685Vaping may harm the lungs电子烟会损害你的肺You’ve seen them on television, in celebrity photos and in magazine ads — cool superstars vaping on electronic cigarettes. Their high-tech gadgets seem to be available everywhere, from shopping malls to the 24-hour convenience mart. Is it any wonder that teens are being tempted to try out the vaping craze?他们出现在电视上,在名人照片中,甚至在杂志广告上。一些明星在电子烟里吞云吐雾,这种高科技工具似乎在哪都可以买到个,从购物中心到24小时便利务店。但如果说现在很多青少年正被这种蒸汽烟引诱并为之狂热,那么你被惊到了吗?Yet scientists are disturbed by the fascination teens have with this nicotine-dispensing alternative to smoking. And with good reason. Data from a growing number of studies indicate that electronic cigarettes are not harmless.青少年对于这种含尼古丁可供选择的吸物尤为入迷。科学家对此表示很担忧,并且有充分的理由。越来越多的研究数据表明电子烟并不是无害的。Chemicals in e-cigarettes can damage lung tissue, provoking inflammation. That damage can reduce the ability of the lungs to keep out germs and other harmful substances, new studies show.电子烟中的化学成分会破坏肺组织,进而诱发炎。新研究表明这种破坏会降低肺阻止细菌及其他有害物质进入体内的能力。Evidence of vaping’s growing appeal can be seen everywhere — from urban storefronts (as here) to kiosks in suburban shopping malls.从城市的贸易商铺到郊区购物中心的小报摊,电子烟逐渐增加的吸引力随处可见,有据可循。Yet teens seem largely unaware of — or unconcerned by — the emerging data on these risks. Their use of e-cigarettes has now surpassed that of conventional cigarettes. In the past year alone, e-cigarette use by U.S. middle-school and high-school teens has tripled. That’s the finding of a new government survey released last month.但是青少年对这些逐渐浮出水面的危险数据并没有意识,或者说他们不是很关心。他们现在使用的电子烟的数量已经超过了传统烟。仅在过去的一年中,美国初中或高中青少年里使用电子烟的数量就已翻了3倍。这是上个月一项政府新调查发现的数据。Mitch Zeller directs the Center for Tobacco Products in Silver Spring, Md. It’s part of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. “I can say definitively,” Zeller says, “that nicotine is harmful to the developing teenage brain. And no teenager, no young person, should be using any tobacco or nicotine-containing products.” These include e-cigarettes, he adds.Mitch Zeller对马里兰州银泉市烟草产品中心进行指导,该中心是美国食品和药品的一部分。“我可以很肯定地说,尼古丁对青少年的脑部发育有很大危害”,他表示,“因此,无论是青少年还是未成年人都不应该再继续适用任何含尼古丁产品,其中包括电子烟”,他补充道。译文属 /201506/378290

  

  

  

  Airlines are toughening up cockpit rules after French prosecutors accused the co-pilot of the Germanwings airliner that crashed in the Alps of wanting to “destroy the plane” when he was left alone on the flightdeck.法国检察机关对坠毁于阿尔卑斯山区的德国之翼(Germanwings)客机的副驾驶提出指控,称当他独自留在驾驶舱时想要“摧毁这架飞机”,随后各家航空公司纷纷修改驾驶舱规则,使其更为严格。EasyJet, Norwegian, Monarch, Emirates and Air Canada were among those who introduced new procedures to require two people in the cockpit at all times. EasyJet said it had taken the decision after consultation with the UK’s civil Aviation Authority.易捷航空(easyJet)、挪威航空(Norwegian)、君主航空(Monarch)、阿联酋航空(Emirates)以及加拿大航空(Air Canada)都出台了新规程,要求驾驶舱内任何时间都要有两人在场。易捷航空表示在咨询英国民航(Civil Aviation Authority,简称:CAA)后,作出了这一决定。The CAA has written to all UK carriers to ask what procedures they have in place for when one of the pilots leaves the flightdeck.英国民航已致函英国所有航空公司,询问当一名飞行员离开驾驶舱时,它们有何操作规程。Richard Taylor, CAA spokesman, said it was “very possible” that airlines could soon be required to have a member of the cabin crew stay in the cockpit if a pilot left for a break, as is the norm in the US.英国民航发言人理查德#8226;泰勒(Richard Taylor)表示,航空公司“非常可能”很快就会收到命令,要求当一名飞行员离开驾驶舱去休息时,必须有一名乘务员留在驾驶舱里,这在美国已是常规。The pre-emptive moves by the world’s airlines come as public concern over aviation safety mounts in the wake of the Germanwings crash, which killed all 150 people on board.德国之翼客机坠毁事故发生后,公众对航空安全的关注剧增,这些航空公司抢先采取了行动。此次坠机造成机上150人全部遇难。Brice Robin, the Marseille prosecutor, said that based on the cockpit voice recordings there was no explanation for why the co-pilot — whom he named as German national Andreas Lubitz, 27 — behaved as he did.法国检察官布里塞#8226;罗班(Brice Robin)表示,根据驾驶舱语音记录无法解释副驾驶的行为。这名副驾驶名为安德烈亚斯#8226;卢比茨(Andreas Lubitz),德国人,今年27岁。“He pressed this button [to begin the descent] for a reason we still don’t know why,” Mr Robin said. “All we hear is his breathing and it is normal breathing. He didn’t say a single word after the pilot left the cockpit.”罗班说:“他按下按钮(让飞机开始下降),我们仍不知道原因为何。我们只听到他的呼吸声,他的呼吸很正常。另一个飞行员离开驾驶舱后他没说一个字。”“When you have 150 people with you, I wouldn’t call it a suicide. That is why I am not using this word,” he told a press conference.罗班在记者会上说:“当连你在内一共有150人时,我不会称之为自杀。这就是为什么我不用这个词。”Mr Robin said the passengers were probably not aware of what was going on during the eight-minute descent until shortly before the impact, at which point the Airbus A320 was travelling at 700kph (435mph).罗班表示,在飞机下降的8分钟里乘客们可能不知道发生了什么事,他们可能直到飞机撞山前一刻才意识到这一悲剧,此时这架空客A320的飞行速度为700千米/时(435英里/时)。“On the recording you only hear the screams in the last moments,” he said. “The Airbus A320 is rather a big plane. The passengers aren’t next to where the cockpit is, so we only hear screams at the very end. Death was instant.”他说:“在录音里,只有在最后时刻才听到尖叫声。这架空客A320是一架相当大的飞机。乘客座位不挨着驾驶舱,因此我们只在悲剧快要发生的那一刻才听到惨叫声,机上人员瞬间遇难。”Thomas de Maizière, Germany’s interior minister, said that Lubitz had no known links to terrorism. Speaking to reporters in Berlin, Mr de Maizière said: “There is no evidence of any kind of terrorist background. We checked everything.”德国内政部长托马斯#8226;德#8226;迈齐埃(Thomas de Maizière)表示,卢比茨与恐怖主义不存在已知联系。德#8226;迈齐埃在柏林对记者表示:“没有据表明此次事故存在任何恐怖主义背景。我们调查了一切。”Carsten Spohr, chief executive of Germanwings’ parent company Lufthansa, said there was nothing in the record of Mr Lubitz, who started working for the airline as a flight attendant, to raise concern.德国之翼的母公司汉莎航空(Lufthansa)的首席执行官卡斯滕#8226;施波尔(Carsten Spohr)表示,卢比茨没有任何值得关注的异常记录,他是从这家航空公司的乘务员开始做起的。“He was fit for flying without any restrictions,” Mr Spohr he told a press conference. “His performance was without criticism. Nothing was striking.”施波尔在记者会上说:“卢比茨适合所有飞行,毫无限制。他的过往表现无可挑剔,没什么惊人之举。” /201504/367517

  Financial technology start-ups are creating new models of lending. They mine streams of digital data with clever software to calculate creditworthiness instead of relying on a person’s credit history, the main ingredient in traditional credit scoring.一些面向金融领域的科技初创公司正在推出新的贷款模式。它们用智能软件挖掘电子数据流来计算信誉,而不是像传统的信用评分那样,以个人的信用记录为基础。So far, the new breed of big data lenders has focused on niche markets — recent college graduates, immigrants and payday borrowers — where people often have scant or inconsistent repayment records, and the conventional math of risk analysis stumbles.目前已经有一帮新生的“大数据放款机构”专注于在利基市场上——刚毕业的大学生、移民和发薪日借款人。这类人的还款记录往往很少,或者不连贯,使用传统的风险分析数学手段效果不佳。ZestFinance, a pioneer in the field, is moving into a huge market where credit histories are scarce: China.ZestFinance是这个领域的先驱之一,目前正步入一个信用记录稀少的庞大市场:中国。ZestFinance and JD.com, a Chinese online retail giant, are announcing a joint venture to provide a consumer credit scoring service in China. The venture, JD-ZestFinance Gaia, will initially be used to assess credit risk and offer installment loans for purchases on JD.com, which has 100 million active customers and generates yearly revenue of billion. The venture intends to eventually offer the credit-analysis service to corporate customers throughout China.ZestFinance和中国网络零售巨头京东宣布成立一家合资公司,在中国市场上提供消费者信贷评分务。京东拥有1亿活跃用户,年营收达200亿美元。这家合资企业名为JD-ZestFinance Gaia,最初将为京东上的分期贷款购物行为评估信贷风险。公司打算最终为中国各地的企业客户提供信用分析务。JD.com is also making a minority investment in ZestFinance, though the companies would not disclose the size of the investment or the valuation of the start-up.京东还对ZestFinance进行了少数股权投资,不过双方没有透露投资规模或是ZestFinance的估值。“This is a great validation that what we’ve built works,” said Douglas C. Merrill, founder and chief executive of ZestFinance.“这是对我们的巨大认可,明我们的方法是行得通的,”ZestFinance的创始人兼首席执行官道格拉斯·C·梅里尔(Douglas C. Merrill)说。There is a lot of enthusiasm for the data science approach to credit analysis, and venture funding is flowing into this emerging field. The promise is that high-tech tools can give greater depth and detail to the basic principle of banking: know your customer. Start-ups in the field, beside ZestFinance, include Affirm, Earnest, Elevate and LendUp.人们对于用数据科学的方法来进行信用分析热情高涨,风险资本也正在流入这个新兴的领域。业的基本原则是了解客户,而高科技工具有望为此提供更深层次的剖析和更多的细节。除了ZestFinance之外,该领域的初创公司还有Affirm、Earnest、Elevate和LendUp。The start-ups’ methods vary, as do the data sources they tap. But their algorithms sift through data that can include a person’s social-network connections, web-browsing habits, how they fill out online forms and their online purchases.这些初创公司的方法各异,利用的数据源也不尽相同。不过,它们用来筛选数据的算法可能会涵盖个人在社交网络上的关系、浏览网页的习惯、填写网上表格的方式,以及网上购物的偏好。The software looks for patterns and correlations: digital signals that help assess an individual’s willingness and ability to repay. The picture that emerges from the data, enthusiasts say, should result in more accurate risk analysis, thus opening the door to extending consumer credit to millions more people at lower cost.这种软件寻找的是模式与相关性,即有助于评估一个人的偿还意愿和能力的数字信号。追捧者认为,数据勾勒出来的面貌,应该可以让风险分析变得更加精准,因此有助于以更低的成本把消费者信贷提供给额外的人,而其中涉及的人数成百上千万。Yet public policy experts say the enthusiasm for the new lending models is outrunning the evidence. The accuracy and fairness of big data credit technology is unproven, said Aaron Rieke, a former lawyer for the Federal Trade Commission and director of technology projects for Upturn, a policy consulting firm. Mr. Rieke was a co-author of a report last year, supported by the Ford Foundation, that cited ZestFinance as a prime example of big data underwriting, which deploys “fringe alternative scoring models.”然而,一些公共政策专家认为,人们对贷款新模式的热情跑在了据的前面。阿隆·里克(Aaron Riek)称,大数据信用技术的准确性和公正性尚未经过实。里克曾在联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission)任律师,目前是政策咨询公司Upturn的技术项目总监,去年参与撰写了福特基金会(Ford Foundation)赞助的一份报告。该报告将ZestFinance称为大数据贷款审批领域的一个典型,采用“非主流的替代性信用评分模型”。But JD.com sought out ZestFinance, tested its technology and came away impressed. Last fall, Chen Shengqiang, chief executive of the Chinese company’s finance unit, visited the ZestFinance offices in Los Angeles and spoke to Mr. Merrill and members of his team. Soon after, Mr. Merrill traveled to the Chinese company’s headquarters in Beijing to work on setting up a test of ZestFinance’s technology, working with JD.com data.但是京东找到了ZestFinance,测试了它的技术,并对它印象深刻。去年秋天,京东金融集团的首席执行官陈胜强参观了ZestFinance位于洛杉矶的办公室,并与梅里尔及其团队的成员进行交谈。不久后,梅里尔前往北京的京东总部,用该公司的数据对ZestFinance的技术进行了一次测试。ZestFinance, founded in 2009, began making loans itself and underwriting loans made by lending partners in 2010. In the ed States, ZestFinance has focused its risk analysis on installment loans that are a lower-cost alternative to payday loans. Those borrowers are in the subprime market, and typically have experienced a credit setback in the past, like a personal bankruptcy.ZestFinance成立于2009年,从2010年开始自己为客户提供贷款,并审批合作伙伴的贷款。在美国,ZestFinance一直专注在分期贷款的风险分析上。对于发薪日贷款,分期贷款是一个成本较低的选择。其借款人来自次级贷款市场,通常以前都在信用上遭遇过问题,比如个人破产。In China, JD.com had a very different assignment for ZestFinance, using different data sources than in America. Only 20 percent of Chinese adults have a credit score, and they often are given credit through the People’s Bank of China, the nation’s central bank, and through affiliations with large state-owned corporations.在中国,京东交给ZestFinance的任务则大不相同,而且使用的数据源也有异于美国。在中国成年人中,只有20%拥有信用评分。他们获得信用的途径往往是通过央行中国人民,或是与大型国有企业之间的关系。Across the broader population, lending tends to be more personal and informal — cash loans from networks of friends and relatives.在更多的中国民众那里,贷款往往具有更加个人化的非正式性质——从亲戚朋友那里借钱。But China’s leaders are seeking to stimulate consumer spending to make its economy less dependent on industrial exports. Expanding consumer credit is part of the formula, and the government is allowing private companies, like JD.com, to innovate.但是中国领导层正在努力刺激消费,以使中国经济减轻对工业出口的依赖。扩大消费信贷是整个策略的一部分,政府准许如京东这样的私营企业在这一领域进行创新。Since early 2014, JD.com had been offering its own consumer loans of up to a few thousand dollars for purchases of televisions, smartphones, computers, refrigerators and other merchandise. JD.com’s business model is sometimes compared to a combination of Amazon and UPS.自2014年初开始,京东一直给它的用户提供贷款(最高达几千美元)用以购买电视、智能手机、电脑、冰箱和其他商品。京东的商业模式有时被比作亚马逊(Amazon)加UPS。Like Amazon, the company buys goods from manufacturers and has a national network of distribution centers and warehouses. It also has its own fleet of delivery vans. JD.com handles more than two million orders a day, and offers next-day delivery in much of China. It is a full-service online retailer, unlike its better-known rival, Alibaba, whose marketplace connects buyers and sellers.和亚马逊一样,京东也是从制造商那里进货,并建设了全国性的物流和仓储网络。此外,它还有自己的厢式送货车配送队伍。京东的日均交易处理量达200多万单,在中国大部分地区可实现下单次日送达。与它更为知名的对手阿里巴巴(其业务领域是作为一个平台,在买家和卖家之间搭桥)不同,京东是一个提供全方位务的在线零售商。In its test run for the Chinese company, ZestFinance built risk models using JD.com transaction data: what people buy, when they buy it, what brands they choose, where they live and other nuggets of information in the sales data.在为其中国公司进行测试时,ZestFinance利用京东的交易数据——包括人们买什么、何时买、选什么品牌、住在哪里,及交易数据中其他有价值的信息——建立了风险模型。“There’s signals in there,” Mr. Merrill said. “But what would seem like simple signals can actually be very complex.”“这些数据里有一些信号,”梅里尔说道。“但那些看起来简单的信号,实际上可能非常复杂。”For example, one might expect that a person purchasing a lot of luxury goods online is a good credit risk. But Mr. Merrill said that often is not the case. It could be a sign of reckless overspending or even fraud, he said, when linked with other data.比如,人们可能觉得在网上买很多奢侈品的人信用风险小。但梅里尔表示,情况往往并非如此。他说,跟其他数据联系起来看,这可能意味着不计后果地过度消费,甚至可能是欺诈。If a person is making purchases during the day, that could be a signal that the buyer is unemployed. But, Mr. Merrill said, if the purchases are made during the midday lunchtime, from an office computer, it could well be a sign of a hard-working employee squeezing in time to buy necessities.如果一个人是在白天时间买东西,可能表示这个买家没有工作。但如果交易是在午餐时间发生,而且是在办公电脑上进行,梅里尔说,那就很可能代表这是一个勤奋的员工在挤时间买必需品。In its test, the creditworthiness predictions made by ZestFinance were compared to the results of JD.com’s experience making loans, which was essentially the control group. The ZestFinance algorithms won handily.在测试中,ZestFinance所作的资信预测,与京东自身放贷的结果作了对比,后者实质上就是对照组。ZestFinance的算法轻松胜出。The Chinese online retailer, said Josh Gartner, senior director for international communications for JD.com, hopes to “greatly improve the efficiency of deciding who should be offered credit or not.”京东国际公关高级总监约什·加德纳(Josh Gartner)表示,京东希望能“大大提高其贷款决策的效率”。Data science methods, Mr. Gartner added, can fill a gap “where traditional metrics tend to be less useful, and China would obviously be one of those places.”加德纳补充道,数据科学的方法可以在“传统衡量方法表现欠佳的地方”填补一个空白,“中国显然就是一个这样的地方”。In a statement, Mr. Chen pointed to the potential value of the joint venture beyond JD.com itself. He called the link-up with ZestFinance “a foundational step toward building a reliable system for assessing credit risk that will help meet the huge market need.”陈胜强在一份声明中指出了这一合资公司在京东之外的潜在价值。他将京东和ZestFinance的联合描述为“在建立可靠的信用风险评估系统,从而满足广阔的市场需求方面,是基础性的一步。” /201507/383706

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