富阳皮肤病专科医院人流乐视社区

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原标题: 富阳皮肤病专科医院人流69时讯
Science and technology科学技术R D in America美国研发战略Bad medicine医学受阻Cutting American health research will harm the world美国削减医药研究经费,影响波及整个地球BARACK OBAMA, in his state-of-the-union speech on February 12th, called for a new era of scientific discovery.2月12日,巴拉克·奥巴马在国情咨文演讲中号召人民开启科研成果新纪元。Now is the time to reach a level of research and development not seen since the height of the space race, he declared.他宣布:自太空竞赛取胜以来,我们始终未能将科技研发推向一个新高度,现在是时候了。He praised projects to map the human brain and accelerate regenerative medicine.他还表扬了大脑活动图谱绘制工程和再生医学提速项目。This would mean spending more on research.这意味着他打算在科研上投入更多的经费。As The Economist went to press, Americas government was about to do the opposite.本期《经济学人》付印时,美国政府正欲背道而驰。Federal spending is due to be cut on March 1st, the result of a long brawl over the deficit.赤字当前,各政客长期意见不合,导致联邦自动减于3月1日强制启动。Complex politics triggered this sequester but the sequester itself is brutally simple.政局复杂导致了财政封存,但是财政封存却简单得要命。America will cut 85 billion from this years budget, split between military and non-military programmes.美国将在本年度预算中削减850亿美元,由军事开和非军事开共同分担。Among the areas to be squeezed is Ramp;D, and medical research in particular.研发项目开也将被削减,而医学研究首当其冲。For years America has enjoyed pre-eminence in research, but this is fading.美国历年都在科研方面独占鳌头,但现在她龙头的光环越来越小。Chinese investment more than quintupled from 2000 to 2010, to 160 billion, in 2005 prices.以2005年价格核算,2010年中国的研发投资是2000年的5倍多,达1600亿美元;Americas RD spending rose by just 22% over that period, according to the OECD.而据经济合作与发展组织称,同期美国只增加了22%。Research also makes up a smaller portion of Americas economy than some other countries.同时,研究经费在美国经济中所占的比例比其他一些国家都要小。In a ranking of RD spending as a share of GDP, America came tenth in 2011.A decade earlier it was sixth.在2011年研发开占GDP比例上,美国排名第十,而十年前,美国位居第六。Nevertheless, America remains the worlds biggest engine for innovation.然而,美国仍然是全球最大的创新引擎。It spent 366 billion on research in 2011, compared with 275 billion by all 27 countries of the European Union.2011年,美国在科研上投入了3660亿美元,而27个欧盟国家的总投入仅有2750亿美元。Despite Chinas rapid ascent, America still spends more than twice as much on Ramp;D. Subsidies help.虽然中国涨势迅猛,美国在研发上的开仍比中国高出1倍以上。Americas government pays for about one-third of all domestic research and for most basic science.这少不了补贴的功劳。美国政府承担国内三分之一左右的研究经费及多数基础科学费用。Medicine is one of the main beneficiaries.医学研究成了补贴的主要受益对象。Americas National Institutes of Health is the worlds biggest funder of biomedical research.美国国家卫生研究所是世界最大的生物医学研究投资方。It pays for risky basic science; companies pay for later stages of development.对于成功率较低的基础科学,开始阶段的研究由研究会买单,而后阶段的开发则由各大公司付。For example, the NIH supported early research into monoclonal antibodies.比如,NIH付了单克隆抗体早期的研发费用。By 2010 such research underpinned five of Americas 20 bestselling drugs.截至2010年,美国最畅销的20种药物中,有5种来自于这种方式。As drug firms trim their budgets, the NIHs work is becoming even more vital.药物公司的预算减少,NIH的作用就更加重要了。But since 2003, inflation-adjusted spending on medical research has declined.然而,由于通胀所迫,医学研究经费自2003年起也有所下降。With the sequester public investment will shrink further.由于财政封存,国家投资将进一步减少。Americas total outlay on RD will drop by 8.7 billion this year, according to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.据美国科学发展协会称,今年美国在研发上的总出会减少87亿美元。Francis Collins, the NIHs director, says that his organisation will spend 1.6 billion less in 2013—a cut of 5.1%—and 16 billion less over the next decade.NIH所长弗朗西斯?柯林斯说,今年,NIH的开也会缩减16亿美元,减少约5.1%。在未来十年内,将减少160亿美元;Hundreds of grants will not be awarded.数百项项目经费也将取消。Existing grantees will receive only 90% of the cash promised to them.已申请成功的人士也只能拿到约定经费总额的九成。These cuts will speed the erosion of American supremacy in research.美国在研究领域的龙头地位已经不保,以上各项开削减进一步加快了其下滑速度。In December Battelle, a research group, predicted that China would surpass Americas spending by 2023.去年12月,巴特尔研究中心预测,中国的科研经费将在2023年赶超美国。Thanks to the sequester, that date may come earlier.拜财政封存所赐,这天将来得更早了。But the real problem is absolute, not relative, and affects the whole world, not just America.然而,真正的问题在于,美国不仅会在研发开排名上下滑,也无疑将在研发进展上落后。这不仅会减缓美国发展,且影响会波及全世界。RD is a rare type of public spending that stimulates growth.能刺激经济增长的国家投资不多,研发就是其中之一。Knowledge is cumulative, easy to share and generates benefits that spill rapidly across borders.知识是可积累的,便于分享,而且还可以带来效益、造福各界。Dr Collins says that cuts to the NIH will slow work on Alzheimers disease, a universal flu vaccine and cancer therapies, to name just a few.柯林斯士说,削减NIH出,会减缓多种研究的进程,比如老年痴呆症、通用流感疫苗和抗癌疗法。 /201309/257663

Books and Arts; Book Review;The young and the restless;文艺;书评;年轻与焦躁;British and American fiction gets off to a promising start in 2010;2010年英美小说闪亮开篇;The Unnamed. By Joshua Ferris.《莫名》,作者约书亚·费里斯。VLADIMIR NABOKOV, who liked to observe other people, once declared that “professional book reviewers are veritable bookmakers”. They gleefully declare whos in, whos out, and ask: “Where are the snows of yesteryear?” Hot young novelists, many believe, are meant to follow a predictable script. First, burst onto the scene with some bold, voice-of-the-generation debut—preferably with a comely author photo. Then, years later, deliver to the expectant public a sophomore effort that is, alas, disappointing. Critics favour lamenting squandered promise to praising yet another fine book from someone with unlined skin.喜欢他人的费拉迪米尔·纳科夫曾经宣称“专业书评家是名副其实的庄家”,他们兴致勃勃地宣布谁是入时的,谁是落伍的,并问出“去年的雪在哪里?”这样的问题。许多走红的青年小说家都被认为是循着老套的模子走出来的。首先,在文艺界以大胆表露情感,代表时代之声的形象如惊雷般亮相出场——最好再有着英俊的长相。接着,在数年之后向期待中的大众呈上他一个黄毛小子呕心沥血的成果,然而,却只不过是令人失望的作品。批评家们倒也热衷于哀叹对于某位青年才俊又一部好作品尽溢美之词的许诺又无法兑现了。Not all writers oblige. Occasionally, a well-known name, such as Peter Carey, an Australian, will go through a fallow period only to enjoy a return to form (see article); a rare few, having written a debut of note, then go on to pen an even better second book.并非所有作家都是被迫写作的。间或也有像澳大利亚著名作家皮特·凯里这样的人,他将休笔一段时间,而这仅仅是为了调整自己的状态;极少有作家在完成一部佳作后还会继续创作另一部超越性的作品。Joshua Ferris became an international success in 2007 with “Then We Came to the End”, a smart and breezy satire of office life in an advertising firm. Told in the collective first person, it was a stylish rendering of workplace ambivalence in the wake of the dotcom bust. (“We were delighted to have jobs. We bitched about them constantly.”) It wasnt perfect, but it was fresh, with pages that turned freely and unpretentiously. At 32, Mr Ferris—gracious, photogenic, based in Brooklyn—was anointed a writer to watch.约书亚·费里斯在2007年因《当我们来到尽头》一书而享誉世界。在这本书中,他用富有智慧的语言及轻松愉快的笔调嘲讽了一个广告公司的办公室生活。全书用第一人称的口吻,生动的描述了在网络经济崩溃中觉醒的人们在工作场所的矛盾心理(我们为有一份工作而感到高兴,然而也时常抱怨)。这部作品并不完美,但体裁新颖,文风自在狂妄。在费里斯先生32岁的时候,他居住在布鲁克林,和蔼,上镜,就像上帝为我们挑选的作家。Readers have not had long to wait for “The Unnamed”, his second novel. Anyone keen on another comedy of manners will be disappointed. So too will those who hoped to write off Mr Ferris as a victim of literary hype.他的第二本书《莫名》并没有让读者们等太久。但那些期待着又一部风尚喜剧的人将会大失所望,同样会失望的还有那些希望费里斯先生被扼杀在文学炒作中的人。From the opening page, he makes it plain that this is a very different book. “It was the cruellest winter. The winds were rabid off the rivers. Ice came down like poisoned darts…They were waiting for him. They didnt know they were waiting for him.” The novel seizes ers by the lapels with a story that feels serious and mysterious. Tim Farnsworth, a successful Manhattan lawyer in his 40s, returns home one night and declares to his wife, Jane, “Its back.” Whats back? A strange, unknown disease—one that compels the hero to walk helplessly, incessantly, until he drops from exhaustion. After a reprieve, Tim is once again a victim of his wayward body, “the frightened soul inside the runaway train of mindless matter, peering out from the conductors car in horror.”在第一页作者就向我们展示了这本书的与众不同。“这是一个严酷的冬天。狂风卷过河面,冰屑像浸了毒的飞镖落下……他们正等着他。然而他们却并不知道。”小说开篇就用一种紧张神秘的气息抓住了读者。40多岁的缇姆·法恩斯沃思是曼哈顿有名的律师,一天晚上他回到家郑重地告诉妻子简说:“它又来了。”什么又来了?那是一种奇怪的不为人知的疾病——它让我们的主人公无助、不停地行走,直到精疲力竭。短暂的间歇之后,缇姆又会成为他失控身体的受害者,“他的躯体就像无缘由失控的列车,他的灵魂惊恐的向这车外望着。”Tim is otherwise “horse-healthy” and content, a self-assured workaholic, devoted husband and father to a teenage daughter. But in a flash he is uncontrollably off, leaving his wife to find him passed out in a municipal parking place, a hospital or behind some chemists shop in the middle of the night. “Was she up for this?” Jane asks herself. These spells last for months at a time, and caring for him is a full-time job. But Jane has no choice: he could die out there. So she s survivalist manuals, prepares his pack (a first-aid kit, snacks, GPS, a poncho—to carry at all times), and then waits for the call to pick him up. The only alternative is to tie him to the bed and ignore his screams.缇姆原本是一个健康,满足,自信的人,他醉心于工作,是一个衷心的丈夫,一个十几岁女孩的父亲。但是突然间他无法控制的想要走路,他的妻子三更半夜找到他时他出没在政府的停车场,医院,或者在一些药店的后面。“我要这么做吗?”简问自己。缇姆的病每次发作长达几个月,照顾他成了简的全职工作。但是简没有选择:他这样下去会死的。于是她阅读生存手册,为缇姆准备背包(一套急救装备,零食,全球定位系统,一件斗篷——时刻都带在缇姆身边),然后等电话去接他。除此之外就只能把他绑在床上,任由他叫喊了。Doctors around the world have no idea what the problem is. Tim, alone in his mutinous body, is left wondering whether the trouble is in his head. Readers wonder about this too. Here Mr Ferris achieves a clever balance: Tim behaves strangely, but isnt that natural for anyone who loses the life he understood? Isnt madness inevitable when suffering from something no one can explain? A subplot about a murder trial, which yields a haunting exchange between Tim and a possible suspect on a bridge at night, raises more questions about his mental stability. Yet Jane stops speculating that her husband might be crazy after she goes through the menopause. She could only imagine how infuriating it would be if a doctor insisted her hot flushes were “all in her head”.所有的医生都束手无策。缇姆的灵魂独自留在他失控的身体里,思考着是否他的大脑真的出了问题;读者们也在思考。在这里作者费里斯先生很高明的设置了两个难以抉择的判断:缇姆的行为是怪异的,但当一个人失去了他所能理解的生活时这不又是正常的吗?小说中有一个关于一起谋杀案的审判的次要情节,在审判过程中,缇姆在一个晚上同本案的嫌疑犯在一座桥上进行了一场令他难忘的交易,这也使他的精神状况越发不稳定。而此时简在经过她的更年期后也不再猜测丈夫可能患上了精神病。她能想象的到如果医生坚持说她的潮红症状都是她想出来的那将会是一件多么令人恼怒的事情。Mr Ferris keeps his prose direct and uncluttered, with only occasional flourishes (Tims feet “were like two engorged and squishy hearts”; a diners “fluorescent brutality” is “the national colour of insomnia and transience”). His fondness for his characters sometimes veers towards the sentimental. Still, he exercises a mature writers restraint, content to leave questions unanswered. He also has a fine ear for speech, and a good sense of what feels real, even when chronicling the surreal.费里斯先生的散文依旧简洁明快,偶尔也会迸发出奇特的灵感(缇姆的双脚“就像两颗饱满、湿软的心脏”;一位用餐者的“野蛮行为散发的荧光”是“失眠症和暂时性的名族色”)。他热爱自己笔下的人物,但不见得完全受感情的配,他依旧会运用成熟作家的控制力,遗留一些未给出的问题。他还可以清醒地聆听演讲,对真实的事物有着良好的感受力,即使是在将超现实的事情载入编年史的时候。Mr Ferris insists that “The Unnamed” is not a work of magical realism, but of “realist magic”. By inventing an incurable disease, he can meditate on its impact—on a marriage, on a career, on a characters self-esteem—without dragging in the baggage of a familiar illness. This also amplifies the horror, leaving ers just as perplexed about what is afflicting Tim. Is this a physical or mental problem? Can a line be drawn between the two? In the last third of the book, Tim gives himself over to his need to walk. Raving and deteriorating, he lets his legs take him across the country, living a hobos life without possessions or attachments (“To own something was to keep it on his back or risk losing it forever”). Yet Tims dilemmas still feel real and his needs sympathetic. How does he go on? How does anyone?费里斯先生坚持《莫名》并不是一部“魔幻现实主义”的作品,而是一部“现实魔幻小说”。他能够通过创造一种难以治愈的疾病来思考它对于婚姻,事业或者主人公自尊心的影响——而不是通过某种司空见惯的疾病。也正是这样,小说又加深了它带来的恐惧感,使读者对缇姆痛苦的原因困惑不解,到底是生理的还是心理的问题呢?这两者之间能不能画出一条分界线?在小说后三分之一的部分,缇姆放弃了一切去满足自己行走的需要。他任由自己的双腿穿越整个国家,咆哮着,病情不断恶化,他过上了流浪者的生活,没有财产,没有携带任何附属装置(“拥有某物就是一直将他背在背上或者冒着永远失去它的危险”)。但缇姆的困境始终可以被真实的感知,并且他需要人们的同情。他会怎么样?其他人呢?This is a story about a man with a walking problem, but it is also a larger tale about struggling with uncertainty. Scattered throughout the novel are some odd events: blizzards, floods, fires, dying bees. Mr Ferris is reminding us of how little we know about the world we live in, and how little we know about ourselves within it, and yet we persist. This is not to say that Tims walking is some clunky metaphor. Mr Ferris is wise enough not to teach a lesson. Rather, he has teased ordinary circumstances into something extraordinary, which is exactly what we want our fiction writers to do.这是一个关于行走强迫症患者的故事,更是一部描述了于不确定中的挣扎的作品。小说中充斥着古怪的事件:暴风雪、洪水、大火、垂死的蜜蜂。费里斯先生让我们意识到我们对于我们生存之世界及我们自己是多么的不了解,然而我们仍旧存在。这并不是说缇姆的行路癖是一个拙劣的隐喻,菲尔斯先生有足够的智慧使他的作品不流于说教。相反地,他把一些平常的事件夸大并进行了嘲讽,而这也正是我们期待着作家做的。 /201305/238397Is marijuanna legal in Norway?Uh...no...在挪威吸大麻是合法的吗 开什么玩笑当然不是的The fun fact is that marijuanna you know is actualy called ,in Norwegian,is the Norwegian word for fox.不过有趣的是大麻 在挪威语里也被称为狐狸So if you take like a smoke thats called taking a fox actually. yeah,taking a fox.所以如果你抽一口大麻 也可以叫做抽一口狐狸 是的 抽一口狐狸Now it makes sense. Now make sense. Now it all makes sense.现在说得通了 说得通了 终于能说得通了Youve answered my question. yeah, alright,so I would like to know what the fox says.你们解答了我的疑惑 是啊 我很想知道狐狸到底是怎么叫的I would like to sing with you if thats okay.如果可以我想和你们一块儿唱This would be like the biggest joy in the world.那一定乐翻天了Do you know...do you know the lyrics?你记得歌词吗I do. do you know how to do it?我记得 你知道要怎么唱吗I dont know how to pronouce them exactly.我不太知道具体要怎么发音Most people they the lyrics and they go like ringeringedingeding大多数人看到歌词都是这样唱的 仍个叮个叮个叮But you have to...you know, if you gonna perform you really have to put a lot of...hows it go? Its like...但是如果要表演的话 需要注意许多细节 该怎么唱 像这样Ring-ding-ding-ding-dingeringeding.Gering--ding-ding-ding-dingeringeding仍顶顶顶叮个叮个叮 咯仍顶顶顶叮个叮个叮Ring--ding-ding-ding-dingeringeding. No,not the ring...咯仍顶顶顶叮个叮个叮 不 不是ringNo,you have to use then. You know.Yeah,thats good. Thats better.你必须发后鼻音‘n’ 你懂的 唱的不错 好多了All right. And the second is...Wa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pow很好 然后是 哗啪啪啪啪啪咆Wa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pa-pow. Yeah, thats great.哗啪啪啪啪啪咆 对 就是那样Yeah,you have to... we-pa-pa...你必须 哗啪啪Yeah,thats good. Its like... were all set. Alright. There are your mics.很棒 我们可以开始了 好的 这是你们的麦And I have a very special silver one.我的是独特的银色麦And lets go. tell everybody what the fox says.让我们为大家演示一下狐狸怎么叫的I think they know the lyrics too,so...okay.他们肯定都熟悉歌词了 所以 好的Here we go. Should we go over here? Thats exciting.我们开始吧 要到这边来吗 好兴奋注:EllenShow中英字幕来源于:艾伦秀字幕组 /201311/265088

Science and technology科学技术Arachnology节肢动物学Having a mate for dinner情人为食Male spiders make the supreme sacrifice for their children雄蛛对后代的无私奉献AMONG spiders, the female of the species really is more deadly than the male.蜘蛛家族中,雌蛛致命性比雄蛛高得多。交配后将配偶狼吞虎咽地吃掉,雌蛛因此声名在外。Lady arachnids have a well-deserved reputation for polishing off their suitors, post copula, in a manner that Hannibal Lecter might have admired.它们的这一行为或许在一定程度上赢得了汉尼拔莱克特的敬仰,But it has never been clear why this happens.然而其原因一直不为人所知。Some biologists believe it is simply a mixture of female hunger and the availability of a meal that is in no position to run away.一些生物学家认为这仅仅是因为雌蛛饿了,而盘中餐又无力逃脱。Others suspect that the male is actually sacrificing his life for the good of his genes.一些生物学家认为雄蛛是为他的基因而牺牲的。In other words, his becoming a meal for his paramour somehow helps the offspring of their union.换句话说,他成为情人的腹中食某种程度上有助于他们共同的后代。Peng Yu, of Hubei University in China, and his colleagues, decided to try to settle the question.中国湖北大学的彭宇及其同事决定尝试解开这一谜题。The results of their investigation are published this week in Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology.他们的条查结果刊登在《行为生态学与社会生物学》。Dr Peng and his team collected almost 400 young wolf spiders, of both sexes, from local fields.彭士和他的小组在当地收集了几乎400只狼蛛,They then raised the animals separately until they were sexually mature.再雌雄分开饲养,直到它们性成熟。Then, one at a time, they introduced the females to a male and watched until one of three things happened:然后他们每次一只,将雌蛛与雄蛛配对,直到出现以下三者之一的情况发生:the male got eaten; the male mated with the female and successfully avoided being eaten; or the male survived for half an hour, but did not mate with the female within that time.雄蛛被吃;雄蛛与雌蛛交配后幸免于难;或者雄蛛存活了半小时,而期间未与雌蛛交配。有时,他们将未交配的雌雄蛛配对;Sometimes the researchers paired virgin males with virgin females; sometimes they paired virgin males with females that had recently bred.有时他们将未交配的雄蛛与刚繁殖过的雌蛛配对。And in one crucial set of tests they paired virgin males with virgin females that had been taken off their regular diet of fruit flies a fortnight beforehand, and were thus presumed to be feeling more than a little peckish.在一项关键性实验中,他们将未交配的雄蛛与停饲果蝇两周的雌蛛配对—此时假设雌蛛处于极度饥饿状态。After doing all this, the team chose 16 females that had mated and then eaten their partners, and ten that had mated but not done so, and followed their reproductive success.配对后,实验小组挑选了16只交配后吃掉配偶的雌蛛,10只交配后未吃掉配偶的雌蛛,观察其繁殖成功的过程。When these females laid their egg sacs, the researchers picked ten sacs at random from each group and monitored those until the eggs hatched.当这些雌蛛产下卵袋时,研究者从每组随机挑选了10个卵袋观察,直到卵孵化。At that point they selected 20 spiderlings from each group for further study.这时,他们从每组挑选10只幼蛛用于后续研究。Their first pertinent observation was that, while female wolf spiders did indeed sometimes eat males before breeding with them, that happened only 10% of the time, and did not seem to be more frequent if the female had been starved.他们第一个客观观察结果是,雌狼蛛有时确实会在交配前吃掉雄狼蛛,这种概率是10%,并且似乎不比雌蛛挨饿后比率高。Their second observation was that if a male was deemed suitable to mate with, he was never eaten in copula—even though copulation could last as long as an hour and a half.第二个观察结果是,如果雄蛛被认为适合交配,它们绝不会在交配中被吃—即使交配过程可能长达一个半小时。Their third was that, 28% of the time, a male that had mated was indeed eaten afterwards.他们第三个观察结果是,有28%的几率雄蛛会在交配后被吃。Successful suitors, then, succumbed more often than unsuccessful ones.如此可得出,交配成功的雄蛛被吃的比未成功的多。The crucial finding, however—which makes sense of all the others—was the success of the spiderlings.然而,幼蛛成活率是关键的发现—这使得其他发现都有了意义。Young born of females that had eaten their partners had a 48% chance of making it through their first month of life.吃掉配偶的雌蛛其后代48%可以活过一个月,Those born of females who had let their partners live, had only a 12% chance of surviving that long.而放生配偶的雌蛛的后代存活相同时间的只有12%。That is a staggering difference—and certainly, in evolutionary terms, enough to drive self-sacrificial behaviour by males,这个差距是巨大的—当然,按照进化论原则,足以使雄蛛采取自我牺牲行为。since a male would have to mate successfully another three times to match the benefit he gains by this one suicidal act.因此,为获得这一次自杀行为带来的好处,它之前必须成功交配三次。The reason a male is almost three times as likely to be eaten if he has mated with the female in question than if he has not is thus probably that he wants to be eaten, for the good of his posterity.讨论中,如果与雌蛛交配成功,雄蛛被吃的概率几乎是未交配成功的雄蛛的三倍,其原因可能是为后代着想,它希望被吃。Just what it is that a male meal gives, via the females digestive system, to the hatchling spiders, remains to be determined.通过雌蛛的消化系统,雄蛛给予孵化蜘蛛的是什么?这还有待探索。Perhaps spider bodies contain some crucial nutrients which are scarcer in other forms of prey.也许蜘蛛体内含有其他猎物所缺乏的重要的营养成分。Whatever the details, though, the general answer to the biologists question is now clear.不管具体如何,生物学家们的问题有了大致的。In the case of spiders, fathers really do lay down their lives for their children.对蜘蛛来说,父亲们真真是为孩子放弃了他们的生命。 /201401/271642Aboriginal people would have lived here too.土著人可能生活在这里。Hunting the wildlife in areas that are now deep underwater.在这片目前是大海深处的原始森林里打猎。Then the end of last ice age, ice of the poles melted and sea levels rose all around the round flooding this lowline coast.到冰河世纪的末期,两级的冰川开始融化,海平面开始上升,大量水涌入这片低洼的海岸。This happened nearly 10,000 years ago.这仅仅发生在1万年前。In fact, stories of the great flood still pass down in aboriginal culture.实际上大洪水的传说在土著文化中代代相传。As the sea rose, corals began to grow on the Rockey frenches of the continental shelf creating the Great Barrier Reef we see today.随着海平面上升,珊瑚开始在大陆架的岩石上生长,造就了今天这壮观的大堡礁。The shallow tropical waters are clear and warm.这片热带浅海干净温暖。Perfect conditions for corals to thrive.极适合珊瑚虫生活。Sheltered behind this long straight of reef, Alagoon was born.这条礁石维持一个环礁湖。An area protected water larger in size than the whole of Great Britain.围起来的水域面积比整个英国都大。And a new coastal line too which shallows Sandy waters.一条海岸线形成,伴着浅沙水域。The rising sea also cut a various of high ground creating the 600 islands that adopt the Agoon.上升的海岸线分割开高地,形成了散布于环礁湖内的600个小岛。201408/324737

Whats the difference between a hard-shelled blue crab anda soft-shelled blue crab?你知道软壳青蟹和硬壳青蟹有什么区别吗?Is this a trick question?这个问题很难吗?Ill give you a hent. It has to do with the crabs skeletal system.我来给你个提示。这与螃蟹的骨骼系统是紧密相关的。Skeletal system?骨骼系统?You got me there, I know that like other crustaceans, periodically molt.哦,我大概懂了。就像是其它的甲壳类动物一样,螃蟹会定期的褪壳。That is, the crab sheds its hard shell and forms a new one.也就是说,螃蟹褪掉原有的硬壳再重新长出新壳。But I dont have a clue as to what that means about the skeletal system?但问题是,我想不明白这怎么就和骨骼系统扯上了关系。Well, Ill tell you.那就由我来告诉你吧。When a blue crab sheds its hard shell, its exoskeleton, it has to wait about aweek for the new shell to harden.当一只青蟹褪掉了它的硬壳之后,新长出的壳要等上大概一个星期才能变硬。Before that happens, this outer layer of tissue is too soft and flexible to transmit muscle contractions as it did, and will do again when the crabs new shell hardens.在壳变硬之前,外面的那层“壳”太软太韧了,以致于无法进行正常的肌肉收缩。在新壳变硬之时还要再进行一次。And yet these creatures are somehow still able to move about, even immediately after molting.而且,不知为何,青蟹在这种情况下还是能到处爬来爬去的,即使是刚刚褪壳的时候也是如此。How is that possible?这怎么可能呢?Its possible using a hydrostatic skeleton.使用铃静力骨架就可以了!Many animals, such as worms, rely on hydrostaticskeletons all their lives.许多种动物,比如说蠕虫,它们一生都是靠铃静力骨架撑下来的。What this means is that muscle contractions are transmitted through anincompressible fluid.这也就是说,肌肉的收缩通过不可压缩铃被传送到了身体各部分。Immediately after molting, the hydrostatic pressure inside crabs jumpssignificantly higher, allowing the crabs to use this pressure to move their muscles.青蟹刚刚褪壳的时候,体内的铃静压力陡然飚到很高,这使得青蟹可以利用压力来使肌肉活动。While ahydrostatic skeleton isnt so remarkable in itself, what is remarkable is that the crab alternates between using the two kinds of skeletons.青蟹的铃静力骨架并不是特别出众,真正出众的是青蟹在外骨骼和铃静力骨架之间出众的交替使用能力。Scientists suspect that crabs probably arent alone inthis feat and plan to investigate the skeletal systems of other creatures that molt.科学家们猜测,蟹并不是唯一一种此类动物,接下来,科学家们将会研究更多褪壳生物的骨骼系统。 201408/319479Books and Arts; Book Review;Political philosophy; Mightier than the sword;文艺;书评;政治哲学;雄文胜武;The collected thoughts on this, that and the other of two clever men;两位智者对于世间百态的思想汇聚;When writers are grand enough, they can produce books by recycling their journalism, lectures, academic papers and other jottings. Sometimes that can seem dated and lazy. Sometimes it is a treat: the assorted pieces come together to create a great mosaic. Neither “Facts are Subversive” by Timothy Garton Ash, an Oxford-based writer and academic, nor “Grays Anatomy” by John Gray, a political philosopher, fall into the first trap (or at least very rarely). They are both good s. But neither quite reaches the goal of the whole being more interesting than the parts.当作者之声名足够显赫时,他们只需将其新闻稿件、讲演录、学术论文以及其他只言片语回炉再加工一番,新书便告完成。有时,这种做法似乎是在偷工减料地翻炒冷饭;有时,它却为读者奉上一场新的盛宴:混杂的碎片化零为整,一幅伟大的镶嵌作品从中诞生。无论是由身处牛津的作家与学者——提西·加顿·阿什所著之《事实方具颠覆性》,还是政治哲学家约翰·格雷的作品——《格雷剖析录》,都未陷入前一种窘境(至少基本上如此),两者皆为优秀的读物;不过,它们也未完全实现令整体胜于部分的目标。Mr Garton Ash is incapable of writing a dull article. Unlike some famous-name writers, he is proud to be a reporter: whatever the subject, he digs diligently. He observes sharply and with a dry donnish wit that deserves greater play. A remarkable wordsmith, at his best he has an echo of one of his great heroes, George Orwell. The pieces range from his first stamping-grounds of Germany and central Europe to the bigger themes he took on later (such as Britains neurotic “dont know, dont trust, dont care” relationship with Europe) and to more exotic places, including Brazil, Iran and Myanmar.加顿·阿什不会撰写那些干涩无趣的文章,与某些知名作家不同,他为身为记者而自豪:无论面对何种主题,他都会勤奋挖掘素材。其一针见血,字里行间所透出之学究式的冷冷嘲讽,让人读来不禁有大材小用之叹。这位非凡的语言大师在其巅峰时期,甚至能在笔下中重现乔治·奥威尔当年的风采,而后者正是加顿·阿什心目中的伟大英雄人物之一。本书收录的零散作品,其范围从他最初频繁涉足的德国与中欧,延伸到他于日后挑战的更大主题(英国与欧洲之间神经质一般的“不知、不信、不顾”关系便为一例),并一直远达更富异域情调的地区,其中包括巴西、伊朗和缅甸。His aim is to chronicle the history of the “nameless decade”, the period that began with the terrorist attacks on America in September 2001 and ended with the election of Barack Obama last year. The subjects encompassed in that time include authoritarian governments, the challenge to liberalism raised by Islam and the corrosive combination of the Bush administrations bungled foreign policy and Europes unthinking anti-Americanism.加顿·阿什旨在为“无名年代”修史,这一时期始于2001年九月美国所受之恐怖袭击,止于去年巴拉克·奥巴马当选。其间所含的主题包括威权主义政府、伊斯兰教向自由主义发起的挑战,以及由布什政府的外交失策与欧洲轻率的反美思潮所构成之恶性结合。But Mr Garton Ashs silver nib wiggles past those constraints. The best essays in the book are timeless. One is a nuanced and convincing piece, both sympathetic and devastating, about Günter Grass, the German novelist, who revealed in his memoirs that he had briefly been in the Waffen SS. Did that taint Mr Grasss books, or his role in public life, or both or neither? Was it the wartime service that was shameful, or its concealment over decades? Mr Garton Ash brings the er sure-footedly through the thickets of Germanys post-war history and through the marshy ground of moral relativism. He points to the real scandal: that Mr Grass was himself so casually splenetic over so many years about other peoples shortcomings, while concealing his own.不过加顿·阿什的妙笔却如行云流水一般无拘无束,书中最佳的作品并不为时代背景所累。其中,关于德国小说家君特·格拉斯的一篇文章细致入微、令人信,字词间既存有恻隐,又不留情面;这位德国作家在其回忆录中透露,当年曾短暂效力于纳粹党卫军。这段历史是令其著作黯然失色?还是使他在公共生活中所扮演的角色沾上污点?或者说两者都未能幸免,抑或皆不受其影响?究竟是战时役一事令其蒙羞,还是日后数十年之隐瞒为人不齿?在加顿·阿什的带领下,读者们步履稳健地穿过了德国战后历史的迷宫,走出了道德相对主义的泥潭,真正的丑行被他指出:这么多年以来,格拉斯在给自己遮羞的同时,却对他人的短处如此随意地表现出义愤填膺之状。Another excellent piece touches on a comparable issue: the list of suspected communist sympathisers that Orwell supplied to the British authorities in 1949. Again, Mr Garton Ash is scrupulously fair, highlighting Orwells sincere (and justifiable) fear of communist infiltration, as well as his fumbling feelings for Celia Kirwan, the British official involved.另一篇杰作则涉及到一个与前例有可比性的话题:奥威尔于1949年向英国当局提交的那份共产主义疑似同情者的名单。加顿·阿什再一次地表现出了一丝不苟的公正态度,在文中强调了奥威尔对共产主义渗透行为的真切恐惧(这种恐惧也非杞人忧天),以及他对希莲·柯雯(涉及此事的英国官员)所抱有的为爱所醉之情。Some of the reworked articles are commendable journalism, but do not quite stand the test of time. Mr Garton Ashs observations from his trip to Iran in 2005 seem a bit whiskery now. It is nostalgic to about the fall of crony capitalism in Ukraine five years ago. But the er is left hankering to know what Mr Garton Ash thinks about the mess that has succeeded it. A fiercer editor might have left out such pieces, and pruned the authors occasional lapses into self-indulgence (using “proleptic” once is fine, twice is tiresome). That may not matter in individual newspaper columns. It jars when collected in a book.在经过重新修订的文章中,有一些是可圈可点的新闻稿件,不过它们并不能完全经受住时间的考验。加顿·阿什从其2005年伊朗之行中得出的观察结论在今天看来已有几分过时;他关于五年前权贵资本主义在乌克兰垮台的文章,如今读来确实令人怀念往昔;但读者们想了解加顿·阿什对于政权更迭之后的乱局有何见解的渴望却未得到满足。换做一位下手更狠的编辑,此类文章大概会被略去,而作者偶然的败笔也会被修剪成随性之举的模样(比如,“预期中”一词若只用一次颇为出,但再用一次便会令人审美疲劳)。对于个别的报纸专栏而言,出现这一问题可能无伤大雅;但汇集成书后,它便显得甚为刺眼。Mr Grays book is darker, grittier and more ambitious. Mr Garton Ash is happy to lambast the Wests specific shortcomings but Mr Gray sets out to unpick the shallow philosophical foundations of the whole edifice, in particular the modern myths about progress and perfectibility. He demolishes the theory that we have reached the “end of history”, the dogmas of secular liberalism, the weaknesses of financial casino capitalism and the limits of energy-intensive economic growth. Such targets deserve his scrutiny and Mr Grays criticisms are cogent. But he tends to overdo it. Again and again (and again) he attacks the people he calls “neoliberals” without pinning down whom (apart from Tony Blair) he is attacking. The er is left feeling a straw man has been dissected.格雷的著作则更富阴郁而强硬的气息,其创作野心也更为远大。加顿·阿什乐于抨击西方存在的具体缺陷,但格雷却着手拆解整个体系的浅薄哲学根基,尤其是关于进步和完美性的现代神话。在他的笔下,人类已达到“历史的终结”之理论,世俗自由主义的教义、金融资本主义(的种种缺陷)以及能源密集型经济增长(的极限)被一一推翻。由格雷对此类问题加以缜密研究,实非牛刀杀鸡之举,而其批判也颇为中肯;不过他却往往走得太远,一次一次(又一次)地,格雷对他所称的“新自由主义者”加以口诛笔伐,然而却几乎从不指明其具体的抨击对象(托尼·布莱尔是一个例外)。这让读者们不禁感到,格雷所剖开的只是一个稻草人而已。The finest pieces in Mr Grays book are satire. One is a Swiftian essay in favour of torture (which some serious-minded lefties took at face value). Even better is a devastating parody of the Marxist approach to linguistics, involving a (fictional) visit by Ludwig Wittgenstein to the Soviet Union, and his relationship with an (invented) Hungarian academic, L. Revai, who idealises the grunts of slave labourers as a proletarian Ursprache.此书中最好的作品当属讽刺文学。一篇持酷刑(某些一本正经的左翼人士便未能辨出其弦外之音)的斯威夫特式随笔可算在其中;而另一篇极佳的戏仿之作更令人叫绝,此文模仿了语言学的马克思主义研究模式,其情节包括路德维希·维特根斯坦对苏联的一次(虚构的)访问,以及他与(作者创造出的)匈牙利学者L·列瓦伊的交往,这位匈牙利学者将奴工的咕哝声理想化,将之提升至无产阶级原始语的高度。In Mr Grays most substantial essay, “An agenda for Green conservatism”, he attempts to rescue conservatism from the ideological excesses of the 1980s. This is a thought-provoking enterprise, deserving a book on its own. But if it became a book, the authors views on such things as the failings of professional monopolies in education and health would benefit from more statistics and fewer assertions—calling, perhaps, for investment in a researcher.而在其最有分量的文章“绿色保守主义之议程”中,格雷试图将保守主义从二十世纪八十年代的意识形态泛滥中拯救出来。这一尝试之举引人深思,话题本身甚至值得以专著加以探讨。但若果真成书,那么作者对诸如教育与健康领域职业垄断的失败等议题所持有的见解,便需从更多的统计数据中获益,而凭空断言在其中所起的作用则应减少——这可能需要在研究者方面的投入。As Mr Garton Ash rightly points out, it is facts, ultimately, that are subversive.正如加顿·阿什恰如其分之言:最终,具有颠覆性的其实还是事实。 /201304/235288

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