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富阳安全的无痛堕胎大源镇中医院医生富阳市中山门诊部电话 Stop for a second and notice the way you are sitting. Back curved, shoulders slumped, maybe legs crossed? For people who spend the day staring at a computer screen, this position is fairly typical. But what is it doing to your spine, if anything? Do we need to sit up straight to focus, like that mean math teacher once insisted? Here#39;s some straight talk from one expert, Mladen Golubic, medical director for the Center for Lifestyle Medicine at Cleveland Clinic#39;s Wellness Institute.停下手里的事情,注意一下你的坐姿吧!驼背、缩肩,说不定还翘着二郎腿?对于整天盯着电脑屏幕的人来说,这个姿势相当典型。然而,如果这种坐姿会伤害你的脊柱呢?另外,我们真的必须坐直了才能集中精力吗,就像小时候严厉的数学老师要求的那样?克里夫兰诊所健康协会(Cleveland Clinic#39;s Wellness Institute)生活方式医疗中心(Center for Lifestyle Medicine)的医学主任穆雷登#8226;戈卢比奇(Mladen Golubic)就坐姿问题畅谈了自己的看法。Degrees of Comfort舒适的坐姿角度Little research has been done on the best way to sit upright. One American meta study in 1999 concluded that sitting at an angle of 110 to 130 degrees was optimal for spine comfort. A Scottish study published in 2007 found that leaning back at 135 degrees is ideal to prevent back strain. While interesting, this sort of precision may be impractical for most people, Dr. Golubic says.至今,围绕最佳坐姿的研究仍寥寥可数。美国的一项于1999年进行的整合分析研究指出,身体躯干和大腿呈100度至130度角的坐姿最能令脊柱放松。苏格兰的一项于2007年发表了论文的研究发现,角度为135度的后仰坐姿对防止背部酸痛最为有利。戈卢比奇士表示,虽然这些研究令人颇感兴趣,但对于大多数人来讲,如此精确地拿捏坐姿角度或许并不可行。Sitting to Death?久坐伤身His clinic sees patients with multiple chronic illnesses. Nearly all of them sit for long periods each day. The term Sedentary Death Syndrome was coined by the President#39;s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports in 2002 to address the growing consequences of a seated lifestyle. #39;There are studies on Sedentary Death Syndrome that show that sitting for hours can cause anything from lower back pain to high cholesterol, diabetes and obesity,#39; he says. In other words, no matter what position you#39;re sitting in all day, it is pretty bad for you.克里夫兰诊所治疗过患有多种慢性疾病的病人。几乎所有这类患者都是每天久坐不动。2002年,美国总统健康及运动委员会(President#39;s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports)为应对久坐的生活方式所带来的日益严峻的问题创造了一个新词──体力活动缺乏综合症(Sedentary Death Syndrome)。戈卢比奇士称:“有关体力活动缺乏综合症的研究表明,久坐数个小时可能引发腰痛、高胆固醇、糖尿病及肥胖症等多种疾病。”换句话说,不管用哪种坐姿整天坐着,对你的身体都颇为有害。The Perfect Pose最佳坐姿Body posture determines the efficiency of your breathing. #39;Relaxed, straight sitting#39; -- with the core strong, shoulder blades active but not tight and spine erect -- #39;expands your chest, allowing you to take in a larger breath . . . and you#39;ll have more energy and focus,#39; Dr. Golubic says. To achieve this, sit away from the back of your chair so you don#39;t slump, with your feet placed firmly on the ground. He sometimes sends patients home with a blue dot to put on their computer screens as a reminder to sit up straight and stretch and take a deep breath when they feel pain. There is also an app called PostureTrack that alerts users when they#39;re slumping.身体姿势是对呼吸效果起决定性作用的因素。戈卢比奇士说,“放松,坐直”──保持身体核心稳定、打开但别绷紧肩胛骨并挺直脊柱──“挺胸,深呼吸……你会感觉到更有活力,更能集中精力”。为保持这样的坐姿,你需要和椅背保持一定距离,以防止自己瘫靠在椅子上,同时你的双脚应该稳稳地踩在地上。有些时候,他会让患者把一个蓝色的圆点贴纸带回家贴到电脑上,以此提醒患者在感觉到酸痛时,应该坐直、舒展身体并深呼吸。另外,有一款名为PostureTrack的应用程序可以在用户弯腰驼背时发出警报。Slump to a Hump弯腰驼背的害处It#39;s not as though slouching will give you a hunchback in a day, but #39;if you do this day after day, and your muscles are not strong, the whole skeleton changes,#39; Dr. Golubic says. #39;I#39;m not aware of any studies that look at the changes in the volume of organs like the liver and spleen when you sit straight or slump forward. But we do know that when you slouch, you project an attitude of depression and low motivation.#39; When you sit up straight, he adds, #39;psychologically, your attitude is better.#39;并不是说坐没坐相会让你在一天之内变成驼背,但戈卢比奇士称:“如果长此以往,你的肌肉又不够强壮,你全身的骨骼就会变形。据我所知,还没有哪项课题就人坐直时和驼背时内脏(如肝脏和脾脏)的体积变化进行过研究。但是我们知道的是,当你驼背时,你会传递出令人感觉你萎靡不振和情绪低落的信号。”他补充道,当你坐直时,“给人感觉你的心理状态比较好”。Core Message腰痛发出的信号If you#39;re not used to sitting up straight, you may feel lower back pain -- an indicator that you need to strengthen your core and work on general fitness. Dr. Golubic almost always advises his patients to start yoga: #39;The first thing we learn in yoga is how to sit properly.#39;如果你还不习惯于直坐,你可能会感觉到腰痛──这说明你需要进行核心力量训练并提高身体的综合素质。基本上,戈卢比奇会建议所有的患者开始练习瑜伽:“在瑜伽课上,我们最先学习的就是正确的坐姿。”Walk, Don#39;t Sit多走并避免久坐The bottom line: How you sit is less important than how long you sit, Dr. Golubic says. He tries to get up from his desk often, doing #39;walking meetings#39; with colleagues and taking phone calls outdoors. #39;If you cannot walk,#39; he says, #39;At least stand.#39; Subscribe to WSJ: http://online.wsj.com?moddjnwires底线:戈卢比奇士称,坐姿如何远不及坐的时间长短对身体的影响大。他本人会尽可能频繁地离开书桌,和同事们“边走路边开会”,并到室外接打电话。他说:“如果你没有条件走动,至少该多站站。” /201305/240331富阳受降镇九龙社区卫生服务站网上挂号电话qq

富阳治疗宫颈糜烂的医院Some 87 per cent of gum-chewing teenagers who suffer regular headaches can cure themselves by giving up chewing gum, new research suggests.最新研究表明,那些爱嚼口香糖又常容易头痛的青少年中,87%的人会在停止咀嚼口香糖后症状消失。Scientists at the Tel Aviv University-affiliated Meir Medical Centre, in Israel, found that most adolescents who give up the habit experience significant relief.以色列特拉维夫大学附属梅尔医学中心的科学家发现,绝大多数青少年在改掉咀嚼口香糖的习惯后头痛症状明显减轻。The scientists, led by Dr Nathan Watemberg, believe the finding could allow doctors to cure thousands of patients of migraines and tension headaches without the need for additional tests or medication.由Nathan Watemberg医生领衔的研究组认为,该发现将使医生在不借助任何额外测试和药物治疗的前提下治愈数千患者的偏头痛和紧张性头痛。‘Out of our 30 patients, 26 reported significant improvement and 19 had complete headache resolution,’ said Dr Watemberg.Watemberg医生表示,(在该方法的引导下)参与实验的30名患者中,26名的症状有显著改善,其中有19位患者头痛症状完全消失。‘20 of the improved patients later agreed to go back to chewing gum, and all of them reported an immediate relapse of symptoms.’“20名症状缓和的患者随后同意恢复咀嚼口香糖习惯,然后他们的头痛症状很快复发。”Headaches are common in childhood and become more common and frequent during adolescence, particularly among girls.头痛现象普遍存在于儿童时期,并且在青少年时期日益普遍和发作频繁,女生中这种现象尤为明显。Typical triggers are stress, tiredness, lack of sleep, heat, games, noise, sunlight, smoking, missed meals, and menstruation.常见的触发因素包括压力、疲劳、缺乏睡眠、发热、视频游戏、噪音、日光、吸烟、不吃饭和生理期。But until now there has been little medical research on the relationship between gum chewing and headaches.但直到现在,很少有关于嚼口香糖和头痛之间关系的医学研究。At Meir Medical Centre#39;s Child Neurology and Child Development Centre, Dr Watemberg noticed that many patients who reported headaches were daily gum chewers.在梅尔医学中心儿童神经病学和发展中心,Watemberg医生注意到很多父母说起换头痛的孩子都常嚼口香糖。Dr Watemberg found that in many cases, when patients stopped chewing gum at his suggestion, they got substantially better.Watemberg发现很多案例中,当父母根据他的建议不让孩子再嚼口香糖时,孩子们头痛的状况会大为改善。Taking a more statistical approach, he asked 30 patients between six and 19 years old, who had chronic migraine or tension headaches and chewed gum daily, to quit chewing gum for one month. They had chewed gum for at least an hour a day and some had chewed for more than six hours a day.为了更科学地研究,他要求参与实验的30名6-19岁间,患有慢性偏头痛和紧张性头痛的哎嚼口香糖患者在一个月内停止嚼口香糖。这些患者平时每天至少嚼一个小时口香糖,有的甚至每天嚼口香糖超过6小时。After a month without gum, 19 of the 30 patients reported that their headaches went away entirely and seven reported a decrease in the frequency and intensity of headaches.一个月没嚼口香糖后,19名患者报告头痛症状完全消失,7人报告头痛发作频率和强度均有所下降。To test the results, 20 of them agreed to resume gum chewing for two weeks. All of them reported a return of their symptoms within days.为了测试结果,其中20人回复嚼口香糖的习惯两个星期,然后所有人表示几天后头痛发作。Two previous studies linked gum chewing to headaches, but offered different explanations.之前有两个关于嚼口香糖和头痛之间关系的研究,但得出完全不同的结论。One study suggested that gum chewing causes stress to the temporomandibular joint, or TMJ - the place where the jaw meets the skull.其中一个结论认为咀嚼口香糖的动作导致颞颌关节——下颔与头骨结合处的压力。The other study blamed aspartame, the artificial sweetener used in most popular chewing gums.另一个研究则归咎于阿斯巴甜——口香糖中最常见的人工甜味剂。TMJ dysfunction has been shown to cause headaches, while the evidence is mixed on aspartame. Dr Watemberg favours the TMJ explanation.颞骨关节功能紊乱已被明会导致头痛,但其中的据与阿斯巴甜有关。Watemberg医生倾向于颞骨关节功能紊乱导致头痛的结论。Gum only has a flavour for a short period of time, suggesting it does not contain much aspartame, he says.他说,口香糖的口味只能停留一小段时间,其中阿斯巴甜的含量不高。If aspartame caused headaches, he reasons, there would be a lot more headaches from diet drinks and artificially sweetened products which also contain it.如果阿斯巴甜引起头痛,那膳食饮料和其他含有阿斯巴甜的人工加糖食品会导致更多的头痛。On the other hand, people chew gum well after the taste is gone, putting a significant burden on the TMJ, which is aly the most used joint in the body, he says.另一方面,人们在口香糖甜味消失后继续咀嚼,会给身体最常用的颞骨关节带来更多负担。‘Every doctor knows that overuse of the TMJ will cause headaches,’ said Dr Watemberg. ‘I believe this is what#39;s happening when children and teenagers chew gum excessively.’他说道,“每个医生都知道颞颌关节负担过重会引起头痛,我相信青少年们过度咀嚼口香糖导致了这一状况。” /201312/270083胥口镇不孕不育多少钱 Who is smarter: a person or an ape? Well, it depends on the task. Consider Ayumu, a young male chimpanzee at Kyoto University who, in a 2007 study, put human memory to shame. Trained on a touch screen, Ayumu could recall a random series of nine numbers, from 1 to 9, and tap them in the right order, even though the numbers had been displayed for just a fraction of a second and then replaced with white squares.人猿相比,谁更聪明?这个问题取决于比较的是什么方面。比如说在日本京都大学(Kyoto University)2007年的一项研究中,一只名为“步”(Ayumu)的雄性小黑猩猩的就让人类自愧不如。步通过一块触摸屏接受训练,它能够记得由一到九任意组合而成的一组共九个数字,并能以正确的顺序在屏幕上把它们点出来,尽管这些数字只显示了短短一瞬间便被白色的方格所取代。I tried the task myself and could not keep track of more than five numbers -- and I was given much more time than the brainy ape. In the study, Ayumu outperformed a group of university students by a wide margin. The next year, he took on the British memory champion Ben Pridmore and emerged the #39;chimpion.#39;我自己也尝试了这项测试,但我能回忆起的数字不超过五个──尽管我获得的时间比那只聪明的黑猩猩要长得多。在这项研究中,步的表现也比一群京都大学的学生好出一大截。它在第二年还战胜了来自英国的记忆测试冠军──本?普里德莫尔(Ben Pridmore),一举成为“猩猩冠军”。How do you give a chimp -- or an elephant or an octopus or a horse -- an IQ test? It may sound like the setup to a joke, but it is actually one of the thorniest questions facing science today. Over the past decade, researchers on animal cognition have come up with some ingenious solutions to the testing problem. Their findings have started to upend a view of humankind#39;s unique place in the universe that dates back at least to ancient Greece.你会如何对黑猩猩、大象、章鱼、马进行智商测试?这听起来可能像是故意开玩笑,其实它是科学界当下面临的最棘手的难题之一。过去十年间,研究动物认知能力的科研人员想出了一些有独创性的解决方法。他们的发现开始逆转至少可追溯至古希腊时期的有关人类在宇宙中的独特位置的看法。Aristotle#39;s idea of the scala naturae, the ladder of nature, put all life-forms in rank order, from low to high, with humans closest to the angels. During the Enlightenment, the French philosopher Rene Descartes, a founder of modern science, declared that animals were soulless automatons. In the 20th century, the American psychologist B.F. Skinner and his followers took up the same theme, painting animals as little more than stimulus-response machines. Animals might be capable of learning, they argued, but surely not of thinking and feeling. The term#39;animal cognition#39; remained an oxymoron.亚里士多德(Aristotle)的“自然阶梯”(scalanaturae)理念将所有生命形式按从低到高的顺序进行排列,其中人类的排序最接近天神。在启蒙运动时期,作为现代科学鼻祖之一的法国哲学家勒奈?笛卡尔(Rene Descartes)声称动物是没有灵魂的机械物。到了20世纪,美国心理学家B.F.斯金纳(B.F. Skinner)及其追随者也是同样的论调,将动物描绘得只比会应激做出反应的机器稍好一些。他们认为动物或许具有学习能力,但是肯定不具备思考和感觉的能力。如此一来,“动物认知”一词一直是个存有矛盾的词。A growing body of evidence shows, however, that we have grossly underestimated both the scope and the scale of animal intelligence. Can an octopus use tools? Do chimpanzees have a sense of fairness? Can birds guess what others know? Do rats feel empathy for their friends? Just a few decades ago we would have answered #39;no#39; to all such questions. Now we#39;re not so sure.然而,越来越多的据表明我们严重低估了动物智能的广度和程度。章鱼会运用工具吗?黑猩猩具有公平感吗?鸟儿能够猜到其他鸟儿知道的事情吗?老鼠对同类有同情心吗?就在几十年前,我们对所有这些问题的回答可能都是否定的,现在我们则没有那么确定了。Experiments with animals have long been handicapped by our anthropocentric attitude: We often test them in ways that work fine with humans but not so well with other species. Scientists are now finally meeting animals on their own terms instead of treating them like furry (or feathery) humans, and this shift is fundamentally reshaping our understanding.长期以来,动物实验都受到我们以人类为中心的态度的阻碍。我们常常以非常适合人类但不是那么适合其他物种的方法对它们进行测试。现在,科学家们终于根据动物自身的情况来对待它们,不再把它们当作毛茸茸(或是长着羽毛)的人类,这个转变从根本上重塑了我们对动物的看法。Elephants are a perfect example. For years, scientists believed them incapable of using tools. At most, an elephant might pick up a stick to scratch its itchy behind. In earlier studies, the pachyderms were offered a long stick while food was placed outside their reach to see if they would use the stick to retrieve it. This setup worked well with primates, but elephants left the stick alone. From this, researchers concluded that the elephants didn#39;t understand the problem. It occurred to no one that perhaps we, the investigators, didn#39;t understand the elephants.大象就是一个绝佳的例子。多年来,科学家们认为大象不能使用工具,它可能最多只会捡起根棍子挠挠发痒的后背。在早前的研究中,研究人员将食物放在大象够不着的地方,然后给它们一根长棍子,看它们是否会用它取到食物。这个实验的设计非常适合灵长类动物,但是大象却无视棍子的存在。于是乎,研究人员由此得出结论称大象不理解问题的要领。然而,没有人意识到可能是我们这些科研人员不了解大象。Think about the test from the animal#39;s perspective. Unlike the primate hand, the elephant#39;s grasping organ is also its nose. Elephants use their trunks not only to reach food but also to sniff and touch it. With their unparalleled sense of smell, the animals know exactly what they are going for. Vision is secondary.从大象的角度想想这个实验吧。与用手的灵长类动物不同,大象抓取物体的器官也是它的鼻子。它们不仅用鼻子抓取食物,也用它来闻嗅和触碰食物。凭借其无与伦比的嗅觉,大象确知自己拿的是什么,视觉对它们来说是次要的。But as soon as an elephant picks up a stick, its nasal passages are blocked. Even when the stick is close to the food, it impedes feeling and smelling. It is like sending a blindfolded child on an Easter egg hunt.一旦捡起棍子,大象的鼻腔通道马上就会被堵塞,所以即便棍子就在食物近旁,它也会阻碍大象的感觉和嗅觉。这就像蒙住小孩的眼睛让他去找复活节蛋一样。What sort of experiment, then, would do justice to the animal#39;s special anatomy and abilities?那么,什么类型的实验对大象的特殊身体构造和能力来说是公平的呢?On a recent visit to the National Zoo in Washington, I met with Preston Foerder and Diana Reiss of Hunter College, who showed me what Kandula, a young elephant bull, can do if the problem is presented differently. The scientists hung fruit high up above the enclosure, just out of Kandula#39;s reach. The elephant was given several sticks and a sturdy square box.在最近一次造访位于华盛顿的国家动物园时,笔者与亨特学院(Hunter College)的普雷斯顿?福尔德(Preston Foerder)和黛安娜?瑞斯(Diana Reiss)见了面。他们向我展示,如果用不同的方式提出问题,一头名为“坎杜拉”(Kandula)的小公象都会做些什么。他们将水果高高地挂在坎杜拉刚好够不着的象舍的上方,然后给了它几根棍子和一个坚固的方形箱子。Kandula ignored the sticks but, after a while, began kicking the box with his foot. He kicked it many times in a straight line until it was right underneath the branch. He then stood on the box with his front legs, which enabled him to reach the food with his trunk. An elephant, it turns out, can use tools -- if they are the right ones.坎杜拉没有碰那些棍子,过了一会儿之后,它开始用脚踢箱子。它沿着直线方向踢了很多次箱子,直到把箱子踢到树枝的正下方为止,然后便把前腿搭在了箱子上,这样一来它就能用鼻子够着那些水果了。事实明,大象也会使用工具──只要它们是适当的工具。While Kandula munched his reward, the investigators explained how they had varied the setup, making life more difficult for the elephant. They had put the box in a different section of the yard, out of view, so that when Kandula looked up at the tempting food he would need to recall the solution and walk away from his goal to fetch the tool. Apart from a few large-brained species, such as humans, apes and dolphins, not many animals will do this, but Kandula did it without hesitation, fetching the box from great distances.在坎杜拉大声咀嚼战利品的同时,研究人员说他们曾改变实验的设计,加大了坎杜拉获得食物的难度。他们把箱子放在院子中一个不在坎杜拉视线范围内的区域,这样一来当它看着充满诱惑的食物时,它需要回忆起解决办法,然后离开目标去取工具。除了人类、猿类和海豚等脑袋较大的物种之外,能够做到这一点的动物并不多,但是坎杜拉毫不犹豫地采取行动,从很远的距离取来了箱子。Another failed experiment with elephants involved the mirror test -- a classic evaluation of whether an animal recognizes its own reflection. In the early going, scientists placed a mirror on the ground outside the elephant#39;s cage, but the mirror was (unsurprisingly) much smaller than the largest of land animals. All that the elephant could possibly see was four legs behind two layers of bars (since the mirror doubled them). When the animal received a mark on its body visible only with the assistance of the mirror, it failed to notice or touch the mark. The verdict was that the species lacked self-awareness.另一个与大象有关的失败实验是镜像测试,这个经典的测试可评判动物是否认得出自己在镜子中的形象。在早期的实验中,科研人员在象笼外的地面上放了一面镜子,但是这面镜子(毫不意外地)比这个陆地上的最大动物要小得多。大象有可能看到的所有东西只是两层栏杆(因为镜子的反射使栏杆变成了两层)后的自己的四条腿。当它的身体被做上只能借助镜子才能看到的记号时,它没能注意到或是触碰那个记号,于是研究人员下结论称大象缺乏自我意识。But Joshua Plotnik of the Think Elephant International Foundation modified the test. He gave the elephants access to an 8-by-8-foot mirror and allowed them to feel it, smell it and look behind it. With this larger mirror, they fared much better. One Asian elephant recognized herself. Standing in front of the mirror, she repeatedly rubbed a white cross on her forehead, an action that she could only have performed by connecting her reflected image with her own body.不过,非盈利组织Think Elephant International Foundation的乔舒亚?普罗特尼克(Joshua Plotnik)修正了这个实验。他给大象提供的是一面长宽均为八英尺(约合2.4米)的镜子,允许它们去触摸它、用鼻子闻它、从镜子后看它。有了这面更大的镜子,大象们的表现要好了很多。有一只母亚洲象认出了自己,它站在镜子前,不停地擦着额头上一个白色的十字架记号,她只有把自己在镜子中的形象与自己的身体联系起来才可能做出这一举动。A similar experimental problem was behind the mistaken belief, prevalent until two decades ago, that our species has a unique system of facial recognition, since we are so much better at identifying faces than any other primate. Other primates had been tested, but they had been tested on human faces -- based on the assumption that ours are the easiest to tell apart.这个认为我们人类具有一个独特的面部识别体系(因为我们在面部识别方面比其他灵长类动物的表现要好得多)、直到20年前还很盛行的错误理念的背后也存在一个相同的实验设计问题。尽管其他灵长类动物也接受了测试,但是它们的对象是人脸──这一设计的假设是我们人脸是最容易识别的。When Lisa Parr, one of my co-workers at Emory University, tested chimpanzees on portraits of their own species, they excelled at it. Selecting portraits on a computer screen, they could even tell which juveniles were born to which females. Having been trained to detect similarities among images, the apes were shown a female#39;s portrait and then given a choice between two other faces, one of which showed her offspring. They preferred the latter based purely on family resemblance since they did not know any of the depicted apes.我在埃默里大学(Emory University)的同事丽莎?帕尔(Lisa Parr)测试了黑猩猩对其同类的肖像的识别能力。它们在电脑屏幕上选择肖像时甚至还能分辨出哪些小黑猩猩是哪些母猩猩的孩子。研究人员对这些黑猩猩进行了识别肖像相似处的训练,然后向它们展示一幅母猩猩的肖像,随后又让它们在另外两幅脸部肖像(其中一幅肖像中的猩猩为母猩猩的孩子)之间做出选择。它们是完全根据家族相似性选出母猩猩孩子的那幅像的,因为它们并不认识画像中的那几只猩猩。We also may need to rethink the physiology of intelligence. Take the octopus. In captivity, these animals recognize their caretakers and learn to open pill bottles protected by childproof caps -- a task with which many humans struggle. Their brains are indeed the largest among invertebrates, but the explanation for their extraordinary skills may lie elsewhere. It seems that these animals think, literally, outside the box of the brain.我们或许还需重新思考有关智力的生理因素。以章鱼为例,它们在被人工饲养时认得饲养它们的人,并学会了打开带防止儿童开启的安全瓶盖的药瓶,这件事情很多人都难以办到。章鱼的脑袋在无脊椎动物中确实是最大的,但是能够解释它们这些非凡能力的或许另有原因。这种动物似乎的的确确是不经大脑思考的。Octopuses have hundreds of suckers, each one equipped with its own ganglion with thousands of neurons. These #39;mini-brains#39; are interconnected, making for a widely distributed nervous system. That is why a severed octopus arm may crawl on its own and even pick up food.章鱼有几百个吸盘,每个吸盘都各有含数千条神经的神经节。这些“迷你大脑”互相连通,构成了一个分布广泛的神经系统,这也是章鱼一条被砍断的腕足可能会独自爬行甚至是捡取食物的原因所在。Similarly, when an octopus changes skin color in self-defense, such as by mimicking a poisonous sea snake, the decision may come not from central command but from the skin itself. A 2010 study found gene sequences in the skin of cuttlefish similar to those in the eye#39;s retina. Could it be: an organism with a seeing skin and eight thinking arms?同样地,当章鱼变化肤色进行自我防卫,比如拟态成有毒的海蛇时,这个决定或许并不是来自作为指挥中心的大脑,而是来自皮肤本身。2010年的一项研究在乌贼的皮肤中发现了类似眼睛视网膜的基因序列。那么章鱼是否是一种皮肤具有视觉能力、八条腕足具有思维能力的生物体呢?A note of caution, however: At times we also have overestimated the capacities of animals. About a century ago, a German horse named #39;Kluger Hans#39; (Clever Hans) was thought to be capable of addition and subtraction. His owner would ask him the product of multiplying four by three, and Hans would happily tap his hoof 12 times. People were flabbergasted, and Hans became an international sensation.不过,这里还是要提醒一句,有时候我们也会高估动物的能力。大约在一个世纪前,德国一匹名为“聪明汉斯”(Kluger Hans)的马儿被人认为能够进行加减运算。其主人问它四乘以三等于多少时,它会欢快地轻踏12下蹄子。大家对此大吃一惊,而汉斯也成为了引起世界性轰动的明星。That is, until Oskar Pfungst, a psychologist, investigated the horse#39;s abilities. Pfungst found that Hans was only successful if his owner knew the answer to the question and was visible to the horse. Apparently, the owner subtly shifted his position or straightened his back when Hans reached the correct number of taps. (The owner did so unknowingly, so there was no fraud involved.)这种情况直到心理学家奥斯卡?芬斯特(Oskar Pfungst)对汉斯的智能进行调查之后才发生改变。芬斯特发现,只有在其主人知道问题的并且在其可见范围之内时,汉斯才能答对题目。显然,当汉斯轻踏蹄子的次数达到正确数字时,主人就会微微地改变姿势或是直起背来。(其主人是在不知情的情况下这么做的,因此也不涉及到欺诈。)Some look at this historic revelation as a downgrading of Hans#39;s intelligence, but I would argue that the horse was in fact very smart. His abilities at arithmetic may have been flawed, but his understanding of human body language was remarkable. And isn#39;t that the skill a horse needs most?有些人认为,这个有历史意义的真相的暴露表明汉斯的智力不是那么高,不过笔者倒是认为这匹马实际上非常聪明。它的算数能力或许不尽如人意,但是它对人类身体语言的理解是非同寻常的。这难道不正是一匹马最需要具备的能力吗?Awareness of the #39;Clever Hans Effect, #39; as it is now known, has greatly improved animal experimentation. Unfortunately, it is often ignored in comparable research with humans. Whereas every dog lab now tests the cognition of its animals while their human owners are blindfolded or asked to face away, young children are still presented with cognitive tasks while sitting on their mothers#39; laps. The assumption is that mothers are like furniture, but every mother wants her child to succeed, and nothing guarantees that her sighs, head turns and subtle changes in position don#39;t serve as cues for the child.对现今被人称为“聪明的汉斯效应”的意识促使动物实验得到了极大改进。遗憾的是,这一点在类似的人类实验中常常遭到忽视。现如今,尽管每个动物实验室在测试动物的认知能力时都要把它们主人的眼睛蒙上或是要求他们把脸转向别处,在对人类儿童进行认知测试时,儿童却是坐在母亲的腿上接受测试的。这一举措的假设是母亲所起的作用就像家具,但是每位母亲都希望自己的孩子成功,没法保她的叹息、转头动作或是细微的姿势变化不会成为对孩子的暗示。This is especially relevant when we try to establish how smart apes are relative to children. To see how their cognitive skills compare, scientists present both species with identical problems, treating them exactly the same. At least this is the idea. But the children are held by their parents and talked to (#39;Watch this!#39; #39;Where is the bunny?#39;), and they are dealing with members of their own kind. The apes, by contrast, sit behind bars, don#39;t benefit from language or a nearby parent who knows the answers, and are facing members of a different species. The odds are massively stacked against the apes, but if they fail to perform like the children, the invariable conclusion is that they lack the mental capacities under investigation.当我们尝试去确认聪明的猿类与人类儿童相比有多聪明时,这一点就更是关系重大。为了了解这二者的认知能力相比如何,科研人员以完全平等的方式对待他们,向他们提出一模一样的问题──至少在科研人员看来是如此。然而,儿童往往有父母抱着或是有人对他们说话(比如说“看这个!”“小兔子在哪里呢?”),而且他们与之打交道的是自己的同类。相比之下,猿类往往坐在栏杆后,没有任何语言上的帮助,身旁也没有知道的父母可提供帮助,而且它们面对的是另一个物种。因此,取胜形势对猿类来说是极其不利的,但是如果它们未能像人类儿童表现的那么好,结论始终都是它们缺乏研究人员所调查的心智能力。A recent study, tracking the pupil movements of chimpanzees, found that they followed the gaze of members of their own species far better than that of humans. This simple finding has huge implications for tests in which chimpanzees need to pay attention to human experimenters. The species barrier they face may fully explain the difference in performance compared with children.近期一项跟踪黑猩猩瞳孔转动的研究发现,黑猩猩对同类目光的追随要比对人类目光的追随好得多。这个简单的发现对黑猩猩需要注意人类实验人员的测试具有巨大的影响。它们所面临的物种壁垒或许能够完全解释它们与人类儿童相比时表现的差距。Underlying many of our mistaken beliefs about animal intelligence is the problem of negative evidence. If I walk through a forest in Georgia, where I live, and fail to see or hear the pileated woodpecker, am I permitted to conclude that the bird is absent? Of course not. We know how easily these splendid woodpeckers hop around tree trunks to stay out of sight. All I can say is that I lack evidence.我们关于动物智能的许多错误观念的深层原因在于反这个问题。假如我在我所居住的佐治亚州穿过某个树林时没有看到北美黑啄木鸟或听到它的声音,我是不是就可以说这种鸟不存在呢?当然不能了。我们都知道这些美丽的啄木鸟能够在树干之间轻松地跳来跳去躲开人的视线。我只能够说我缺乏据。It is quite puzzling, therefore, why the field of animal cognition has such a long history of claims about the absence of capacities based on just a few strolls through the forest. Such conclusions contradict the famous dictum of experimental psychology according to which #39;absence of evidence is not evidence of absence.#39;因此,在动物认知领域中,人们仅仅在森林中溜达几步便声称动物缺乏某些能力的历史为何如此之长令人相当费解。此类结论与实验心理学中“找不到据不代表据不存在”的著名格言相悖。Take the question of whether we are the only species to care about the well-being of others. It is well known that apes in the wild offer spontaneous assistance to each other, defending against leopards, say, or consoling distressed companions with tender embraces. But for decades, these observations were ignored, and more attention was paid to experiments according to which the apes were entirely selfish. They had been tested with an apparatus to see if one chimpanzee was willing to push food toward another. But perhaps the apes failed to understand the apparatus. When we instead used a simple choice between tokens they could exchange for food -- one kind of token rewarded only the chooser, the other kind rewarded both apes -- lo and behold, they preferred outcomes that rewarded both of them.以我们人类是否是唯一一个关心别的同类好不好的物种这个问题为例。众所周知,猿类在野外会主动互相帮助,比如说防备豹子或是用温柔的拥抱来安慰情绪低落的同伴。但是,数十年来这些现象都被忽视了,人们更关注的是那些认为猿类完全是自私的实验。研究人员在试验中利用某种器材对黑猩猩进行实验,查看它是否愿意把食物推给另一只黑猩猩。不过,这些黑猩猩不愿这么做也许只是因为它们对那种器材没有概念。当我们转而采用简单的选择,要它们在两个可以用来换取食物的标记中──其中一个标记只奖赏做出选择的猩猩,另一个则同时奖赏两只猩猩──做出选择,你瞧,它们会选择同时奖励它们二者的那个标记。Such generosity, moreover, may not be restricted to apes. In a recent study, rats freed a trapped companion even when a container with chocolate had been put right next to it. Many rats first liberated the other, after which both rodents happily shared the treat.此外,这种大度不仅仅体现在猿类身上。在最近一项研究中,即便身旁放了一个装有巧克力的容器,老鼠还是会去解救受困的同伴。许多老鼠会先解救同伴,在这之后才一同高兴地享用巧克力。The one historical constant in my field is that each time a claim of human uniqueness bites the dust, other claims quickly take its place. Meanwhile, science keeps chipping away at the wall that separates us from the other animals. We have moved from viewing animals as instinct-driven stimulus-response machines to seeing them as sophisticated decision makers.在我的研究领域,一个一成不变的历史现象是,每当有表明人类独特性的言论被推翻,其他相关言论就会迅速取而代之。与此同时,科学在不断地慢慢消除将我们与其他动物隔离的围 。我们已从把动物视为受直觉推动的应激反应机械发展到把它们视为可以做出决策的高级物种。Aristotle#39;s ladder of nature is not just being flattened; it is being transformed into a bush with many branches. This is no insult to human superiority. It is long-overdue recognition that intelligent life is not something for us to seek in the outer reaches of space but is abundant right here on earth, under our noses.亚里士多德的自然阶梯不是被简单地夷平了,而是正在被转变为拥有许许多多分的一丛灌木。这绝非是对人类优越性的亵渎。智能生命并不是需要我们去外太空寻找的东西,它就大量存在于地球之上,存在于我们的眼皮底下,然而这个认识来得太迟了。 /201305/237624富阳市中医骨科医院咨询专线

常安镇中心医院QQAt Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston, doctor#39;s orders can include an unlikely prescription: meditation.波士顿柏斯以色列狄肯尼斯医学中心(Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center)开出的医嘱中会包含一项令人难以置信的处方:冥想。#39;I recommend five minutes, twice a day, and then gradually increase,#39; said Aditi Nerurkar, a primary-care doctor and assistant medical director of the Cheng amp; Tsui Center for Integrative Care, which offers alternative medical treatment at the Harvard Medical School-affiliated hospital. #39;It#39;s basically the same way I prescribe medicine. I don#39;t start you on a high dose right away.#39; She recommends that patients eventually work up to about 20 minutes of meditating, twice a day, for conditions including insomnia and irritable bowel syndrome.郑与崔中西医结合护理中心(Cheng amp; Tsui Center for Integrative Care)的医疗主管助理、初级保健医师阿底提#8226;内鲁卡(Aditi Nerurkar)说,“我建议进行五分钟的冥想,每天两次,然后循序渐进、逐渐增量。”内鲁卡还说,“这与我开药的方式基本相同。我不会让你在一开始就立马尝试高剂量的药物。”她建议患者循序渐进、最终达到约20分钟时量的冥想,且每天进行两次。这种疗法适用于失眠症和肠道易激综合症等疾病。郑与崔中西医结合护理中心在哈佛医学院附属医院向患者提供替代性医学治疗。Integrative medicine programs including meditation are increasingly showing up at hospitals and clinics across the country. Recent research has found that meditation can lower blood pressure and help patients with chronic illness cope with pain and depression. In a study published last year, meditation sharply reduced the risk of heart attack or stroke among a group of African-Americans with heart disease.包括冥想在内的中西医结合项目在全美各地的医院、诊所变得越来越常见。新近一项研究已发现,冥想能降低血压、帮助慢性病患者应对疼痛和抑郁。去年发表的一项研究表明,在一组患有心脏病的非洲裔美国人中,冥想极大地减少了他们的心脏病和中风的发病风险。At Beth Israel Deaconess, meditation and other mind-body therapies are slowly being worked into the primary-care setting. The program began offering some services over the past six months and hopes eventually to have group meditation classes, said Dr. Nerurkar.在柏斯以色列狄肯尼斯医学中心,冥想和其他身心疗法正慢慢融入初级保健体系。内鲁卡说,该项目在过去的六个月中已开始提供一些务,他们希望最终能开办团体冥想班。Health experts say meditation shouldn#39;t be used to replace traditional medical therapies, but rather to complement them. While it is clear that #39;when you breathe in a very slow, conscious way it temporarily lowers your blood pressure,#39; such techniques shouldn#39;t be used to substitute for medications to manage high blood pressure and other serious conditions, said Josephine Briggs, director of the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine, part of the National Institutes of Health. In general, she said, meditation can be useful for symptom management, not to cure or treat disease.健康专家说,冥想不该被用来替代传统药物治疗,而应当作为补充疗法。隶属于美国国立卫生研究院(National Institutes of Health)的国家补充替代医学中心(National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine)负责人约瑟芬#8226;布里格斯(Josephine Briggs)说,“很明显,当你以一种非常缓慢、刻意的方式呼吸,这么做能暂时降低你的血压。”但这样的方法不该被当作治疗高血压和其他严重疾病的药物替代品。她还称,一般而言,冥想在并发症和综合症处理上是有所作用的,但它却无法治愈或治疗疾病。Dr. Briggs said the agency is funding a number of studies looking at meditation and breathing techniques and their effect on numerous conditions, including hot flashes that occur during menopause. If meditation is found to be beneficial, it could help women avoid using hormone treatments, which can have detrimental side effects, she said.布里格斯说,国家补充替代医学中心正在资助一系列针对冥想、呼吸方法及它们对诸多疾病影响的研究,包括女性在更年期出现的热潮红现象。如果冥想被发现对这些疾病有疗效的话,它有可能帮助女性避免使用激素治疗。后者会产生不良的副作用。Martha O#39;Boyle, a 51-year-old in Fremont, Calif., has suffered from chronic pain in her arms, chest and elsewhere since suffering from a heart attack two years ago.来自加州弗里蒙特(Fremont),现年51岁的玛莎#8226;奥伊(Martha O#39;Boyle)自两年前突发一场心脏病后,就一直饱受着遍布胳膊、胸部及其他部位慢性疼痛的折磨。#39;Here#39;s a cardiologist telling me to go and meditate,#39; said Ms. O#39;Boyle. #39;I#39;m thinking, does she think I#39;m crazy?#39;奥伊说,“这儿有位心脏病专家建议我去进行冥想。当时我就想,她是以为我疯了吗?”Ms. O#39;Boyle began taking meditation classes at Stanford Hospital amp; Clinics in 2011. The eight-week class consisted of once-a-week sessions lasting two to three hours. #39;Once I started the class I saw the benefits of it,#39; she said. Now, Ms. O#39;Boyle meditates every day for 20 to 45 minutes. #39;The pain is not gone, but it helps me cope with it,#39; she said.2011年,奥伊开始参加斯坦福医院诊所(Stanford Hospital amp; Clinics)开办的冥想课。该课程为期八周,每周上课一次,每次持续两到三个小时。奥伊说,“我一上课,就感受到它的好处了。”奥伊现在每天都会冥想20到45分钟。她说,“疼痛虽然没有消失,但冥想却能帮我应对它。”The most common type of meditation recommended by doctors and used in hospital programs is called Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, which was devised at the University of Massachusetts Medical School. Dr. Nerurkar said she doesn#39;t send patients to a class for training. Instead, she and other physicians at Beth Israel Deaconess will demonstrate the technique in the office. #39;Really it#39;s just sitting in a quiet posture that#39;s comfortable, closing your eyes and watching your breath,#39; she said.医生最常推荐的,且最常用于医院项目中的一种冥想类型叫做“正念减压”。它是由麻省大学医学院(University of Massachusetts Medical School)研发出来的。内鲁卡说,她并未将患者送到那里参加课程训练。相反,内鲁卡和柏斯以色列狄肯尼斯医学中心的其他内科医生将在办公室演示这种冥想方法。内鲁卡说,“实际上就是以一种你觉得舒的姿势安静地坐着,闭上你的眼睛、并注意你的呼吸。”Murali Doraiswamy, a professor of psychiatry at Duke University Medical Center in Durham, N.C., says it isn#39;t clearly understood how meditation works on the body. Some forms of meditation have been found to activate the parasympathetic nervous system, which stimulates the body#39;s relaxation response, improves blood supply, slows down heart rate and breathing and increases digestive activity, he said. It also slows down the release of stress hormones, such as cortisol.北卡罗莱纳州达勒姆的杜克大学医学中心(Duke University Medical Center)精神病学教授穆拉利#8226;多雷斯瓦米(Murali Doraiswamy)说,目前还不清楚冥想是如何作用于身体的。有些形式的冥想已被发现能激活副交感神经系统,而这又会刺激身体的放松反应,改善血液供给、降低心率、放缓呼吸并促进消化活动。多雷斯瓦米还称,冥想也能减缓皮质醇等压力激素的分泌。Dr. Doraiswamy says he recommends meditation for people with depression, panic or anxiety disorders, ongoing stress, or for general health maintenance of brain alertness and cardiovascular health.多雷斯瓦米说,他向那些患有抑郁症、恐慌症、焦虑症、长期饱受压力折磨的人,以及那些注重大脑养生与心血管健康的人都推荐冥想疗法。Thousands of studies have been published that look at meditation, Dr. Doraiswamy said. Of these, about 500 have been clinical trials testing meditation for various ailments, but only about 40 trials have been long-term studies. It isn#39;t known whether there is an optimal amount of time for meditating that is most effective. And, it hasn#39;t been conclusively shown that the practice causes people to live longer or prevents them from getting certain chronic diseases.多雷斯瓦米说,成千上万种针对冥想的研究成果都已发表。这其中,约有500项研究针对各种疾病进行了冥想疗法的临床试验,但仅仅只有约40例试验经过了长期的研究。目前还不清楚多长时间的冥想活动效果最佳。而对于此类活动能否延长人们的寿命或使人们远离某些慢性病,至今仍尚无定论。Some short-term studies have found meditation can improve cognitive abilities such as attention and memory, said Dr. Doraiswamy. Using imaging, scientists have shown that meditation can improve the functional performance of specific circuits in the brain and may reduce age-related shrinkage of several brain centers, particularly those that may be vulnerable in disorders such as Alzheimer#39;s disease.多雷斯瓦米还称,有些短期研究已发现,冥想能提高如注意力和这样的认知能力。科学家利用成像技术发现,冥想能改善人们大脑中某些特定回路的功能特性,还可能减少随着年龄增长而出现的大脑中枢萎缩状况,特别是对于那些容易患上老年痴呆症(Alzheimer#39;s disease,又称阿兹海默症)等病症的人更是如此。In a study published last year in the American Heart Association journal Circulation: Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, African-Americans with heart disease who practiced Transcendental Meditation regularly were 48% less likely to have a heart attack or stroke, or to die, than those who attended a health-education class. Among the meditation group, there were 20 such occurrences, compared with 32 in the control group. The study, which ran for more than five years, involved about 200 people.美国心脏协会(American Heart Association)《循环》(Circulation)期刊上去年发表的一项名为《心血管特性和效果》(Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes)的研究表明,在患有心脏病的非洲裔美国人中,那些经常练习超觉冥想的人突发心脏病或中风、死亡的风险比那些参加健康教育课的人要低48%。在冥想小组中出现了20个这样的病发案例,而在实验对照组中,这一数据为32。该研究持续的时间超过了五年,总共涉及约200人。Recent research found that meditation can result in molecular changes affecting the length of telomeres, a protective covering at the end of chromosomes that gets shorter as people age. The study involved 40 family caregivers of dementia patients. Half of the participants meditated briefly on a daily basis and the other half listened to relaxing music for 12 minutes a day. The eight-week study found that people who meditated showed a 43% improvement in telomerase activity, an enzyme that regulates telomere length, compared with a 3.7% gain in the group listening to music. The participants meditating also showed improved mental and cognitive functioning and lower levels of depression compared with the control group. The pilot study was published in January in the International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry.最近的研究发现,冥想能引起影响端粒长度的分子变化。端粒是染色体末端的一种保护覆盖物,它会随着人的年事增高而变得越来越短。这项研究涉及40名照料痴呆症患者的家庭医护人员。有一半的参与者每天都会进行简短的冥想,而另一半的人则会每天聆听12分钟放松身心的音乐。这项持续了八周的研究发现,那些冥想者的端粒 ──端粒 是一种修复端粒长度的 ──活性提高了43%,而听音乐的那组人只提高了3.7%。与实验对照组相比,参与冥想的人还表现出更强的心理和认知功能、更低的抑郁程度。这项试验性研究于一月份发表在《国际老年精神病学杂志》(International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry)上。Government-funded research also is exploring meditation#39;s effect on dieting and depression.由政府资助的研究也正在探索冥想对节食和抑郁的影响。 /201305/239162 4. Sleep in a dark room.Too much light in your room, either blue light from electronics or light peering through the curtains from outside, will interfere with your sleep and the secretion of melatonin. If you can#39;t eliminate certain electronics from your room, nor change to darker curtains or fully-shutting blinds, then invest in a good sleep mask. Don’t forget to take your sleep mask along for long flights as well.4.睡眠时光线宜暗无论是电器发的蓝光还是从窗帘透进的光线。房间若是太亮,就会影响你的睡眠,干扰褪黑激素的分泌。如果你无法减少房间里的电器,也不能换副较深的窗帘或不透光百叶窗。那就置购一副深度睡眠眼罩吧。在搭长途航班也不要忘了捎上它。 /201307/249363富阳怀孕一个月怎么打掉龙门镇生宝宝哪家医院最好的



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