婺源县妇幼保健人民中医院光子嫩肤多少钱赶集健康

来源:搜狐娱乐
原标题: 婺源县妇幼保健人民中医院光子嫩肤多少钱爱问问答
Today we regard the oyster and lobster as luxury foods, but it has not always been so. Oysters have been commercially farmed since the time of the Romans and have a remarkable talent: when collected, they close their watertight shells, trapping seawater inside. This useful skill doubtless evolved so they could survive being beached at low tide. But it meant that oysters could be shovelled into a barrel, carted to a city, and left under a bar — sometimes for weeks — while remaining alive and fresh.今天,牡蛎和龙虾被视为奢侈的食物,但情况并非一直如此。从罗马时代起,人们就一直对牡蛎进行商业化养殖。牡蛎有一种非凡的本领:当被采集的时候,它们会将自己的外壳闭合得滴水不漏,将海水封存在里面。这种有用的技能无疑是为了在退潮搁浅时存活下来而进化出来的。但这也意味着人们可以把牡蛎铲进桶里,用车运往城市并放在酒吧里——有时一放就是几星期——而牡蛎在此期间一直保持鲜活。Lobsters, or similar forms of invertebrate, crustacean arthropod have been around longer than humans and it is quite possible that we have been eating them for a very long time. They are also unique among the food we eat today in that we often buy them alive and kill them ourselves. They are plentiful, at no particular risk of extinction, and utterly delicious, having sweeter and better-textured flesh than fish. They survive in a wide range of sea temperatures and are easiest caught by simple and sustainable methods.龙虾,或者类似的无脊椎甲壳类节肢动物,比人类的历史更长,很可能我们食用它们的时间也很长。在今天的食物中,它们也比较独特,因为我们经常购买活的,并自行在吃的时候杀了它们。它们的数量很多,没有灭绝的危险,而且十分美味,比鱼肉更鲜甜口感更好。它们在温度范围很广的海水中都能生存,使用简单和可持续的方法就很容易捕捞。Like oysters, the creatures’ ability to survive out of water meant they could be transported far inland and supply spankingly fresh protein long before refrigeration made it possible to distribute other forms of fresh fish. For this reason, lobster and oysters were often considered a food of the poor in industrialised cities. Nineteenth-century prison governors in some coastal states of the US were forbidden to feed their prisoners lobster more than a few times a week, as it was considered a “cruel and unusual” privation.就像牡蛎一样,这类生物在出水后存活的能力都很强,人们可以把它们运往遥远的内陆。远在制冷技术使得分销其他种类的鲜鱼变为可能之前,它们就在为人类提供极为新鲜的蛋白质。因此,龙虾和牡蛎过去常被视为工业化城市中穷人的食物。在19世纪的美国,一些沿海州的监狱每周给囚犯提供龙虾的次数是有上限的,因为顿顿吃龙虾被视为一种“残酷而不寻常的”煎熬。At low tide you can still wander along the muddy banks of the Thames in London and see vast “middens” of discarded oyster shells. These mark the spot of bank-side pubs, where revellers would consume huge numbers of oysters and throw the shells into the river. As the deposits are still there after centuries we can assume London’s dock labourers were ordering oysters at a far greater rate than the wealthiest occupants of the City can afford to today.在退潮的时候,你依然可以漫步伦敦泰晤士河泥泞的河岸,看到丢弃的牡蛎壳形成的巨大“贝丘”。它们与河岸酒吧的位置对应,泡这些酒吧的人会吃掉大量牡蛎,然后把牡蛎壳扔进河里。在数个世纪后,这些沉积物依然在这些地方,我们可以设想,当年伦敦的码头工人食用牡蛎的数量远远超过当今伦敦金融城最富裕的居民所能负担的程度。As industrialised cities developed, what we would now call “supply chains” were created and preserved, packaged, tinned and eventually chilled products became the more convenient diet. Prestige restaurants, though, never fell out of love with food so fresh that it still moved, and developed dishes that remain in the canon today. It is hard to go wrong with lobster Newburg (egg-enriched cream and cognac), lobster a [grave accent]l’armoricaine (tomato, tarragon, shallots), or the king of the lobster dishes, first created by Auguste Escoffier in about 1880. [cut 1849] Lobster Thermidor is superbly rich and massively complicated. It is also delicious, combining a cream sauce enriched with eggs, sherry and mushrooms with a gratin topping.随着工业化城市的发展,人们创建了我们现在所称的“供应链”,腌制、罐头以及最后出现的冰鲜产品成为了最方便的食品。不过,讲究的餐厅从未放弃对还能动的极其新鲜的食物的喜爱,并且研制出了一些到今天还经久不衰的菜肴。到餐厅点龙虾钮堡(lobster Newburg,配料包括富含鸡蛋的奶油和白兰地)或者美国龙虾(lobster a l’armoricaine,配料包括番茄、龙蒿和葱)总是没错的,还有就是奥古斯特埃斯科菲耶(Auguste Escoffier)在1880年前后首创的金牌龙虾菜:热月龙虾(Lobster Thermidor)风味浓郁,做法繁复。这道菜也十分美味,配料包括富含鸡蛋的奶油酱、雪莉酒、蘑菇加上焗烤脆皮。While some restaurants still feature oyster and lobster as premium dishes, it is not unusual to be offered oysters, fried or baked, as affordable starters — something never seen a few years ago. In the run up to Christmas, the discount supermarket chains Lidl and Iceland are offering frozen lobsters for under 5 (they make a great Thermidor).尽管一些餐厅依然将牡蛎和龙虾作为高端菜肴提供,但将炸牡蛎或者烤牡蛎作为价格较为低廉的前菜供应的餐厅如今也不少——这种事在几年前还闻所未闻。圣诞节即将来临之际,英国的连锁折扣超市Lidl和Iceland出售价格低于5英镑的冰冻龙虾(用它们来烹饪热月龙虾味道极好)。Lobsters and oysters are robust creatures and they breed vigorously. We have artificially kept them as prestige foods, so it is unsurprising that their price is now dropping.龙虾和牡蛎生命力顽强,繁殖能力也很强。它们昂贵的身价是人为的,因此现在价格下降也就不令人惊讶了。Now that previously aristocratic salmon is the go-to protein at every corporate event or provincial wedding, perhaps we should wonder at what is next. The answer may again come from under the sea. In the 1930s Josef Stalin ordered the introduction of the red king or Kamchatka crab to the Barents Sea to create a new source of cheap protein for Soviet workers. Eventually the crabs, indigenous to the northern Pacific, grew to accept their warmer home, breeding prolifically, moulting more regularly and growing up to 2m in leg span.既然以前只有富人才能享用的三文鱼成了企业活动或者婚礼上的首选蛋白质,或许我们应该想想下一个会轮到谁。或许依然来自于海中。上世纪30年代,约瑟夫斯大林(Josef Stalin)下令把红帝王蟹(即勘察加蟹,Kamchatka crab)引入巴伦海(Barents Sea),目的是为苏联的工人开辟一种新的廉价蛋白质来源。最终,这种原产于北太平洋的螃蟹开始适应更温暖的新家,开始大量繁殖、更加频繁地换壳,足展长度达到了2米。They were so successful that they began migrating across the ocean floor in vast packs. Spider crabs the width of cars are, even now, moving along the bottom of the North Sea towards the UK coast, eating everything in their path. It is the stuff of science fiction movies.它们繁殖得太好,因此开始成群地穿过海底进行迁徙。即使是现在,有汽车宽度那么大的蜘蛛蟹也在北海海底向英国海岸迁移,吃掉它们行进路途上的一切。这简直就是科幻电影中发生的事情。At the moment, Kamchatka crab is a delicacy in London restaurants, where the ability to select a live, angry, metre-wide creature from a tank and have it killed and brought steaming to the table is a spectacle that delights the super rich. But the crabs have reached the Norwegian coast. It is only a matter of time before they come ashore here, lurching up the beach having acquired a taste for human flesh — so we need to start acquiring a taste for theirs, fast. King crabmeat is superb, with a meatier texture and sweeter taste than its skinny little capitalist cousin. Surely, government must intervene. Drop the prices — we need to eat them before they eat us.现在,勘察加蟹是伦敦餐厅中的一道佳肴。看着厨师从水箱里选择一只鲜活、张牙舞爪、宽度达到一米的勘察加蟹,宰杀并蒸好端上桌,成为了超级富豪的一件乐事。但这些螃蟹们已经抵达了挪威海岸。这些螃蟹在英伦三岛登陆,在尝到人肉的滋味后横行海滩只是时间问题——因此,我们要先下手为强,先把它们当成美味,而且要快。红帝王蟹的肉质绝佳,比它们在资本主义国家生长的瘦小兄弟更肥硕,更鲜甜。政府必须要加以干预。降低价格——我们得在它们吃掉我们之前吃掉它们。 /201512/414584The hassle of having to charge your smartphone for hours a day could become a thing of the past.今后你可能不需要每天都给手机充几小时的电了。British scientists have created a material that replaces the screen glass for phones, tablets and smartwatches, but uses no power – meaning they could be charged weekly.英国科学家发明了一种物质,它可以替代手机、平板电脑和智能手表的玻璃屏幕,因为该物质不耗电,所以意味着这种屏幕的手机每周充一次电即可。The discovery is significant because more than 90 per cent of a device#39;s battery power illuminates the screen.这项发明十分有意义,因为电子设备90%的电量都是用来为屏幕提供亮度的。Technology firms have focused on improving battery life. But the British experts say tackling the main drain on a gadget#39;s power may give better results.各家技术公司一直在专注提升电池的续航能力。但从事这项技术的英国专家称,找到耗电的主要部件并着手解决,才能取得更好的结果。Oxford University engineer Dr Peiman Hosseini, who invented the material, told the Sunday Telegraph: #39;You have to charge smartwatches every night. But if you had smart glass, you could recharge it just once a week.#39;牛津大学工程师胡赛尼士发明了这种物质。他在接受《星期日电讯报》采访时称:“你不得不每天晚上为智能手表充电。但如果你有了这种智能玻璃屏幕,那你一周充一次电就可以了。”The innovation uses electrical pulses to create displays that require no power and can be viewed even in direct sunlight. Dr Hosseini#39;s company, Bodle Technologies, hopes to have a prototype in a year.这项发明利用电脉冲让屏幕能在不需要电的情况下显示内容,在阳光直射下也能看得清。胡赛尼士在德尔技术公司任职,该公司希望一年后能拥有该屏幕的原型。#39;This is the right moment to be an academic at Oxford,#39; Dr Hosseini said.胡赛尼士说:“作为牛津学者,此时做这项研究很合适。”Battery life is seen as a major stumbling block for modern computing and technology.电池续航能力被视为现代计算机技术的一个主要绊脚石。While the power of technology and lifestyle gadgets has improved exponentially in recent years, batteries have not kept pace.尽管近几年科技发展越来越强大,各种生活工具呈爆发式增长,但电池领域仍没有显著提高。The success of smart watches, including Apple#39;s version, is thought to hinge on solving this problem - because few users are willing to charge a watch every day.人们普遍认为,苹果手表等智能手表的成功与否取决于能否解决电池这个问题——因为几乎没有人愿意每天为手表充电。Gadget firms are also desperate to solve the problem.各家科技产品公司也都在努力想要解决这一问题。Apple, for example, is investigating using fuel cells to power its phones and laptops, and this year was granted a patent for a system it claimed could power its devices for weeks.例如苹果公司就在研究为其手机和笔记本电脑配备燃料电池。公司今年还获得了一项系统专利,该系统据称可以连续几周为苹果设备供电。In 2012 US energy secretary Steven Chu called for a big push to improve batteries, challenging scientists to produce a battery with five times the capacity within five years.2012年,美国能源部长朱棣文呼吁大力帮扶电池领域,希望科学家能在五年内研究出五倍电量的电池。Aside from mobile gadgets, improving battery technology is seen as being key to the success of electric cars, which currently have a limited mileage before they must stop to be recharged.除了移动设备,提升电池技术也是电动汽车发展的关键。目前的电动汽车均有里程上限,因为要时常停下来充电。 /201511/412613Designing a Universe设计一个宇宙Like most of his colleagues at the time, Einstein considered the universe to consist of a cloud of stars, the Milky Way, surrounded by vast space. What was beyond? Was the universe infinite? And if so, what stopped a star from drifting so far that it would have nothing to relate to?就像他当时的大多数同事一样,爱因斯坦认为宇宙由大量恒星、及周围的广阔空间组成。宇宙之外有什么?宇宙是无限的吗?如果是这样的话,什么能阻止一颗恒星漂移到与所有物体脱离联系的距离?To avoid such problems, Einstein set out in 1917 to design a universe without boundaries. In his model, space is bent around to meet itself, like the side of a tin can.为了避免此类问题,爱因斯坦在1917年建立了无限宇宙模型。在他设立的模型中,空间就像锡罐的侧面一样,能够弯曲触碰到自己。“I have committed another suggestion with respect to gravitation which exposes me to the danger of being confined to the nut house,” he confided to a friend.他向一名朋友倾诉,“我提出另一个有关引力的建议,这使我面临被关进疯人院的风险。”This got rid of the need for troublesome boundaries. But this universe was unstable, and the cylinder would collapse if something didn’t hold its sides apart.这就不需要设置令人烦恼的边界了。但这个宇宙并不稳定,如果某种东西没有将两边撑住,这个圆柱就会坍缩。That something was a fudge factor added to the equations Einstein called the cosmological constant. Physically, this new term, denoted by the Greek letter lambda, represented a long-range repulsive force.这种东西就是爱因斯坦在自己的公式中插入的一种被他称为“宇宙常数”的容差系数。从物理学来看,这个由希腊字母“兰布达”(λ)指代的新名词代表着远距离的排斥力。The happy result, Einstein thought, was a static universe of the type nearly everybody believed they lived in and in which geometry was strictly determined by matter.爱因斯坦认为,皆大欢喜的结果就是一个静态宇宙,几乎所有人都认为他们生活在这样一个宇宙中,其中的几何形态完全由物质决定。But it didn’t last. Willem de Sitter, a Dutch astronomer, came up with his own solution describing a universe that had no matter at all and was flying apart.但这没能站住脚。荷兰天文学家威廉·德西特(Willem de Sitter)提出了自己的解答,他描述了一个根本不存在物质且正在飞散的宇宙。“It would be unsatisfactory, in my opinion,” Einstein grumbled, “if a world without matter were possible.”“我认为,如果说一个没有物质的世界是可能存在的,”爱因斯坦抱怨称。“这是无法令人满意的。”And then Edwin Hubble discovered that the universe really was expanding.后来,埃德温·哈勃(Edwin Hubble)发现,宇宙确实在不断膨胀。If the cosmological constant couldn’t keep the universe still, then forget about it and Mach’s Principle, Einstein said. “It dates back to the time in which one thought that the ‘ponderable bodies’ are the only physically real entities,” he later wrote to the British cosmologist Felix Pirani.爱因斯坦表示,既然这个宇宙常数不能使宇宙保持静态,那就别考虑它以及马赫原理了。他后来给英国宇宙学家费利克斯 ·皮拉尼(Felix Pirani)写信称,“这可以追溯到人们认为‘有重量的物质’是唯一真实存在的实体的时候。”But it was too late. Quantum mechanics soon invested empty space with energy. In 1998 astronomers discovered that dark energy, acting just like the cosmological constant, seems to be blowing space-time apart, just as in de Sitter’s universe.但为时已晚。量子力学很快就表明,真空中存在很多能量。1998年,天文学家发现暗能量就像宇宙常数一样,似乎将空间与时间分离,与德西特描述的宇宙相似。In fact, most cosmologists agree today that not quite all motion is relative and that space-time does have an existence independent of matter, though it is anything but static and absolute. The best example are gravitational waves, ripples of compression and stretching speeding through empty space at the speed of light.实际上,大多数宇宙学家如今同意这个观点,即并不是所有运动都是相对的,时空的确独立于物质存在,尽管它不是静态和绝对的。最好的例子就是引力波——以光速超速穿过真空的一波波引力压缩和伸展。Einstein was back and forth on this. In 1916, he told Schwarzschild they did not exist, then published a paper saying they did. In 1936, he and his assistant did the same flip-flop again.爱因斯坦在整个问题上摇摆不定。他在1916年告诉史瓦西,引力波并不存在,后来又发表论文称它存在。他和助手在1936年再次改变观点。Nobody said this was easy, even for Einstein.没人认为这很简单,即使是对爱因斯坦来说。He set out to do one thing, namely make all motion relative, Michel Janssen, a science historian at the University of Minnesota, told a Princeton gathering this month. He failed, but in the process succeeded in doing something very interesting, unifying the effects of acceleration and gravity.明尼苏达大学(University of Minnesota)科学史学家米歇尔·詹森(Michel Janssen)本月在普林斯顿大学参加聚会时表示,爱因斯坦开始做一件事情,就是使所有运动成为相对的。他失败了,但他在这个过程中成功地做了一些有趣的事情,将加速度与引力的效应统一起来。The story goes to show, he said, that Bob Dylan was right when he sang “there’s no success like failure,” but wrong that “failure is no success at all.”他表示,这个故事说明,鲍勃·迪伦(BobDylan)那句“没有像失败这样的成功”是对的,但“失败根本不是成功”是错误的。Einstein’s greatest success came in 1919, when Arthur Eddington did the experiment that Freundlich had set out to do, and ascertained that lights in the heavens were all askew during an eclipse, bent by the sun’s dark gravity, just as Einstein had predicted.爱因斯坦在1919年取得了巨大成功,当时亚瑟·爱丁顿(Arthur Eddington)做了弗罗因德利希之前开始做的实验,他发现,正如爱因斯坦预测的那样,出现日食时,天空中的光线在太阳的暗引力下发生弯曲,出现偏斜。Asked what he would have done if general relativity had failed, Einstein said, “Then I would have been sorry for the dear Lord. The theory is correct.”被问及如果广义相对论失败了,他会做什么时,爱因斯坦曾说,“那我会替敬爱的主感到难过。这个理论是正确的。”And still the champ.而且直到今天还是最棒的。 /201511/412455

When work became too much for Will Meyerhofer’s client, a twenty-something associate at a big law firm, she slipped into a quiet room in the office. Then she shut the door, pulled down the blinds and started to weep. Through her tears she became dimly aware of a noise coming through the wall: it was a colleague sobbing in the next room. 威尔迈耶霍弗(Will Meyerhofer)有一名二十多岁的客户,是一家大型律师事务所的的助理,当工作让她感到难以承受的时候,她会在办公室里找一个安静的房间悄悄溜入去,关上门,放下窗帘,开始哭泣。泪眼朦胧中,她隐约听到声音从墙的另一边透过来:那是一名同事在隔壁房间里抽泣。 Mr Meyerhofer tells this story to underline the misery that lurks beneath the successful of some lawyers. “There is something unique about the law partnership structure, billable hours and the brutal competition of a law firm,” he says. 迈耶霍弗用这个故事来表明潜藏在一些律师光鲜表象下的辛酸。“律师事务所的合伙制结构、计费小时制和残酷的竞争在某种程度是独一无二的,”他说。 Based in Tribeca, New York, the former lawyer is a psychotherapist who has carved out a niche seeing clients from the legal profession; some who he counsels over Skype are in Britain, Japan and India. There is a steady stream of anxious, burnt out and depressed lawyers coming to see him, he says. While the banking sector has attracted attention for its punishing work conditions, he argues that lawyers can have it worse. In banking, there is an expectation that working life can improve as bankers scale the greasy pole, but this is not the case for lawyers. 这位曾担任律师的心理治疗师在纽约翠贝卡区(Tribeca)工作,他开拓了一个专门针对法律人士的利基市场;一些他通过Skype提供咨询的客户远在英国、日本和印度。迈耶霍弗表示,不断有焦虑不安、心力交瘁和抑郁消沉的律师前来找他。尽管业因为严苛的工作条件而受到关注,但他认为,律师们的情况可能有过之而无不及。在业,升职不容易,不过人们可以寄望于工作状态或许会随着级别攀升而改善,而律师们的情况就不是这样了。 “You’re the equivalent of a banking analyst for all your life. It’s brutal, it follows you home.” This familiarity with legal roles and culture means he is empathetic to lawyers. In therapy sessions with clients, some tyrannical bosses’ names keep coming up. “你一辈子都在做相当于分析师的工作。工作很辛苦,即使你回家了它也如影随形。”这种对律师工作和文化的熟悉意味着迈耶霍弗能和律师产生共鸣。在客户的治疗疗程中,一些专横的老板的名字被不断提起。 Chicago-based Alan Levin is a co-founder of a practice of lawyers turned therapists who cater to the legal profession. He says that while it is clearly not a pre-requisite to have been a lawyer to understand one, it certainly helps. “A client can refer to something in their experience and they don’t need to explain it,” Mr Levin says. 在芝加哥工作的艾伦莱文(Alan Levin)是这个由律师转行的心理治疗师组成、专门针对法律人士的心理治疗所的联合创始人之一。他表示,虽然曾经担任律师显然不是理解律师处境的先决条件,但这样的经历肯定是有帮助的。“客户在提及他们经历的一些事情时,不用费力对其进行解释,”莱文说。 The former employment lawyer says that there can be a divide between the corporate and caring professions. A therapist without a corporate background might suggest a client could decline to work on a Saturday. “They don’t understand how impossible it can sometimes feel to turn down work.” 这位前劳工法律师表示,在公司里工作跟在心理治疗所工作可能迥然不同。没在公司里工作过的治疗师可能会建议客户,可以拒绝在周六工作。“他们不理解拒绝工作有时候会让人感觉多么不可能。” Mr Meyerhofer, who attended Harvard and New York University School of Law before going to work at Sullivan amp; Cromwell, in its securities and capital markets divisions, says he did not fit in. 上过哈佛大学(Harvard University)和纽约大学法学院(New York University School of Law)之后,迈耶霍弗进入了苏利文与克伦威尔律师事务所(Sullivan amp; Cromwell),在那里的券和资本市场部门工作。他说,自己那时感觉格格不入。 “I hated it. I wasn’t cut out to be a corporate lawyer. It was very competitive, long hours, doing detailed work.” In the end, he was “delicately shown the door”. “我讨厌这份工作。我不适合当公司法律师——竞争非常激烈、加班时间很长、做一些非常具体的工作。”最后,他被“委婉地请走了”。 Today, he looks back and realises he was depressed and anxious. As well as becoming an insomniac, he gained 45lbs as a result of his legal stint. After retraining as a psychotherapist and writing blogs on the emotional fallout of working in the legal profession, he discovered former colleagues who had always seemed happy confessing to anxiety and self-doubt. “I didn’t realise so many colleagues were so miserable.” 今天,他回顾过去,意识到他当时既焦虑又抑郁。在律所工作的那段时间,他经常失眠,还增重了45磅。在重新接受培训成为一名心理治疗师,并撰写客讲述法律职业对情绪造成的影响后,他发现了一些看起来总是非常快乐的前同事坦陈自己感到焦虑和自我怀疑。“我之前没有意识到有这么多同事如此痛苦。” As a therapist, Mr Meyerhofer encounters many clients who, he believes, are subconsciously sabotaging their careers: for example, by talking back to their boss in the hope that they might be paid off. He asks clients: if you were fired tomorrow how would you feel? Relief is a common response. 作为一名治疗师,迈耶霍弗遇到了很多在他看来在潜意识地破坏自己职业前途的客户:比如,顶撞老板,暗地里希望老板或许会给他们一笔遣散费让他们走人。他问客户:如果你明天就被解雇了,你会有什么感觉?许多人的回答都是:解脱。 Some of his female clients express frustration about being sidelined, sexually harassed and given the office “housework”, such as looking after junior colleagues. 一些女性客户说自己被边缘化、受到性骚扰或者被交付照看级别较低的同事等琐事,因而感到沮丧。 Therapists’ clients are a self-selecting group. They are in therapy because they want help. In any case, not all of Mr Meyerhofer’s lawyer clients feel miserable about work. “Some love law,” he says. Nor would he always advise those feeling trapped by their job to hand in their notice. Tweaks to their role, or a sideways move, might be better. 治疗师的客户是一个自我选择的群体。他们之所以接受治疗是因为他们需要帮助。无论如何,迈耶霍弗的律师客户并非都感觉工作令他们痛苦。“有些人热爱法律,”他说。他也不会总是劝告那些感觉被工作困住的客户递交辞呈。调整岗位角色,或者平级调动,可能会更好。 A common problem Mr Levin, 68, sees among his lawyer clients is what he labels the “curse of unlimited potential”. These are people who have been told they are bright and feel they must live up to their potential. “The curse is it’s unlimited and it can never be fulfilled.” 现年68岁的莱文认为,他的律师客户存在一个共同问题,他将其称之为“无限潜力的诅咒”。这些人一直被告知他们很聪明,他们感到必须实现自己的潜力。“这之所以是个诅咒,是因为潜力是无限的,永远不可能完全实现。” A former partner at a “magic circle” firm in the City, who is retraining as a psychoanalyst at the Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust, says lawyers can become divorced from their emotions. “On the one hand you have everything and feel nothing.” In the end, she felt the job was inessential yet “vastly overpaid”. 一位伦敦金融城(City of London)“魔法圈”律所(Magic Circle,指英国五大律所——译注)的前合伙人经过重新培训成为了塔维斯托克和波特曼NHS基金会信托(Tavistock and Portman NHS Foundation Trust)的心理分析师。她表示,律师可能会自我麻痹,把自己的感觉搁到一边。“你应有尽有,却没有任何感觉。”最后,她感觉这份工作并不重要,却“挣得太多”。 Anxiety can run high on the topic of compensation, particularly when it comes to bonuses, says Mr Levin. “It’s not about the money,” he insists. “Most would feel better if they were earning half a million dollars and everyone around them earned the same or less, than if they had m and everyone else was on .6m.” 在薪酬的话题上,尤其是奖金方面,律师的焦虑情绪可能会非常严重,莱文说。“这不是钱的问题,”他坚称,“如果他们挣50万美元,周围所有人也或多或少是这个数字,他们会比自己挣100万美元,而其他所有人都挣160万美元感觉更好。” The money, he says, is about validation, particularly important in a workplace where few people receive thanks from clients, colleagues or their superiors. 他说,收入是一种明,在一个少有人从客户、同事或者上级那里获得感谢的工作场所尤为重要。 Money and prestige become a trap, observes Mr Meyerhofer. A well-paid senior lawyer frequently expresses anxiety that if she left her job she would be out on the street. Such catastrophising, he says, is far from atypical. 迈耶霍弗指出,金钱和身份地位成为了陷阱。一位收入丰厚的高级律师常常表达她的焦虑情绪,担忧她如果不再当律师了就会露宿街头。他表示,这种杞人忧天的情绪远非个案。 Sarah Weinstein is based in California and has been a psychotherapist for more than a year, after working as a lawyer for 12 years. The 44-year-old says her clients appreciate the chance to let their guard down. “Lawyers pretend they are fine all the time.” Putting on a confident exterior can be exhausting. 住在加利福利亚的萨拉温斯坦(Sarah Weinstein)担任心理治疗师已经1年多了,此前她当了12年的律师。现年44岁的温斯坦表示,能够放下防备让她的客户感觉很好。“律师们要时刻假装自己状态良好。”以自信的姿态示人可能会让人精疲力竭。 Today, Mr Meyerhofer has mixed feelings about going to law school. “I spent a huge amount of money on law school and got depressed. But I have developed a practice out of it.” While having lawyers as clients is more lucrative than janitors, he says he earns the same now as he did when he was a junior lawyer. 现在,对于上法学院,迈耶霍弗感觉复杂。“我当年上法学院花了一笔巨资,结果还抑郁了。但这段经历又让我开办了一家心理治疗所。”虽然为律师做心理治疗师挣的钱比下有余,但迈耶霍弗说自己现在挣得也就和他当初任初级律师时一样多。 He is critical of law schools, which he sees as “big cash cows”, believing too many students are admitted who are ill-equipped to become lawyers. 他批评法学院,认为它们只顾赚钱,太多被法学院录取的学生其实并不具备当律师的条件。 He advises many law student clients to quit. “A lot of kids are so unhappy.” 他建议很多法学院学生退学。“很多学生非常不开心。” On occasion, a client will tell Mr Meyerhofer that he is a fraud, whiner or loser: that he is only a therapist because he could not make it in law. He freely admits he was not a great lawyer: “I’m not a complete blithering idiot … I didn’t want to do it.” Moreover, he says, his job allows him weekends off and evenings to himself. 有时也会有客户说迈耶霍弗是个骗子、抱怨者或者失败者:他成为治疗师的唯一原因是因为他在律师界混不下去。迈耶霍弗坦率地承认他不是一个好律师:“我不是一个彻头彻尾的傻瓜……我不想当律师。”另外,他表示,治疗师的工作让他周末能够正常休息,晚上也不用加班。 /201603/429554THERE IS A STRONG CURRENT of nostalgia for the late ’70s and early ’80s in New York, even among those who never lived through it — the era when the city was edgy and dangerous, when women carried Mace in their purses, when even men asked the taxi driver to wait until they’d crossed the 15 feet to the front door of their building, when a blackout plunged whole neighborhoods into frantic looting, when subway cars were covered with graffiti, when Balanchine was at the height of his powers and the New York State Theater was New York’s intellectual salon, when John Lennon was murdered by a Salinger-ing born-again, when Philip Roth was aly famous, Don DeLillo had yet to become famous, and most literary insiders were betting on Harold Brodkey’s long-awaited novel, which his editor, Gordon Lish, declared would be ‘‘the one necessary American narrative work of this century.’’ (It flopped when it finally came out in 1991 as ‘‘The Runaway Soul.’’)对1970年代末、80年代初纽约的怀念,正日渐浓烈,连从未在那个年代生活过的人都参与了进来——那时的纽约躁动而危险,女人出门要带防狼水,连男人下了出租车都会要求司机先别走,要等他们走完从车到家门那5米。那时的一场停电让整片街区陷入疯狂的抢掠,地铁车厢满是涂鸦。彼时,巴兰钦(Balanchine)的权势正如日中天,纽约州剧院成为纽约知识分子沙龙,一个爱读塞林格的重生教徒杀了约翰·列侬(John Lennon),菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)已经成名,堂·德里罗(Don DeLillo)则还没有,文学圈内大多把希望寄托在哈罗德·布洛基(Harold Brodkey)的一本期盼已久的小说上,编辑戈登·理什(Gordon Lish)宣称它将是“本世纪最不可或缺的美国叙事作品”。(待到1991年,这本叫《逃脱的灵魂》[The Runaway Soul]的小说终于发表时,反响十分惨淡。)This was the last period in American culture when the distinction between highbrow and lowbrow still pertained, when writers and painters and theater people still wanted to be (or were willing to be) ‘‘martyrs to art.’’ This was the last moment when a novelist or poet might withdraw a book that had aly been accepted for publication and continue to fiddle with it for the next two or three years. This was the last time when a New York poet was reluctant to introduce to his arty friends someone who was a Hollywood film director, for fear the movies would be considered too low-status.那是美国文化史上最后一段尚存高雅、低俗之分的时光,无论是写字的、画画的、排戏的,都还希望(或乐意)成为“艺术的殉道者”。那时候还有小说家或诗人会收回一本已经可以出版的书,再花上两三年去摆弄它。那时候,一个纽约诗人会不情愿把一个好莱坞电影导演介绍给自己的艺术圈朋友,因为担心那些电影层次太低。Recently there’s been, in TV and film and certainly in books, an intense yearning for a specific five-year period in New York City, those years between the blackout in 1977, and 1982, when AIDS was finally named by the Centers for Disease Control. First was Rachel Kushner’s 2013 novel ‘‘The Flamethrowers,’’ whose heroine is a sharp-eyed bystander in the SoHo art scene, and now, the forthcoming novel ‘‘City on Fire’’ by Garth Risk Hallberg, which also concerns itself with the same time period. There are two television series in development that take place in the late 1970s as well, one directed by Martin Scorsese and co-written with Mick Jagger; the other by Baz Luhrmann. Next year, the Whitney will mount the first retrospective of David Wojnarowicz, the ultimate East Village grunge artist, in over 15 years; the work of his lover, the photographer Peter Hujar — which has recently been used both for an advertising campaign for the men’s wear designer Patrik Ervell and on the cover of the T editor Hanya Yanagihara’s novel ‘‘A Little Life’’ — will be the subject of a forthcoming retrospective at New York’s Morgan Library.近年的一些电视、电影——当然还有书——对那五年的纽约表达了格外强烈的怀念,也就是从发生大停电的1977年,到疾病控制中心正式采纳“艾滋病”这一称呼的1982年。首先是蕾切尔·库什纳(Rachel Kushner)在2013年发表的小说《喷火器》(The Flamethrowers),书中眼光锐利的女主人公是苏豪区艺术圈的一个旁观者,而加斯·里斯克·哈尔贝格(Garth Risk Hallberg)即将出版的小说《烈火焚城》(City on Fire)也关注了这一段时间。此外,有两部以1970年代末为背景的电视剧正在筹拍中,其中一部由马丁·斯科塞斯(Martin Scorsese)执导,米克·贾格尔(Mick Jagger)是编剧之一;另一部的剧创是巴兹·吕尔曼(Baz Luhrmann)。明年,惠特尼美术馆(Whitney)将为东村肮脏艺术第一人大卫·沃伊纳洛维茨(David Wojnarowicz)举办15年来的首场回顾展;他的恋人、摄影师彼得·胡亚(Peter Hujar)的作品,最近被男装设计师帕特里克·厄维尔(Patrik Ervell)用在品牌广告中,而《T》杂志的副主编柳原樱(Hanya Yanagiharad)的小说《小生命》(A Little Life),也用他的照片作为封面。现在,纽约根图书馆(New York’s Morgan Library)即将举办胡亚回顾展。COLLECTIVELY, THESE WORKS express a craving for the city that, while at its worst, was also more democratic: a place and a time in which, rich or poor, you were stuck together in the misery (and the freedom) of the place, where not even money could insulate you. They are a reaction to what feels like a safer, more burnished and efficient (but cornerless and predictable) city. Even those of us who claim not to miss those years don’t quite sound convinced. ‘‘Well, I sure don’t have nostalgia about being mugged,’’ John Waters told me. Though then he continued: ‘‘But I do get a little weary when I realize that if anybody could find one dangerous block left in the city, there’d be a stampede of restaurant owners fighting each other off to open there first. It seems almost impossible to remember that just going out in New York was once dangerous. Do any artistic troublemakers want to feel that their city may be the safest in America? Who’s going to write a book about walking the safe streets of Manhattan? It’s always right before a storm that the air is filled with dangerous possibilities.’’综合来看,这些作品表达了对这座城市的眷恋,它正处在最糟糕、却又更平等的时期:当此时世,无论穷人富人,都被困在这个不幸(与自由)的地方,连金钱都无法带来豁免。它们似乎是对一座更安全、更闪亮、更高效(但又没有秘密、很容易看透)的城市的抗拒。即便是我们这些声称并不怀念那个年代的人,听起来也没有那么笃定。“被打劫的经历我肯定是不怀念的,”约翰·沃特斯(John Waters)对我说。不过他接着又说:“但是,如今只要有人发现,这座城市里还有哪个街区是不安全的,立刻就会有大把餐馆老板赶来,争着要开第一家餐馆,一想到这一层,我觉得还是挺烦人的。似乎已经很难想象,在纽约出门曾经是一件危险的事。作为爱惹事生非的创作人,有谁会喜欢生活在美国最安全的城市呢?在曼哈顿街头平平安安地走着,谁能用这种事写出一本书来呢?当空气里弥漫着危险的可能性时,就是一场风暴即将到来了。”THEN, THERE WERE only possibilities. The cultural world — at least the cultural world that mattered — was much smaller then. Painters knew musicians knew writers, and they were all accessible. ‘‘It was easy then to meet John Ashbery or Jasper Johns,’’ says Brad Gooch, the author of the recent memoir about love and loss in the ’70s, ‘‘Smash Cut.’’ ‘‘Not that we took them for granted.’’ According to Fran Lebowitz, everyone who Andy Warhol’s Interview knew one another, and yet this small world had a lasting influence on American taste and music and painting and poetry and amusements. These years held the origins of the Downtown Scene, a multidisciplinary, simultaneous movement that was headquartered in the East Village and was characterized by the birth of punk music, gonzo journalism and disposable painting; by body art and the messy theatrical antics of La MaMa. At its height in the mid-’70s, Max’s Kansas City, on Park and 18th, was a home to the New York Dolls, the Ramones, Blondie, Klaus Nomi and Sid Vicious. In the East Village, on Bleecker and Bowery, was CBGB, which was home to Television, Patti Smith and many of the bands that also played at Max’s. Little temporary art galleries were opening and closing every week in the East Village.那时候处处都是可能性。文化圈子,至少是重要的文化圈子,比现在要小得多。画家音乐家作家彼此都认识,都能接触到。“那时候要跟约翰·阿什伯里(John Ashbery)或贾斯培·琼斯(Jasper Johns)见个面很容易,”布拉德·古奇(Brad Gooch)说,他最近出版的一本回忆录《Smach Cut》讲的是70年代的爱与迷失,“但不等于我们当时觉得这没什么大不了。”据弗兰·勒维茨(Fran Lebowitz)说,安迪·沃霍尔(Andy Warhol)的《访问》(Interview)杂志的读者,相互都是认识的,然而就是这么一个小小的圈子,对美国的品味、音乐、绘画、诗歌、产生了经久不衰的影响。以东村为中心、多领域同时进行的下城运动(Downtown Scene),就在此时萌发,育了朋克音乐、冈佐新闻报道(gonzo)和一次性绘画;身体艺术和乱哄哄的La MaMa戏剧实验也是这一运动的重要组成部分。这股风潮在1970年代中期达至顶峰,公园大道和第18街的Max’s Kansas City是New York Dolls、the Ramones、Blondie、Klaus Nomi和Sid Vicious的据点。东村的布里克街和包厘街有CBGB,Television、帕蒂·史密斯(Patti Smith)以及许多同时也会去Max#39;s的乐队在那里演出。在东村的角角落落,每周都会有各种小型临时画廊出现、消失。Meanwhile, there was also the High Mandarin moment, which has scarcely been isolated or studied as a single impulse, but was the last gasp of both a late-age Modernism and a 1960s-era radicalism: a paradoxical combination of elitism in aesthetics and an egalitarianism bordering on socialism and utopianism in politics. The representative figures of this New York were Susan Sontag, Jasper Johns, George Balanchine, Robert Wilson, Robert Mapplethorpe, Richard Sennett, Richard Howard, John Ashbery and many other cultural arbiters — Barbara Epstein and Robert Silvers, the editors of the New York Review of Books; Bob Gottlieb at Knopf; the critic Richard Poirier. Some of these people weren’t interested in politics at all, but if they were, their politics were radical. Mapplethorpe — with his lubricious African-American nudes, portraits of society ladies and still lifes of ‘‘New York flowers’’ (as he once called them) — was one of the few people of the period who braided these high and low strands of New York culture. Could such a phenomenon occur today? Maybe in Berlin. But not in New York.此外还有所谓的“高绝派”(High Mandarin),这场运动甚少被独立出来,作为一个单独的流派进行研究,但它是晚期现代主义和1960年代激进主义的最后一丝存在:它将美学上的精英主义和政治上近乎社会主义与乌托邦思想的平等主义吊诡地合而为一。在纽约,这场运动的代表人物包括苏珊·桑塔格(Susan Sontag)、贾斯培·琼斯、乔治·巴兰钦(George Balanchine)、罗伯特·威尔逊(Robert Wilson)、罗伯特·梅普尔索普(Robert Mapplethorpe)、理查德·桑内特(Richard Sennett)、理查德·霍华德(Richard Howard)、约翰·阿什伯里,以及《纽约书评》(New York Review of Books)编辑芭芭拉·爱泼斯坦(Barbara Epstein)和罗伯特·锡尔弗斯(Robert Silvers)、Knopf出版社的鲍勃·戈特利布(Bob Gottlieb)、家理查德·波里尔(Richard Poirier)等等文化权威。这些人要么对政治完全不感兴趣,要么就是政治激进人士。以淫秽的非裔美国人裸体、社交女伶肖像和被他称为“纽约花朵”的静物照著称的梅普尔索普,是当时少数能将纽约文化的高低两界连接起来的人。这样的现象,今天还会有吗?柏林也许可以。纽约不会了。THOSE WERE YEARS when rents were low, when would-be writers, singers, dancers could afford to live in Manhattan’s (East, if not, West) Village, before everyone marginal was further marginalized by being squeezed out to Bushwick or Hoboken. Face-to-face encounters are essential to a city’s vitality, even among people who aren’t sure of each other’s names, for the exchange of ideas and to generate a sense of electricity. In the ’70s, creative people of all sorts could meet without plans, could give each other tips or discuss burgeoning theories or markets or movements.那时候房租便宜,做着作家、歌手、舞者梦的人们,尚能在曼哈顿(东村,西村是不太可能的)找到栖身之地,不像到后来所有边缘人类被进一步边缘化,只能住到布什维克(Bushwick)或霍肯(Hoboken)。一座城市要有炽烈的交流,才能产生一种激越的活力,面对面的相遇是至关重要的,哪怕你连对方名字都叫不上来。在70年代,从事各类创作的人们可以一时兴起去见个面,分享一点小建议,讨论新兴的理论、市场或运动。In gay life, that’s called ‘‘cruising’’ (although the French equivalent, draguer, applies to all denominations). In the period before AIDS, the heyday of Studio 54 and Mineshaft, gays were on the verge of being dubbed trend-setters and tastemakers; Frank Rich even wrote a retrospective article for Esquire in 1987 in which he looked back at ‘‘the homosexualization of America.’’ But the outbreak of the plague in 1981 changed all that. Suddenly the glamour boys, with their showboat bodies and high-paying jobs, were Auschwitz skeletons covered with black spots, like Canova’s unfinished marble statues. No one wanted to exchange kisses with someone infected, especially not before the path of transmission was identified (Poppers? Mustaches? Mosquitoes? Tears?). Whereas straight guys had been intrigued with gay life before and could (almost) contemplate experimenting, suddenly the barrier between the two orientations shot up, higher than the Iron Curtain.在同性恋者的生活中,这种见面方式叫做“cruising”(巡游,不过它在法文的对应词draguer是各方人士都会使用的)。那时,AIDS时代尚未到来、Studio 54和Mineshaft等夜店正值鼎盛,同性恋者即将建立起风尚和品位引领者的名声;弗兰克·里奇(Frank Rich)甚至在1987年给《时尚先生》(Esquire)杂志写了一篇纪念文章,称那是“美国同性恋化”时期。然而1981年的疫情爆发改变了一切。转眼之间,身材俊美、从事高薪工作的小鲜肉们,成了全身长着黑斑、骨瘦如柴的奥斯维辛集中营囚犯,就像一座座卡诺瓦的未完成大理石雕像。谁也不愿意跟感染了病毒的人亲吻,尤其是要知道当时尚未明确传染的方式(男同使用的硝酸戊酯溶剂?胡子?蚊子?眼泪?)。有异性恋者一度被同性恋者生活所吸引,本来(几乎)打算做一点尝试,但突然间,两种性取向中间筑起了比“铁幕”还高的壁垒。Now, with the Supreme Court’s decision legalizing marriage equality and with what might be called ‘‘the banalization of gay life,’’ the imp of the perverse has made ’70s-style queers look mighty attractive. Brad reminded me that the young gays of that decade had been ruthlessly oppressed when they were growing up in Eisenhower’s or Nixon’s America. ‘‘Finally they were free to be open,’’ he says. ‘‘And we felt that we were glamorous and attractive.’’ Certainly this very romantic view of gay life has come back into currency — and it is in the possession of straight as well as gay artists, male or female. It’s a view I subscribe to myself, and that permeates my memoir about the period, ‘‘City Boy.’’随着最高法院裁决同性婚姻合法,以及“同性恋生活的寻常化”,“悖理的恶魔”令70年代风格的酷儿显得分外迷人。布拉德·古奇提醒我,那个年代的同性恋者,是在艾森豪威尔或尼克松时代的高压下长大的。“当他们终于可以公开的时候,”他说,“我们会觉得我们浑身散发着魅力与诱惑。”这种对同性恋生活的浪漫观感,显然正在重新兴起——在艺术家中十分普遍,无论男女弯直。这也是我本人所认同的,在我对那个时期的回忆录《城市男孩》(City Boy)中时有体现。BUT THOSE DAYS, those years, are gone. ‘‘Love Among the Ruins,’’ one might have called it, a time when young unknowns could achieve fame or at least rub shoulders with it, if they didn’t mind the rats galloping underfoot or a stickup in broad daylight on busy Christopher Street.但那些岁月,那个年代,已经远去了。有人说,那是“废墟间飘荡的爱情”,在那个时期,只要不介意脚下乱窜的老鼠,或大白天在繁华的克里斯托弗街被打劫,籍籍无名的年轻人也可以取得声名,或者至少跟名人站在一起。That delicate ecology has now been irreparably damaged. Of course there are still wonderfully intelligent people around; as you walk past tables in a New York restaurant, you want to join in three out of four conversations. And half the people you meet here would be interviewed or arrested in any other city. But the cultural flame that passed to New York from Europe with all the refugees in World War II and burned bright in the ’50s with the Abstract Expressionists and the New York School poets — and brighter still in the late ’70s — now feels as if it’s been doused. As a group movement, at least — though individual sparks still glimmer here and there. Only the happy few would say the excitement was worth the danger, the ambient ugliness and the poverty.这种脆弱的生态,如今已经遭到无法修补的破坏。当然,强闻识的人还是有;当你走在一间纽约餐馆里,听着邻桌的对话,其中有四分之三是乐意参与的。你在这里遇到的人,放在任何别的城市,有一半会被人采访或逮捕。然而,由“二战”欧洲难民带到纽约,在50年代抽象表现主义绘画和纽约学派诗歌中熊熊燃烧,一直延续到70年代末的文化之火,似乎是被浇灭了。至少作为群体的运动是这样——虽然还时不时会有一些个别的火花。只有极少数的乐天派会认为,用危险、贫穷和脏乱差的环境换来激越的生活是值得的。 /201510/406505

It was a gorgeous fall day in Dumbo, Brooklyn, and Keira Cannon was holding one of the weekend photo shoots she does with her favorite subject: her son, Princeton.在布鲁克林丹波(Dumbo)一个美丽的秋日,凯拉·坎农(Keira Cannon)正在进行周末摄影,拍摄她最喜欢的对象:儿子普林斯顿(Princeton)。Princeton wore leather pants, black-and-white checked sneakers and a black sweatshirt with an open-mouthed vampire graphic. But that wasn’t quite enough flair for his mother. So Ms. Cannon whipped out a purple faux-fur jacket — except that Princeton was, in teenager-speak, “done.”普林斯顿穿着皮裤、黑白格运动鞋和黑色运动衫,运动衫上的图案是张着大嘴的吸血鬼。不过,在坎农看来,这还不够显示她的才华。于是她拿出一件紫色人造毛皮夹克,只不过普林斯顿“已经完事了”(done,现在的青少年喜欢用这个词)。But Princeton is not a teenager. He is 5 years old. A happy-seeming little boy, he played with his scooter, balanced on the curb, twirled in endless circles but only had so much tolerance for the professional photographer whom Ms. Cannon, 38 and a pastry chef, had hired to populate his Instagram feed, Prince and the Baker, which has more than 5,600 followers.不过,普林斯顿还算不上青少年,他才5岁。他看起来兴致很高,骑着踏板车,一会儿在马路沿上保持平衡,一会儿不停地原地打转,不过他对妈妈请来的专业摄影师的容忍度只有这么大。他的妈妈坎农38岁,是个糕点大厨。她请摄影师拍照是为了让他们的Instagram账户Prince and the Baker更受欢迎,目前这个账户有5600多名粉丝。When the photographer attempted to coax him to pose for one more shot with the Brooklyn Bridge behind him, he gave her a polite, “No thanks.” It didn’t help that children were riding past him on scooters of their own, or bicycles.当摄影师试图哄他以身后的布鲁克林桥为背景再摆个姿势拍照时,他礼貌地说:“不,谢谢。”这时有几个孩子骑着踏板车或自行车从他身边经过,他更是按捺不住了。Once the half-hour shoot was over, Ms. Cannon posted multiple photos of Princeton in the outfit on the Instagram feed, tagging the Canadian online shop, the Mini Life, that had provided it, and the brands included. In return, she would get a shopping discount and keep the clothing, worth about 0.半小时的拍摄一结束,坎农就在Instagram上发布了几张普林斯顿穿那套衣的照片,并加上了提供这套装的加拿大网店Mini Life以及装品牌的标签。作为回报,她能得到店铺折扣,并保留这些原价约为350美元的衣。During busy seasons, she receives such packages weekly. Depending on the brand, Ms. Cannon will sometimes earn a payment of to 0 per post, she said, adding that L’Officiel Enfant, a showroom in Midtown, once paid her 0 for a look-book shoot.在旺季,她每周都能接到这样的活儿。坎农说,根据品牌不同,一个帖子的报酬约为50至100美元不等。她补充说,中城的装推广公司L’Officiel Enfant有一次为一幅时尚画册照片付给她250美元。Typically, Princeton is happy to be in the spotlight. “He kind of loves it,” Ms. Cannon said. “A lot of followers will actually recognize him in the street. And he’ll say, ‘How do people know me?’ or ‘People think that I’m adorable?’ I’m like, ‘Yeah, you’re totally adorable.’ He’s a sweet little guy, and it opens him up in ways because people want to talk to him about what he’s wearing and how he’s doing.”总的来说,普林斯顿很高兴站在聚光灯下。坎农说:“他挺喜欢的。很多粉丝真的能在大街上认出他来。他会问:‘他们怎么认识我呀?’或者‘他们是不是觉得我很可爱?’我会说:‘是啊,你非常可爱。’他是个可爱的小男孩,这让他更开朗,因为人们想跟他谈论他的衣和他的情况。”The entertainment industry has long been populated with (some may say built by) stage mothers like Rose Hovick, Jaid Barrymore, Teri Shields, Dina Lohan, and reigning “momager” Kris Jenner. But Instagram, which Pew Research says is the fastest growing major social network among adults in the ed States, has become an express track for parents interested in sharing and sometimes capitalizing on the visual story line of their children’s lives.业从来都不缺培养明星的妈妈(有人甚至说,业是这些妈妈们发展起来的),比如罗丝·霍维克(Rose Hovick)、雅伊德·巴里莫尔(Jaid Barrymore)、特丽·希尔兹(Teri Shields)、迪娜·洛汉(Dina Lohan),以及首屈一指的“妈咪经纪人”克里斯·詹纳(Kris Jenner)。不过,对那些喜欢分享孩子生活照片、有时从中赚钱的父母们来说,Instagram已经成为一个便利的渠道。据皮尤研究中心(Pew Research)称,在美国成年人中,Instagram是发展最快的主要社交网站。Other than a few recommendations about proper tagging, endorsement deals resulting from such activity largely lie outside the protective scope of the Federal Trade Commission, said Susan Scafidi, the academic director of the Fashion Law Institute at Fordham University.福德姆大学(Fordham University)时尚法律学院(Fashion Law Institute)的学术主管苏珊·斯卡菲迪(Susan Scafidi)说,除了几项关于恰当加标签的建议之外,这些交易大多不在联邦贸易委员会(Federal Trade Commission)的保护范围之内。“While the modeling industry isn’t perfect by any means, it is at least, at the level of children, regulated to some extent,” she said, referring to limitations on work hours and the creation of a trust fund for wages.她说:“虽然模特业本来就不完美,但是至少在儿童这个层面,还是有一些规定的。”她指的是限制工作时长,要求设立信托基金来管理报酬。Regardless of how their time and money is being handled, the amateur child models of Instagram are aly more famous on the Internet than most of your co-workers. There’s 4-year-old London Scout, with 105,000 followers; 2-year-old Millie-Belle Diamond, with 143,000; 4-year-old Michelle (154,000); Gavin (200,000); and the Mini Style Hacker (260,000). Then there’s the prince of Instagram: Alonso Mateo, with more than 600,000 followers. He recently attended the Dior show at Paris Fashion Week.不管他们的工作时间有多长,收入是怎么处理的,Instagram上的这些业余儿童模特在网上的名气比你的大部分同事还要大。比如4岁的伦敦·斯科特(London Scout)有10.5万粉丝;2岁的Millie-Belle Diamond有14.3万粉丝;4岁的米歇尔(Michelle,15.4万);加文(Gavin,20万);Mini Style Hacker(26万)。还有Instagram王子:阿隆索·马特奥(Alonso Mateo),他有60多万粉丝。前不久,他在巴黎时装周上参加了迪奥(Dior)的时装秀。Princeton’s dad, Sai Roberts, 40, a graphic designer, has more modest aspirations. “His mom and I have reviewed some of the other Instagram kids who have a lot of followers, and so there are some concerns in the sense that if it was to get out of hand, but so far it’s really been a positive experience,” he said. “I’m very proud that he’s getting exposure, and I hope he’s able to use that for his own creative flair and voice as he grows older.”普林斯顿的爸爸赛·罗伯茨(Sai Roberts)今年40岁,是一位平面设计师,他的愿望更朴实。他说:“我和他妈妈看了Instagram上有很多粉丝的小孩,担心情况会失控,不过到目前为止,我们获得的都是正面体验。有更多人认识他,我为此感到很骄傲,我希望他长大后能用他的名气发挥自己的创造性天分,表达自己的想法。”Sometimes adults are drawn to the feed: people who post comments on their own Instagram pages like “Can I be her?” or “She’s become my style inspo” or “I love the hair!!!!”有时,成人们也会被那些照片吸引,他们在自己的Instagram主页上发布这样的:“我能变成她那样吗?”“她成了我的造型灵感来源。”“我超喜欢这种发型!!!”And marketers are also taking an interest. Athena Rotolo, who owns the Mini Life website, said she was pleased with the transactions she has struck with Ms. Cannon. “She requests certain items that fit in for the style of the shoot and then I send them off to her,” Ms. Rotolo said. “So instead of me having to hire someone and pay all those fees, it’s a mutual relationship.”市场推广人员也产生了兴趣。Mini Life网站的所有者雅典娜·罗托洛(Athena Rotolo)说:她对自己和坎农之间的交易很满意,“她会要一些符合她的拍摄风格的衣,我就发给她。这样我就不用雇人,也不用花那些钱,这是一种互惠关系。”Parents have also negotiated deals with Gwyneth Paltrow’s Goop and other higher-profile companies.家长们还和格温妮丝·帕特洛(Gwyneth Paltrow)的Goop等高级装公司协商交易。On the higher end, there’s London Scout (her first and middle names) walking down a street in a couture party dress for the Instagram account Scout Fashion. Or London Scout at New York Fashion Week in a pink and navy faux fur coat, waving to a crowd of photographers.高端的一些例子包括伦敦·斯科特(London Scout,这是她的第一个名字和中名)为Instagram账户Scout Fashion拍摄的身穿高级定制派对裙走在街头的照片。或者她在纽约时装周上身穿粉色海军蓝人造毛皮外衣向摄影师们挥手的照片。“It was like she had her own little paparazzi,” said her mother, Sai De Silva, who runs the feed. London Scout is living #scoutstyle and schooling followers on how to #gettheLondonlook. And because London’s mother, 34 and a self-described social-media strategist, is as photogenic as her daughter, there are also the hashtags #mommydaughtermoments and #ScoutMomstyle.伦敦·斯科特的妈妈赛·德席尔瓦(Sai De Silva)负责发布照片。德席尔瓦说:“就好像她有自己的仔队。”伦敦·斯科特引领斯科特风尚(#scoutstyle),指导粉丝们如何打造伦敦造型(#gettheLondonlook)。德席尔瓦今年34岁,自称社交媒体策略师,她和女儿一样上镜,所以也发布关于母女时光(#mommydaughtermoments)和斯科特妈妈风尚(#ScoutMomstyle)的照片。Ms. De Silva, who lives in New York, has created a weekly calendar to manage the account. “It’s the same thing you would do with a magazine,” she said. One day she takes the photos of London, and on another she hires a professional photographer. Two to three wardrobe changes are scheduled for each outing: London going to the park or the supermarket, dressed to the nines.德席尔瓦住在纽约,每周都制订管理那个账户的日程。她说:“这跟做杂志是一样的。”有时她自己给伦敦拍照,有时请专业摄影师拍。伦敦每次出门(去公园或超市)都计划好换两到三套衣,打扮得十分完美。“That way, I have content for the week,” Ms. De Silva said. “Or if she’s in the mood to shoot a photo on my iPhone, then I’ll take a capture. But we don’t make it an issue where it’s 24-7 because it would be obnoxious and ridiculous for a 4-year-old. If my daughter isn’t happy, then there are no photos.”德席尔瓦说:“那样我就准备好了一周要发布的内容。如果她愿意让我用iPhone拍,那我就拍两张。但我们不是每时每刻都拍,因为对一个四岁小孩来说,那样太讨厌太荒谬了。如果女儿不高兴,那就不拍。”Taylen, age 2, has some 112,000 followers. “Taylen has become a brand,” said her mother, Angelica Calad, 33 and the owner and designer of POMP Kids, an online clothing business in Davie, Fla. Ms. Calad’s Instagram feed, Taylen’s Mom, is a devoted chronicle of Taylen and Aleia, Ms. Calad’s infant daughter, in high-fashion outfits. In one photo, Taylen wears a retro Esther Williams-inspired dusty rose bodysuit with ribbon shoulder straps, glitter-adorned bottoms and a bow tie. In another, Aleia wears peach merino overalls and a white-feathered chieftain headdress.两岁的泰兰(Taylen)大约有11.2万粉丝。她的妈妈安杰莉卡·卡拉德(Angelica Calad)今年33岁,是佛罗里达州戴维市的网上装公司POMP Kids的所有者和设计师。她说:“泰兰已经成为一个品牌。”卡拉德的Instagram账户Taylen’s Mom专门用来记录泰兰和刚出生的女儿埃莉娅(Aleia)身穿高级装的造型。在其中一张照片里,泰兰穿着以埃丝特·威廉姆斯(Esther Williams)为灵感的复古土灰玫瑰紧身衣裤,肩带上装饰着蝴蝶结,臀部装饰着亮片,领口有个领结。在另一张照片里,埃莉娅身穿桃色美利奴羊毛连体衣,头戴白色羽毛酋长头饰。In the course of one weekend, Ms. Calad booked back-to-back shoots for Taylen and Aleia. She said she is also in talks to develop a network television show for Taylen and is branching out into home décor. But the real get is that Taylen is headlining the holiday campaign for Kardashian Kids Kollection, a relationship that began, Ms. Calad said, when she was approached by a publicist for the Kardashian line through Instagram.有一个周末,卡拉德为泰兰和埃莉娅安排了一连串拍摄。她说,她还在协商为泰兰开设一个网络电视节目,而且在考虑扩展到家居装饰方面。不过,真正的大事件是泰兰即将成为卡戴珊孩童系列(Kardashian Kids Kollection)假日广告的主要模特。卡拉德说,卡戴珊装系列的一位公关人员通过Instagram联系她,开始了合作。Ms. Calad works with at least 100 brands and said she sometimes receives money, but sometimes not. “This is not an advertising site,” she said. “That’s the difference between my Instagram and a lot of other moms’ Instagram accounts, which is that they’ll take whatever gets sent to them. I don’t. I have a particular style for my girls. It has to be handmade or eco-friendly, with simple fabric. Anything organic.”卡拉德和至少100个品牌合作,她说她有时收钱,有时不收。她说:“这不是一个广告网站。这是我和其他很多妈妈的账户的不同之处。她们是不管别人送什么都接受。我不一样。我给女儿们设计了独特的风格。必须是手工制作的或环保的,面料要简单。一切都得是有机的。”This is a favorite word of Ms. Calad’s. The clothing her children wear is organic. The photo shoots are organic. The way her Instagram feed began is organic. But there’s no spilled ice cream and there are never ever any tears in the pictures.“有机”是卡拉德最喜欢的一个词。孩子们穿的衣是有机的。照片拍摄是有机的。Instagram账户的开设是有机的。但是在这些照片中,我们从来看不到冰激凌污点或泪水。Still, Ms. Calad insists nothing is forced. “At 2 years old, you would think the tantrums would start with photo shoots and things like that, but Taylen truly enjoys it,” she said. “A lot of the brands we work with, they see it right away: her charisma and her love for the camera.”不过,卡拉德坚称,一切都不是强迫的。她说:“你本来以为两岁的孩子一拍照就会哭闹什么的,但是泰兰真的很喜欢拍照。很多跟我们合作的品牌一下子就看出了她的魅力以及对镜头的喜爱。”Ginger Clark, a psychologist and professor of clinical education at the University of Southern California, compared parent-run Instagram feeds to the pageant world.加利福尼亚南部大学(University of Southern California)的心理学家和临床教育教授金杰·克拉克(Ginger Clark)把父母经营的Instagram账户与演艺界相提并论。“Not every kid is going to have this experience, but it runs the risk of giving the child the sense that they are a commodity in your eyes,” she said. “You have to be extra careful to make sure the messages you’re giving your child are ‘This is for fun, this is dress-up.’ But when you’re hiring your own photographer, then it becomes more commercialized.”她说:“不是所有的孩子都会有这种体验,不过它会有一种风险,孩子可能会觉得,在你眼里,他们是商品。你必须格外小心,确保给孩子传递的信息是:‘这就是为了好玩,为了把你打扮漂亮’。不过,在你雇用摄影师之后,会变得更商业化。”Patricia Greenfield is a psychology professor at the University of California at Los Angeles, director of the campus’s Children’s Digital Media Center and a co-author of an oft-cited study that found that fame was the No. 1 goal for children ages 10 to 12. “It really boils down to someone’s values and whether or not you want your child to grow up thinking of himself or herself in terms of how famous he or she is, versus having more pro-social values,” Dr. Greenfield said of cultivating Instagram stars.帕特丽夏·格林菲尔德(Patricia Greenfield)是加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California at Los Angeles)的心理学教授,也是该校儿童数字媒体中心的主管。她是一项经常被引用的研究的联合作者。那项研究发现,对10至12岁的儿童来说,名气是头等目标。格林菲尔德提起培养Instagram明星时说:“最根本的问题是价值观,以及你是否想让孩子在成长过程从出名程度来评判自己,而不是拥有更亲社会的价值观。”Her co-author on the study, Yalda T. Uhls, a child psychologist, said children whose parents seek fame for them may grow up to be introverts or have higher-than-usual social anxiety. “The other extreme is, your child will get so used to this attention that they’ll start to crave it and they may crave it in unhealthy ways,” Dr. Uhls said.那项研究的另一位作者娅尔达·T·尤尔斯(Yalda T. Uhls)是一名儿童心理学家。她说,如果父母为孩子追求名气,孩子长大后可能会形成内向型人格或者具有高于常人的社会焦虑感,“另一种极端的可能性是,你的孩子会习惯这种关注,并渴望得到它,甚至可能通过不健康的方式追求它”。Regardless of the potential psychological effects, the mothers interviewed for this article said they feared online predators. “You never know who’s behind a profile,” said Mia St. Clair, 29, a professional photographer in Spokane, Wash. Her son Grey, 3, is at the epicenter of Grey’s Little Closet. They have over 28,000 followers.尽管存在这些潜在的心理影响,但是为本文接受采访的母亲们更担心的是网上的猎手。29岁的米娅·圣克莱尔(Mia St. Clair)是华盛顿州斯波坎市的专业摄影师。她三岁的儿子格雷(Grey)是Grey’s Little Closet的中心,这个Instagram账户有超过2.8万名粉丝。她说:“你永远不知道网上那些人是谁。”“Now that it’s so large and it’s growing, we just felt like we should just kind of shift it and not be so focused on Grey,” Ms. St. Clair said. “We don’t love the idea of him growing up and one day feeling like he has this huge following or fan base.”圣克莱尔说:“现在粉丝人数很多,而且在不断增长,我们感觉应该做些改变,不再把重点放在格雷身上。我们不想让他长大以后感觉自己拥有庞大的粉丝群。”Her husband, James St. Clair, 33, a director of media and communications at Calvary Spokane, a church, also voiced caution. “I never thought it would be this big,” he said. “I had hesitation at first, mostly because I just didn’t understand it. As I’ve learned more and seen the effects, both positive and not-so-positive, I now have the mind-set that we need to be responsible with the platform that we have.”她的丈夫詹姆斯·圣克莱尔(James St. Clair)今年33岁,是Calvary Spokane教堂的媒体和通讯主管。他也表示担心:“我从没想过会有这么多粉丝。一开始我有点疑虑,主要是因为我不能理解这种情况。后来我了解得更多,看到了正面和不太正面的影响,现在我的态度是,我们需要对自己拥有的平台负责。”Ms. Cannon, the pastry chef from Brooklyn, recently dealt with an incident in which a Facebook user posted photos of Princeton and other children without permission. A group of mothers, including Ms. Cannon, demanded that they be taken down.前不久,布鲁克林的糕点师坎农处理了一个意外事件,一名Facebook用户未经授权发布了普林斯顿等孩子的照片。这些孩子的妈妈,包括坎农,要求撤掉这些照片。But such fears have not stopped her from proceeding full steam ahead with Prince and the Baker.不过,这些恐惧没有阻止她继续全力开发Prince and the Baker这个Instagram账户。“I’m not trying to thrust him in it right away, and I’m going at his pace,” Ms. Cannon said. “But, yes, ultimately, we’re on that track of maybe television work or commercials. I think Princeton and I are on the cusp of blowing up.”坎农说:“我不想让他马上投入其中,我会跟随他的节奏。不过,是的,最终,我们将上电视或拍广告。我觉得我和普林斯顿即将绽放。” /201511/412024From Hermione to Diagon and Rubeus, Harry Potter books have been tripping fans up for years over how to pronounce certain words。多年来,《哈利波特》丛书的粉丝们一直把某些单词的发音都弄错了:从赫敏、对角巷到鲁伯。And now author J K Rowling has revealed that everyone has been saying Voldemort#39;s name wrong as well。而如今,JK罗琳发话了:一直以来,大家也把伏地魔的名字念错了。While tweeting a fan of the books, Rowling revealed that the #39;t#39; at the end of the dark wizard#39;s name is actually supposed to be silent。在一个哈迷书粉的推特后面,罗琳透露:这名黑巫师名字结尾的t实际上应该是不发音的。Rowling confirmed that the French-style pronunciation is correct, though added: #39;...but I#39;m pretty sure I#39;m the only person who pronounces it that way.#39;罗琳实,这个名字的法式发音才是正确的,还补充了一句话:“……但我肯定我是唯一一个这样正确发音的人。”Fans were quick to point out that, spoken in the French fashion, the name of Harry#39;s arch-nemesis sounds like the phrase #39;vol de mort#39;, literally translated as #39;death flight#39;。粉丝们很快指出,用法国时尚口语说起来,哈利死对头的名字听起来像“vol de mort”,这个词的字面含义是“死亡飞行”。However, others pointed out that it could also be short for #39;voleur de mort, which means #39;death thief#39; or #39;to steal from death#39;。不过,也有人指出它也可以简称“voleur de mort,代表”死亡小偷”或“从死亡麾下溜走”的意思。The translation seems appropriate, since Voldemort was stopped from dying after being magically linked with Harry while trying to cast the killing curse avada kedavra on him。这样翻译貌似也对,因为他和哈利的魔法联系使得他被下达“阿瓦达索命”(死咒,三大不可饶恕咒之首)后还奇迹般的活下来了。 /201509/399359

For star-crossed, lovey-dovey couples and for those who are happily (or unhappily) single alike: the Hallmark holiday is a reminder to appreciate the love in our lives. So no matter how you end up celebrating this Feb. 14, take in these 10 love es to laugh out loud, smile to yourself and evoke those fuzzy feelings of being in love.无论你是甜蜜幸福的情侣,还是孤单寂寞的少年(女)。对于情人节这个标志性的节日来说,它的本意是提醒我们感激生命中爱的存在。所以,不管2月14号这一天你将如何度过,以下10句爱情箴言都能够让你微笑,并且唤起你对爱的敬意与感觉。10.Love makes us all crazy. But it#39;s fun too.10.爱情让我们痴狂。但它又极富乐趣。;Today#39;s Valentine#39;s Day. There#39;s a whole day devoted solely to love. Does that make any sense? Nah. Love makes us all crazy. But it#39;s fun too.; — Lisa Greenwald今天是情人节,是为爱倾情付出的一天。但这样有意义吗?不,爱情让我们痴狂。但它又极富乐趣。——丽莎#8226;格林沃尔德9.When I saw you, I fell in love9.看到你的那一刻,我就爱上了你。;When I saw you, I fell in love and you smiled because you knew.; — Arrigo Boito看到你的那一刻,我就爱上了你。你微笑,因为你知道。——阿里格·伊托8.In your light, I learn how to love8.你的光,让我懂得如何去爱。;In your light, I learn how to love. In your beauty, how to make poems. You dance inside my chest where no one sees you, but sometimes I do, and that sight becomes this art.; — Rumi你的光,让我懂得如何去爱。你的美貌,让我学会写诗。你在我的胸膛里翩翩起舞,无人能见,我偶尔一瞥,那景象便成了艺术。——鲁米7.It was not my lips you kissed, but my soul7.你的亲吻不在我唇上,而在我灵魂里。;For it was not into my ear you whispered, but into my heart. It was not my lips you kissed, but my soul.; ― Judy Garland你的呢喃不在我耳中,而在我心底。你的亲吻不在我唇上,而在我灵魂里。——朱迪·嘉兰6.Two people in love, alone, isolated from the world, that#39;s beautiful.6.坠入爱河之人,眼中只有彼此,这多么美好。;Two people in love, alone, isolated from the world, that#39;s beautiful.; — Milan Kundera坠入爱河之人,眼中只有彼此,这多么美好。——米兰昆德拉 /201510/406027

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