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大丰市治疗不孕不育哪家医院最好的华龙对话

2019年12月11日 22:00:07|来源:国际在线|编辑:时空口碑
Imagine a therapy that supposedly cures most ailments and for which almost 100 per cent of all the published studies conclude is effective — in other words, a panacea which has been tested but never faulted by science. This can only mean that the treatment in question is a miracle cure which is useful for every single condition and in every single setting. Would we not all love to know such a therapy?想象下一种可以治愈大多数疾病的疗法,几乎所有发表的研究中得出的结论都是有效的,换句话说,这是一种久经检验但从未被科学质疑过的灵丹妙药。这只能意味着我们提到的这个治疗是一种奇迹,它对不同情况下的每一种病症都有效。我们不是都会喜欢这种疗法吗?Simple common sense tells us, however, that such miracle cures cannot exist — unless, of course, we consider the wide range of treatments that fall under the umbrella of Traditional Chinese Medicine.然而,常识告诉我们,这种奇迹是不可能存在的——除非,当然啦,我们认为中医治疗覆盖的范围是很广泛的。Take acupuncture, for instance. Most traditional acupuncturists will try to convince you that acupuncture is a veritable panacea, a treatment that works for anything and everything ranging from acne to zoster. In case you find this hard to believe, go on the internet and try to find a single condition for which acupuncture is not claimed to be effective.以针灸为例。大部分传统针灸师会试图说你,针灸是一个名副其实的万能药,治疗的范围,从痤疮到带状疱疹。如果你不信,上网去搜搜病例看看针灸是不是声称很有效。What is more, acupuncture trials hardly ever generate negative findings — at least those that originate from China. We and others have shown that Chinese trials of acupuncture as good as never suggest that acupuncture does not work. This has led to the bizarre situation where one does no longer need to the paper reporting a new Chinese study because one aly knows what it shows, namely that acupuncture is effective. If that is so, one does not even need to conduct the study, since one aly knows the outcome before the research has started.更妙的是,针灸试验没有产生任何负面的结果——至少那些源自中国的信息是这么说的。我们和其他一些人于是明白了中国的针灸实验是从来不会认为无效的。如果这样的话,你何必还要进行研究呢,在研究之前已经知道结果了啊。Perhaps you think the ‘Western’ scientists who disclosed this baffling phenomenon are chauvinists who, for one reason or another, want to discredit Chinese science. In this case, you would probably want to wait for a team of Chinese researchers repeating our investigations.也许你认为西方科学家质疑这一令人困惑的现象是因为沙文主义或其他啥原因好抹黑中国。在这种情况下,你可能想等待一队中国研究人员复核下我们的调查。Wait no more.不用在等了。Chinese researchers identified all randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of acupuncture published in Chinese journals. A total of 840 RCTs were included in their assessment, and 838 of them (99.8 per cent) reported positive results. Only two trials (0.2 per cent) reported negative results. The authors concluded: ‘Publication bias might be a major issue in RCTs on acupuncture published in Chinese journals … which is related to high risk of bias. We suggest that all trials should be prospectively registered in international trial registry in future.’中国研究人员确认了中国期刊上发布的有关针灸的所有随机对照试验。共有840个随机对照试验及评价,其中838例(99.8个百分点)报道结果有效。只有两个试验(百分之0.2)报告结果无效。作者得出的结论是:在中国期刊发表关于针灸随机对照试验结果的主要问题是太偏颇了……很明显的先入为主(认为有效)。我们建议,以后所有实验都应该提前在国际实验注册备案。For many years I, too, had been inclined to give my Chinese colleagues the benefit of the doubt and assumed that publication bias — the phenomenon where negative results tend to remain unpublished — might be the explanation. If so, trial registration would indeed be the answer. But think of it: publication bias might provide a reason for a preponderance of positive findings but it cannot truly explain that close to zero per cent of negative results see the light of day. There must be other factors involved.多年来我一直致力于给我的中国同事灌输质疑的好处,以及发表的文章一边倒——也可能是负面的情况根本没有被报道出来。如果是这样的话,实验前在国际实验注册备案是个不错的办法。再回过头来看看,公布的实验结果一边倒的表示有效,负面效果几乎为零,对此没有个清楚明了的解释。肯定还有其他因素。One obvious explanation could be that many or most of the Chinese studies are — dare I say it? — dodgy to the point of being fraudulent. This allegation seems so outlandish that I would never have voiced it, unless there is some pretty solid evidence to back it up.一个明显的解释是中国的很多研究或者说绝大部分研究——我为啥这么说呢?——他们(的实验)不可靠且不诚实。如果没有确凿的据,我绝对不会发出这样粗鲁的指控。A recent survey of Chinese clinical trials has revealed fraudulent practice on a massive scale. China’s food and drug regulator carried out a year-long review and concluded that more than 80 per cent of clinical studies are ‘fabricated’. The investigators uated data from 1,622 clinical trial programmes of drugs awaiting approval by the regulator. Much of the data were found to be incomplete, failed to meet analysis requirements or were untraceable. Some institutions were suspected of deliberately hiding or deleting records of adverse effects, and tampering with evidence that did not meet expectations. ‘Clinical data fabrication was an open secret even before the inspection,’ an unnamed Chinese hospital director was ed as saying. Contract research organisations seem to have become ‘accomplices in data fabrication due to cutthroat competition and economic motivation’.最近对中国临床实验的调查显示了他们有大规模的欺诈行为。中国食品药物监管部门进行了长达一年的回顾总结,百分之80以上的临床研究数据为“捏造”的。研究人员评估了1622个等待监管机构批准的临床试验方案的数据。大亮的数据被认为是不完整的,不符合要求或无法进行追踪分析的。甚至一些机构涉嫌故意隐瞒或删除不利影响的记录,并篡改据以符合预期结果。一位不愿透露姓名的中国医院主任说:“在审核前,“制做”临床数据已经就是个公开的秘密了”。合同研究组织,由于激烈的竞争以及经济利益,成为了数据造假的共犯。CRO----合同研究组织,20世纪80年代初起源于美国,它是通过合同形式为制药企业、医疗机构、中小医药医疗器械研发企业、甚至各种政府基金等机构在基础医学和临床医学研发过程中提供专业化务的一种学术性或商业性的科学机构。The human rights activist Mai Ke went one step further, claiming that there is an ‘all-pervasive culture of fakery’ across all products made in the country. ‘It’s not just the medicines,’ he told Radio Free Asia. ‘In China, everything is fake, and if there’s a profit in pharmaceuticals, then someone’s going to fake them too.’人权专家Mai Ke进一步补充道“在这个国家的产品制造业中有一种无处不在的造假文化,不仅是药物,”他告诉自由亚洲电台“在中国,啥都有假货,如果药品有利可图,就有人会去造假。”Crucially, he stressed that the problem also extends to Traditional Chinese Medicines: ‘It’s just harder to regulate the fakes with traditional medicines than it is with Western pharmaceuticals, which have strict manufacturing guidelines.’最重要的是,他强调,这种现象也蔓延到了中医药:“比起西医传统的中医药监管起来难度要高的多,因为西药有严格的生产标准。”Academic ethics is an underdeveloped field in China; this leads to a culture that is accepting of academics manipulating data. ‘I don’t think that the 80 per cent figure is overstated,’ another Chinese insider commented.学术道德是中国一个欠发达的领域;这导致了一种文化,对学者操纵数据比较宽容。另一位中国内部人士说,我认为80%的数字没有夸大。Considering data fabrication on such an epidemic scale, it seems much easier to understand the above-mentioned phenomenon, where nearly 100 per cent of Chinese acupuncture studies generate positive findings. Such trials heavily pollute the worldwide evidence, particularly because the Chinese trials constitute a major chunk of the current evidence base in this area.考虑到这样大规模的数据造假,上述针灸实验近乎百分百有效的现象就不难理解了。这些实验数据严重污染了世界范围内的数据库,尤其是现有的这类大部分由中国实验数据构成的数据库。If we agree that data fabrication has seriously detrimental effects, we must ask what we can do about it. I feel we have little choice but to distrust the evidence that originates from China. At the very minimum, we must scrutinise it thoroughly and sceptically. Whenever it looks too good to be true, we ought to discard it as unreliable.如果我们都赞同数据库造假会导致严重的影响,我们必须思考下能做些什么。我们的选择不多,除了质疑中国的实验数据。至少,我们要详细的深入检查和质疑。无论何时,什么东西看起来好得不像话了,我们就应该把它当做不靠谱的东西抛弃掉。 /201702/494399China has about one billion waste cell phones, with the recovery rate being only about 2 percent, reported jjckb.cn.据《经济参考网》报道,我国约有10亿部废弃手机,回收率不足2%。A man surnamed Fang in Shanghai recently sold two old cell phones at the price of six yuan (about 1 US dollar) to a recycling store. The two phones had cost him nearly 2,000 yuan (about 291 dollars).近日,上海一位姓方的男士以6元的价格(折合约1美元)将两台旧手机卖给了一家回收店。而这两台手机在他买的时候花了他将近2000元(折合约291美元)。;It is as cheap as recyclable rubbish, but I have no choice as there is no use for me;, said Fang.方先生说道;“这就像回收的垃圾一样便宜,但是我没有别的选择,因为我用不到了。”Many would rather keep their waste cellphones instead of recycling them, as the old gadgets are not worth very much.由于旧手机不太值钱,许多人宁愿留着自己的废弃手机,也不愿将其回收处理。According to data from the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology, 560m cellphones were sold on the Chinese mainland in 2016.根据中国信息通信研究院公布的数据,2016年,中国大陆手机市场出货量5.6亿部。It is predicted that the number of new phones is equal to the number of waste ones, and 400m to 500m will be replaced per year.据推测,销售多少新机就会产生多少旧机,每年被淘汰的手机数量将达4亿至5亿部。;The recovery rate in China is only 1% to 2%, much lower than Western countries, so we still need to educate people. People are also afraid of information disclosure if they sell their waste cellphones to recycle stores,; said Zheng Fujiang, president of an online recycling company.某互联网回收企业总裁郑甫江表示:“我国手机回收率只有1%到2%,远低于西方国家,因此我们仍需培养人们的回收意识。人们还担心将废弃手机卖给回收店会导致信息泄露。” /201703/495664

《断背山》男主角希斯#8226;莱杰身亡Heath Ledger was found dead Tuesday at a downtown Manhattan apartment, naked in bed with sleeping pills nearby. The Australian-born actor was 28. The reason was not clear yet.He had an appointment for a massage at a residence in the tony neighborhood of SoHo, NYPD spokesman Paul Browne said. A housekeeper who went to let him know the massage therapist had arrived found him dead at 3:26 p.m."We are all deeply saddened and shocked by this accident," Ledger's publicist, Mara Buxbaum, said in a statement Tuesday night. "This is an extremely difficult time for his loved ones and we are asking the media to please respect the family's privacy and avoid speculation until the facts are known."The medical examiner's office planned an autopsy Wednesday, spokeswoman Ellen Borakove said.Ledger was nominated for an Oscar for his performance as a gay cowboy in "Brokeback Mountain," where he met Michelle Williams, who played his wife in the film. The two had a daughter, Matilda, and lived together in Brooklyn until they split up last year.Ledger most recently appeared in "I'm Not There," in which he played one of the many incarnations of Bob Dylan.He's had starring roles in "A Knight's Tale" and "The Patriot," and played the suicidal son of Billy Bob Thornton in "Monster's Ball.""I had such great hope for him," said Mel Gibson, who played Ledger's father in "The Patriot," in a statement. "He was just taking off and to lose his life at such a young age is a tragic loss."Ledger was born in 1979 in Perth, in western Australia, to a mining engineer and a French teacher, and got his first acting role playing Peter Pan at age 10 at a local theater company. 澳大利亚籍影星希斯#8226;莱杰(译者注:电影《断背山》男主角)于本周二被发现死于曼哈顿的家中,年仅28岁。莱杰被发现时全身地躺在床上,身旁有一些安眠药片。目前他的死因尚未确定。纽约警察局发言人保尔#8226;布朗尼说,当天莱杰约了一位师来其位于高级SoHo区的家中。但当他的管家去通知他师已到访时,发现他已经死亡,当时的时间是下午3点26分。莱杰的经纪人马拉#8226;巴克斯鲍姆在本周二晚发表的一份声明中说:“我们对莱杰的突然离去感到十分悲痛和震惊。此时他的亲人一定非常痛苦,我们已请求媒体尊重他们的隐私,在事情没弄清楚之前,不要无根据地猜测。”纽约警察局女发言人艾伦#8226;波拉科维说,监察医务院将于本周三对莱杰进行尸检。希斯#8226;莱杰曾在电影《断背山》中饰演一名同性恋牛仔,并因此获得奥斯卡奖提名。后来,他与片中饰演其妻子的米歇尔#8226;威廉姆斯相恋,并与其育有一女玛蒂尔达。两人一直住在布鲁克林区,直到去年分手。莱杰最近出演的一部电影是《我不在场》,他在片中饰演具有多重人格的鲍勃#8226;迪伦的一种化身。他曾主演影片《圣战骑士》和《爱国者》,并在《死囚之舞》中饰演了主人公(比利#8226;鲍勃#8226;汤顿饰演)自杀身亡的儿子。在《爱国者》中饰演莱杰父亲的梅尔#8226;吉布森在一份声明中说:“我对他寄予了厚望。他的事业正处于上升期,英年早逝实在是悲痛的损失。”莱杰于1979年出生于澳大利亚西部的泊思市,他的父亲是一名开矿工程师,母亲是一位法语教师。莱杰十岁那年在当地一家剧团获得了他的第一个角色比特#8226;潘。 /200803/31203

Skinny or underweight women at greater risk of miscarriage 研究表明:过瘦女性易流产According to a new study, thin or skinny women who get pregnant are 72 percent more likely to miscarry in the first three months of pregnancy than their normal weight counterparts. However, the risk can be reduced up to 50 percent by eating the right food or taking multivitamins like folic acid, say researchers. The researchers from the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine carried out their study on 603 British women aged 18 to 55 who had miscarried within three months of getting pregnant. B reports that the new research also indicated that eating fruit and vegetables, and also chocolate, helped reduce the risk of miscarriage. Those classed as underweight had had a body mass index under 18.5. Additionally, unmarried women or those living with a partner were also at a greater risk than those who "planned" their pregnancies. Planning parents were 40 per cent less likely to miscarry than those for whom conception was an accident. The research also discovered that woman who separated from their partners after becoming pregnant increased her odds of a miscarriage by 60 per cent. If a woman has had a previous abortion, it also raised the chances of a subsequent miscarriage by more than 60 percent, while fertility problems were associated with 41 per cent higher odds. The research leader, Noreen Maconochie, a senior lecturer at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine said, "The findings related to low pre-pregnancy weight, previous termination, stress and change of partner are noteworthy, and we suggest further work be initiated in other study populations." 一项最新研究表明,过瘦的女性在怀前三个月流产的几率比正常体重的女性高72%。但据研究人员介绍,合理的饮食及摄取如叶酸等多种维生素可将这一风险降低至50%。 伦敦卫生及热带医学院的研究人员对603名年龄在18至55岁之间的英国女性进行了调查,这些女性均有怀前三个月内流产的经历。 据英国广播公司报道,这项最新研究还发现,女性在怀期间多吃水果、蔬菜和巧克力也有助于降低流产的风险。 体重指数低于18.5的人被认定为“过瘦”。 此外,未婚女性和同居女性意外怀后流产的风险比“有计划”怀的女性高。“有计划”怀的女性流产几率比意外怀的女性低40%。 研究同时发现,女性在怀期间与伴侣分居,发生流产的可能性要比正常情况高60%。 此外,有堕胎史及有生育问题的女性流产几率分别高出60%和41%。 研究小组组长、伦敦卫生及热带医学院高级讲师诺琳·麦克诺奇说:“这些研究结果很有意义,体重过轻、有过堕胎史、压力过大及与伴侣分居等易造成流产的几个因素应引起女性的注意,同时我们希望这一研究能尽快在别国进行。”Vocabulary:miscarry:to have a miscarriage; abort(流产)odd:the ratio of probability of the occurence of an event(几率;可能性) /200802/26550

女性调查:你是企业管理层中的一员吗?Poll: Women hold senior positionsAre you holding senior management positions?Ninety-one percent of companies on the Chinese mainland have women holding senior management positions, ranking second in the world, after the Philippines, according to the results of a survey released yesterday.The poll, conducted by Grant Thornton, an accounting firm based in Hong Kong, covered 32 economies.Hong Kong and Taiwan also rank high on the list, with 83 percent and 80 percent of their firms having women in senior positions.In the Philippines, 97 percent companies have women holding senior positions."The findings suggest that China businesses focus on capability and performance when appointing senior management, and not on gender," said Alison Wong, partner of specialist advisory services at Grant Thornton.On average 65 percent of the companies in the world have women in senior management positions, the survey shows. China is ahead of many Western countries, including the US, Canada and Britain."Despite some people's perception about traditional gender bias in Chinese society, it is positive to note that todaythree places across two shoresachieve such a high proportion of business with senior females," Wong said.Almost all Asian countries have more businesses with women at senior levels than the global average, except Japan, whose rate is only 25 percent."Obviously Japan is unique in the cultural perception about women in business and women's role in the family as compared with other parts of Asia, " Wong said.The survey reflects an upward trend in the percentage of women in management roles in most economies, but only the Philippines has achieved true parity in male/female management. 据昨天公布的一项调查显示,中国内地有91%的企业聘用女性担任高级管理层的重要职位,这一比例仅次于菲律宾,位居世界第二。总部位于香港的格兰特·桑顿会计师事务所共在32个国家开展了此项民意调查。香港和台湾地区也高居榜首,分别有83%和80%的公司聘女性任高级职位。这一比例在菲律宾为97%。格兰特·桑顿公司的专家咨询务合伙人Alison Wong 说:“调查结果表明,中国的企业在聘用高级管理人员时,注重的是个人的能力和工作表现,而不是性别。”调查显示,全世界平均有65%的公司聘用女性担任高级管理职位。中国的这一比例超过美国、加拿大和英国等很多西方国家。她说:“尽管有人认为中国社会存在男女不平等的传统观念,但如今,两岸三地聘用女性任要职的企业比例达到很高水平,这是不容置疑的。”除日本只有25%外,几乎所有亚洲国家的这一比例都要高于世界平均水平。Alison Wong说:“很显然,与亚洲其它国家相比,日本对女性在职场以及家庭中的角色这一问题上抱有不同的文化观念。”调查发现,在大多数国家,女性在企业管理层中所占的比例呈上升趋势,但只有菲律宾在企业管理层中的男女比例问题上做到了真正的平等。Vocabulary: three places across two shores : 两岸三地 /200803/31794

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