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Shang Dynasty商朝General概况Thousands of archaeological finds in the Huang He, Henan Valley, the apparent cradle of Chinese civilization----provide evidence about the Shang dynasty, which endured roughly from 1700 to 1027 B.C.上千起在中国文明的摇篮——黄河河南流域的考古发现为商朝(大约从公元前1700年持续到公元前1027年)提供了据。The Shang dynasty (also called the Yin dynasty in its later stages) is believed to have been founded by a rebel leader who overthrew the last Xia ruler.据信,商朝(在其后期也被称为商殷)是由一个造反的领袖推翻了夏朝的最后一任统治者而建立的。Its civilization was based on agriculture, augmented by hunting and animal husbandry.它的文明以农业为基础,以打猎和动物饲养而扩大。Two important events of the period were the development of a writing system, as revealed in archaic Chinese inscriptions found on tortoise shells and flat cattle bones (commonly called oracle bones or ),这段时期有两大重要事件,一个是文字系统的发展,表现为在乌龟壳和凭的牛骨上发现的古老的中国文字(一般称为甲骨文),and the use of bronze metallurgy.另一个是青铜冶金的使用。A number of ceremonial bronze vessels with inscriptions date from the Shang period;很多在庆典上使用的刻有铭文的青铜器皿都源于商朝。The workmanship on the bronzes attests to a high level of civilization.对于青铜器的技艺实了其文明水平之高。 /201509/393967。

China created the country#39;s largest chip maker last week, taking a giant step forward towards Beijing#39;s plan of becoming less reliant on foreign technology.上周,中国境内最大的芯片制造商诞生了,这使得中国政府距离减少对国外科技依赖的目标又前进了一大步。Under Beijing#39;s direction, Tsinghua Unigroup, China#39;s largest chip designer, acquired a majority stake in XMC, one of the China#39;s leading chip maker and backed by the national semiconductor fund, the Wall Street Journal reported. A new holding company was created for XMC called Yangtze River Storage Technology, which has a registered capital of 18.9 billion yuan (.8 billion).据华尔街日报报道,在政府的授意下,中国大陆最大的芯片设计商清华紫光集团完成了对行业领先的芯片制造商、由国家集成电路产业投资基金扶持的武汉新芯多数股权的收购,成立名为;武汉长江存储科技有限公司;的新控股公司,注册资金高达189亿人民币(28亿美元)。Yangtze combines Tsinghua Unigroup#39;s investment power and XMC#39;s engineering team, said Roger Sheng, a Shanghai-based research director for semiconductors at Gartner IT , adding that the merger is the first case between two Chinese companies in the semiconductor industry.武汉长江存储科技有限公司整合了清华紫光的投资能力和武汉新芯的技术团队。高德纳咨询(全球最具权威的IT研究与顾问咨询公司)上海公司总监Roger Sheng表示,两个中国本土企业合并在半导体制造业尚属首例。China imports around 0 billion of chips a year, which is the biggest trade deficit in the global semiconductor market, according to state-run Xinhua news agency. The creation of Yangtze would indeed benefit the country in the long run, but it will first have a negative impact on the smaller domestic players, said Sheng.根据新华社的报道,中国每年进口芯片的费用高达200亿美元,是全球半导体市场中最大的贸易逆差。Roger Sheng表示,从长远来看,武汉长江存储科技有限公司的成立有利于中国在该行业的发展,不过首当其冲受到影响的是中国国内规模较小的芯片制造商。;Currently, I think other Chinese companies that want to invest in the memory business are most impacted because the new company will get the most resources and support from the Chinese government,; he said. ;The other companies or regional governments can#39;t get as big an investment as Yangtze. Global chip makers are safe for at least a few years, with Yangtze needing at least two to three years to get commercialization capability, unless Tsinghua Unigroup can acquire companies with current mainstream 3D NAND (a next-generation flash memory chip) or DRAM (computer memory chips).;Roger Sheng说道:;我认为想要投资存储行业的国内企业受到的冲击应该最严重,因为武汉长江存储将会垄断大部分的资源,而且它还有政府的持。其他制造商或是地方企业不可能获得像长江存储那么大的投资。全球性的芯片制造商暂时不会受到大的影响,因为武汉长江存储至少需要两到三年的时间培养商业化的能力,除非清华紫光可以并购拥有目前主流的3D NAND闪存技术和DRAM存储技术的企业。;XMC, however, is developing today#39;s leading-edge 3D NAND chips to be test-y by the end of this year, said Hui He, a senior analyst for China#39;s semiconductor market at IHS Technology.不过,IHS公司半导体行业的资深分析师何慧却表示,目前武汉新芯已经在研制高水平3D NAND闪存芯片,即将在今年年末投入测试。After the proven product ramp-up period, ;all global memory vendors will be affected,; said Gartner#39;s Sheng. ;Chinese companies could own the market with proven product manufacturing capabilities. It will definitely impact existing market players through cheaper and volume product supply.;Roger Sheng表示:;在爬坡量产过后,全球的存储芯片供应商都会受到影响。届时,中国企业将拥有过硬的产品生产能力,有能力向市场提供更多,更便宜的产品。毫无疑问,目前半导体芯片市场的主要制造商一定会受到冲击。; /201608/461157。

A survey released on Monday shows 81 percent of Americans do more than drive when they're behind the wheel.Talk on the phone while you're driving? Fix your makeup? Check e-mail? You're not alone.A survey released on Monday shows 81 percent of Americans do more than drive when they're behind the wheel.More than eight of 10 people surveyed by Nationwide Mutual Insurance said they adjust the radio or music while they drive, while 73 percent talk on the phone, 68 percent eat, 19 percent send text messages and 5 percent checked their e-mail.Personal hygiene was also a big driver distraction, with 19 percent fixing their hair, 12 percentputting on makeupand 2 percent shaving while at the controls of a car."Clearly Americans have much to do and little time to do it, so to cope with that we've become multi-taskers," said Bill Windsor, associate vice president of Safety at Nationwide."The problem with that is driving requires focus, and multi-tasking while driving puts you and your fellow drivers at risk."Drivers in the survey also admitted to changing seats with passengers, watching a movie, painting their toenails, nursing a baby and putting in contact lenses while driving.Younger drivers multi-task the most, the survey found, with 35 percent of 18-to-27 year olds saying they always multi-task in the car, compared to 21 percent of baby boomers.Windsor said the consequences for young drivers are severe, with car accidents being the number one cause of death for Americans aged 18 to 27."The bottom line is if it can be done in the kitchen, bathroom, office or bedroom, it should not be done in the car," Windsor said.While some U.S. jurisdictions require hands-free devices for cellphone use in cars, most of the activities listed in the survey are not illegal unless they are determined to be the cause of an accident.The survey of 1,200 drivers between the ages of 18 and 60 found that while 83 percent believe they are safe drivers, 38 percent admitted they have driven a certain distance without any recollection of doing so. 你开车的时候你会做些什么?打电话?补妆?还是是查收邮件?本周一公布的一项调查显示,81%的美国人开车时“一心多用”。这项由全美互助保险公司开展的调查显示,80%以上的人说他们开车时调过广播或音乐,73%的人打过电话,68%的人吃过东西,19%的人发过短信,另有5%的人说他们查收过电子邮件。此外,处理个人卫生也是司机们开车时常做的事情。调查显示,有19%的人在开车时整理过头发、12%的人化过妆、还有2%的人刮过胡子。全美互助保险公司安全部副主席比尔·温莎说:“由此可见,美国人每天需要处理很多事情,但时间又总是不够,所以经常‘一心多用’”。“但问题在于,开车的时候一定要集中注意力,如果三心二意则会让你自己和路上的其他司机都面临危险。接受调查的司机承认他们在开车时曾与乘客交换过座位、看过电影、涂过脚趾甲、给孩子喂过奶,还戴过隐形眼镜。调查发现,年轻司机在开车时最容易分心。在18至27岁的司机中,有35%的人说他们开车时常会做一些其它的事情,而这一比例在“婴儿潮”这代人中则为21%。温莎说,年轻司机开车时三心二意会造成严重后果,车祸是美国18至27岁这一年龄段的人死亡的头号杀手。“问题是,如果一件事情能在厨房、浴室、办公室或卧室里处理,就不应该在开车时处理。”尽管美国一些辖区规定必须在车上安装手机免提接听装置,但此项调查中所列的大多数行为如果不是事故发生的直接原因,则都被认定为合法。这项共有1200名年龄在18岁至60岁的司机参加的调查发现,83%的人认为自己是安全驾驶,38%的人承认他们开了一段距离之后才意识到自己在开车。 /200803/32940。

The US government cannot force Microsoft to give authorities access to the firm#39;s servers located in other countries, a court has ruled. The decision is being seen as a precedent for protecting the privacy of cloud computing services.根据一家法院的近日裁决,美国政府不能强迫微软赋予当局访问海外务器上的权限。这一判决目前正被看作是保护云计算务隐私的一个先例。The US Department of Justice had wanted to access a server in Ireland, as part of an investigation into a drugs case. The ruling, made by an appeals court, overturns an order granted by a court in Manhattan in 2014.作为针对一起毒品案件调查的一部分,美国司法部想要获取权限查看微软位于爱尔兰的一个务器。一家上诉法院做出了这一裁决,驳回了一家曼哈顿法庭在2014年做出的“准许”判决。The DoJ said it was disappointed by the decision and was considering what it would do next. If it appeals, the case could then move to the US Supreme Court.美国司法部对这一判决表示失望,并且正在考虑接下来的打算。如果司法部上诉的话,这件案子将移交美国最高法院审理。Microsoft said it welcomed the ruling.微软方面则对这一裁决表示接受。;It makes clear that the US government can no longer seek to use its search warrants on a unilateral basis to reach into other countries and obtain the emails that belong to people of other nationalities,; Brad Smith, president and chief legal officer, of Microsoft told the B.微软总裁兼首席法务官布拉德·史密斯接收B采访时表示:“这份判决很清楚地表明,美国政府再也不能够单方面地使用搜查令进入其他国家、获得属于其他国家公民的电子邮件了。”;It tells people they can indeed trust technology as they move their information to the cloud,; he said.他说道:“这份判决告诉人们,在他们把自己的信息上传到云务器上的时候,他们可以真正的信任科技。”Microsoft thanked the companies that had backed its appeal, which included the likes of Amazon, Apple and Cisco.微软对那些持它上述的公司表示感谢,其中包括亚马逊、苹果和思科等。Another of Microsoft#39;s backers was the Open Rights Group, a UK-based organisation that campaigns for digital rights.微软的另一个持者是“开放权利集团”,这是一家英国机构,他们致力于争取数字权利。;The US Court#39;s decision has upheld the right to individual privacy in the face of the US State#39;s intrusion into personal liberty,; the group#39;s legal director Myles Jackman said. ;As a consequence, US law enforcement agencies must respect European citizens#39; digital privacy rights and the protection of their personal data. States should not arbitrarily reach across borders just because they feel they can bully companies into doing so.;该组织法律主管迈尔斯·杰克曼表示:“在面对美国政府侵犯个人自由的问题上,美国法庭的这一裁决持了个人隐私权利。因此,美国执法部门必须尊重欧洲公民的数字隐私权,并且保护他们的个人数据。美国不应该因为觉得自己可以欺压公司,就单方面地越界。”Microsoft had warned that allowing the search warrant to be conducted could open up a global privacy ;free for all;. Other countries, the company said, would perhaps seek to apply their own search warrants to servers located in the US.微软此前曾作出警告称,如果允许执行这次搜查令,那么就将开启全球隐私“不设防”。该公司还表示,其他国家也许也将申请他们自己的搜查令,来查看位于美国的务器。 /201607/456101。

Until recently, I thought Snapchat was an app used primarily by tweens and teenagers to send each other silly pictures. No longer. This week, I interviewed Frederic Cumenal, chief executive of Tiffany amp; Co, at a Financial Times luxury summit in San Francisco.直到不久以前,我还一直认为Snapchat是一款主要是20几岁和十几岁年轻人用来互相发送愚蠢图片的应用软件。现在我不再这么认为了。上周,我在英国《金融时报》在旧金山主办的一次奢侈品峰会上采访了蒂芙尼(Tiffany amp; Co)首席执行官弗雷德里克#8226;科莫纳尔(Frederic Cumenal)。During our conversation, Cumenal revealed that Tiffany had recently created a sparkly Snapchat “filter” that communicates the dazzle of a diamond to anyone with a mobile phone. It even allows would-be purchasers to virtually “try on” the rings, without ever needing to go into one of those reverentially hushed Tiffany stores.在我们谈话期间,科莫纳尔透露,蒂芙尼最近开发了一款闪闪发光的Snapchat“过滤器”,把钻石的璀璨光芒传递到任何拥有手机的人。它甚至允许潜在购买者虚拟“试戴”戒指,而不需要进入那些安静得令人惶恐不安的蒂芙尼门店。Is this a good idea? That is the big question — actually, the 2bn question, if we go by the sector’s annual sales — hanging over the luxury goods world today. One of the reasons companies such as Tiffany are creating Snapchat filters is that they are keen to catch the cyber buzz — and appeal to “millennials”.这是个好主意吗?这是个大问题,实际上,是一个价值2220亿美元的问题——如果我们根据如今奢侈品行业的年销售额计算的话。蒂芙尼等公司创建Snapchat过滤器的一个原因在于,它们希望在网上引发热议,吸引“千禧一代”。Another factor is that the luxury sector is under pressure to do something — anything — to persuade sceptical investors that it can continue to grow, because, right now, it seems to be at an inflection point. In the decade leading up to the financial crisis of 2007-08, rich consumers in the west gobbled up luxury goods amid the credit boom. Then, when the slowdown hit, cash-rich consumers in places such as China, Russia and Brazil jumped in to provide a new source of demand.另一个原因是奢侈品行业正面临压力,要求他们有所作为(任何行动),说持怀疑态度的投资者:该行业能够继续壮大,因为目前它似乎正处于一个拐点。在2007年至2008年全球金融危机之前的10年里,西方富有消费者在信贷热潮期间大量买入奢侈品。后来,当经济放缓出现时,中国、俄罗斯和巴西等国现金充沛的消费者进入市场,带来新的需求来源。Now those emerging market countries are in the doldrums, and an anti-corruption drive in China has halted jewellery sales. Meanwhile, demand in Europe remains weak, and even in the US, which is supposed to be recovering, the picture is far from buoyant. Little wonder, then, that the share price of Tiffany (like many luxury goods companies) has tumbled by almost one-third in the past year.如今,这些新兴市场国家正处于低潮,同时中国的反腐运动遏制了珠宝销售。与此同时,欧洲需求仍然疲弱,甚至在理应处于复苏阶段的美国,前景也远非光明。难怪过去一年蒂芙尼的股价(与很多奢侈品公司一样)下挫近三分之一。People such as Cumenal argue that this partly reflects the vagaries of the business cycle. But what is really interesting for sociologists and anthropologists — albeit more worrying for those luxury executives — is that consumer habits in the west could be undergoing an even bigger structural change. In the 20th century, it was taken for granted that when rich people wanted to “enjoy” their wealth and display status, they acquired expensive goods such as houses, cars, art — and diamonds. But according to Sarah Quinlan, a MasterCard executive who analyses vast reams of spending data each month, there has recently been a shift in terms of how wealthy and not-so-wealthy people are spending money.科莫纳尔等人认为,这在一定程度上反映出商业周期的变幻莫测。但对于社会学家和人类学家而言,真正有趣(不过对于那些奢侈品高管而言这点更令人担忧)的一点在于,西方的消费习惯可能在经历更重大的结构性变革。在20世纪,人们想当然地认为,当富人希望“享受”他们的财富并炫耀其地位时,他们会购买昂贵商品,例如房产、汽车、艺术品和钻石。但据万事达(MasterCard)高管、每月分析大量消费数据的萨拉#8226;昆兰(Sarah Quinlan)称,富人以及不那么富有的人士的消费方式近年出现了变化。These days, overall consumer spending is growing (albeit more among the rich than the poor). This growth is occurring almost entirely in services such as restaurants, hotels, travel and holidays, not just in the middle market but in the luxury sector too. “One thing that comes out of these great recessions is that we like our friends and families again — we prize spending time with them,” Quinlan says. “The majority of [the growth] in spending is going to travel and leisure, not goods.” Or, as a report by Deloitte consultants notes: “All consumers, but especially millennials, value experiences#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;spend by people travelling accounts for 40 per cent of the personal luxury markets.”如今,整体消费出在增长(尽管富人消费增幅超过穷人)。这种增长几乎全部出现在餐厅、酒店、旅游和度假等务业方面,不仅仅在中档市场,在高端市场也是如此。“近年的大衰退带来一个现象,那就是我们再次爱我们的朋友和家人,珍惜与他们一起的时光,”昆兰表示,“大部分消费(增长)来自旅游和休闲,而非商品。”或者,正如德勤(Deloitte)咨询顾问们撰写的报告所指出的那样,“所有的消费者,特别是千禧一代,重视体验……旅游消费占个人奢侈品市场的40%。”According to Quinlan, this shift can be explained by changes in lifestyles and values: today’s millennials often live in cities, not suburbs, so have less physical space in which to store “stuff”; they also prize concepts such as “sustainability” and “community”.据昆兰称,生活方式和价值观的变化能够解释这种变化:如今的千禧一代往往生活在城市,而非郊区,因此没有那么多可以存储“东西”的物理空间;他们还重视“可持续发展”和“社区”等概念。#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;……I suspect there is another factor too: in the cyber age, physical goods simply do not feel very “exclusive” any more. Think once again about those diamonds. Fifty years ago, a scruffy teenager couldn’t wander into a jewellery store and try on a diamond ring; indeed, 100 years ago, poor people barely knew what the rich were wearing. But the internet has democratised the view: anyone can now “see” luxury goods and buy them online.我认为还有一个因素:在网络时代,实物商品不再让人感觉非常“专属”。再想想那些钻石吧。50年前,一个衣衫不整的年轻人是无法逛珠宝店和试戴钻石戒指的;的确,100年前,穷人根本不知道富人穿什么。但互联网拓宽了每个人的视野:任何人现在都能“亲眼见到”奢侈品并在线购买。What remains more exclusive are “experiences”, precisely because these cannot be commoditised online. One of the most powerful forms of conspicuous consumption today is not the accumulation of goods but the accumulation of memories — and stories. These are precious because they cannot be replicated.仍然比较专属的是“体验”,这恰恰是因为这些无法在网上商品化。如今,最强有力的炫耀性消费形式之一不是商品的累积,而是回忆(和故事)的累积。它们之所以珍贵是因为它们无法被复制。That does not mean that people will stop buying diamonds. But it does mean that luxury goods companies are being advised to mix experiences with goods to create prestige. Don’t just put diamonds on Snapchat; offer rich clients the chance to meet the master craftsman too.这并不意味着人们不会再购买钻石。但它确实意味着奢侈品公司正被建议将体验与商品混合在一起来创建显赫声望。不要只是在Snapchat上晒钻石了;还要向富有客户提供与手工艺大师见面的机会。To put it another way, the more that our lives are hijacked by robots and cyber links, the more valuable the individual — human — touch starts to become. It is a striking reminder of just how arbitrary our ideas of “value” — and luxury — really are. And perhaps a reason for cheer.换句话说,我们的生活被机器人和网络链接操纵得越多,个人(人类)风格也就开始变得越重要。这有力地提醒我们,我们对于“价值”(和奢侈品)的看法实际上是多么武断。或许这是一个值得拍手称快的理由。 /201606/448280。

An attack by a robot at a technology fair in Shenzhen last Thursday has been blamed on incorrect operation.上周四发生在深圳一个科技展上的机器人伤人事件最终被归因于操作不当。The robot named ;Xiaopang; displayed at the China Hi-tech Fair 2016 ran into a window. A visitor#39;s leg was wounded by broken glass and he was taken to hospital by an ambulance and received a few stitches.这个名叫;小胖;的机器人在第十八届中国国际高新技术成果交易会上展示时突然撞上玻璃,玻璃碎片划伤了一名参观者的腿,他随后被担架送往医院缝针。The accident took place at about 2pm when the exhibitor, Spview Century, a Shenzhen high-tech enterprise, was demonstrating the robot to visitors.本次事故发生在当天下午两点左右,当时参展商、深圳省高新技术企业展景世纪正在向参观者展示机器人。The fair#39;s organizing committee said an employee mistakenly hit the ;forward; button, instead of the ;reverse; one, leading to the accident.展会组织者称,工作人员误将;前进键;当成;后退键;操作导致了这次事件。An exhibitor surnamed Zhang whose booth is located near the accident site told China Daily that he heard a loud noise when the accident happened and saw many people gathering at the site.展台位于事故现场附近的一位姓张的参展商在接受《中国日报》采访时表示,当事故发生时,他听到了一声巨响,并且看到许多人聚集在了事发现场。The robot was reportedly produced by Beijing robot company Evolver. It was developed for children aged between four and 12 years old for educational use.据报道,;小胖;是北京机器人公司;进化者;为4-12岁儿童研发的,用于教育目的。 /201611/480208。

美国的时代周刊出了一期奥运特刊,并将刘翔作为亚洲版的封面人物。封面故事是100名奥运选手介绍。从澳大利亚到津巴布韦,从中国到美国,时代带你进行一次世界之旅,为你介绍将在北京奥运会上看到的最引人注目的运动员们。在百名运动员中,刘翔名列第四、姚明第五、郭晶晶名列第九。When Liu Xiang claimed victory in the 110-m hurdles in Athens, delivering China its first ever sprint gold, you could almost sense the alarm in the announcers' voices. Few had heard of this mystery athlete, much less knew how to pronounce his given name. What a difference four years make. In Beijing, Liu, 25, along with basketball star Yao Ming, will be the poster boy for China's mighty Olympic squad. Here's a quick language guide: his name (pronounced Sheeahng) means "to soar" in Chinese.当2004 年刘翔在雅典奥运会上夺得110米栏的冠军的时候,他为中国夺得了第一枚短跑金牌,你能从主播们的声音中感受到这种震惊。几乎没有人听说过这个神奇的运动员,知道怎么读他名字的人更少。四年带来了多大的变化啊!在北京,25岁的刘翔和篮球明星姚明将成为中国强大的奥运代表团的领军人物。我们来个语言快速入门:他的名字(发音为Sheeahng),在汉语中是“飞翔”的意思。Soaring is just what China expects Liu to do. A recent Internet poll found that the Chinese citizenry's No. 1 Olympic wish is for Liu to win gold. The Chinese Sports Ministry, which has three doctors dedicated to Liu's well-being, apparently holds similarly high hopes. Just how important is Liu to the Chinese nation? Well, an insurance company has valued his legs at .5 million.飞翔正是中国期待刘翔做到的。一份近期的网络调查显示,中国人的奥运愿望排名第一的就是刘翔拿到金牌。中国体育总局显然也同样有着很高的期望,安排了三个医生照顾他的健康。刘翔对国家来说有多重要?一个保险公司为他的腿估价1350万美元。Yes, that's just a teeny bit of pressure. And there's no sign of its letting up. In June, Cuba's Dayron Robles — wearing an oversize gold cross, a chunky watch and a pair of glasses — almost casually broke the world record that Liu had set two years earlier. Now Liu must strike gold and try to reclaim the world mark. "In China, I don't think even the Prime Minister is as famous as he is," says former British world champion Colin Jackson of Liu, who demolished Jackson's world record. "There's a lot of pressure on him to deliver that gold medal, but he has incredible competition. That must be hell for him."对,那只是一点点压力,但这压力并没有减少的迹象。六月,来自古巴的罗伯斯——戴着超大的金十字架、一块粗笨的表和一副眼镜的家伙很随便的就打破了刘翔两年前创造的世界记录。现在刘翔必须为金牌奋斗重夺世界纪录。说到曾打破了杰克逊的世界纪录的刘翔,这位前英国世界冠军柯林·杰克逊说:“在中国,大概总理都没他有名,要拿金牌他必须面对很大的压力,此外还有非常激烈的竞争,我想这一定挺难熬的。” /200808/45581。