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嘉兴注射隆鼻多少钱嘉兴曙光中西医医院光子嫩肤多少钱A short nap could reduce impulsive behavior and improve the ability to withstand frustration, a small study suggests.一项小型研究表明,午睡片刻可以减少冲动行为,改善人承受挫折的能力。Researchers studied 40 people aged 18 to 50. After three nights of normal sleep, the participants took computer-based tests of frustration tolerance — which consisted of trying to complete an impossible task — and completed questionnaires on sleepiness, mood and impulsivity. Then they were randomly assigned to take an hour’s nap, or to watch a nature . At the end of the process, they were tested again. The study appears in Personality and Individual Differences.研究人员招募了40名年龄在18岁至50岁之间的参与者,并让他们在正常睡眠三个晚上后,接受通过计算机进行的挫折承受力测试(包括试图完成一个不可能完成的任务),并回答有关睡意、情绪和冲动性的调查问卷。然后,参与者们被随机分为两组,一组午睡一个小时,另一组观看自然题材的纪录片。待上述程序都结束后,他们又再度接受了测试。该研究发表在《个性与个体差异》杂志(Personality and Individual Differences)上。Before the nap period, everyone spent about the same amount of time on the unsolvable task, but afterward nappers, who all reported having slept at least part of the time, spent significantly more time working at it than they had before their nap, while non-nappers gave up sooner. Nappers also rated their behavior as less impulsive than non-nappers.在午睡之前,每名参与者面对无法解决的任务时花的时间大致相同;但在午睡之后,报告在那一小时期间至少睡着了一会儿的所有参与者在任务上花的时间都比之前显著增加,而没有午睡的参与者则更快地选择了放弃。与没有午睡的人相比,午睡组在评定自己的行为时普遍认为自己的冲动程度较低。The lead author, Jennifer R. Goldschmied, a doctoral student at the University of Michigan, acknowledged that the sample is small, involved mainly college students and may not be applicable to other populations. The sleep calculations also did not use electronic devices to precisely measure sleep and wakefulness.该研究的主要作者,密歇根大学(University of Michigan)的士生珍妮弗·R·戈德施米德(Jennifer R. Goldschmied)承认他们的样本较少,而且大部分都是在校大学生,因此可能并不适用于其他人群。在计算睡眠时也没有使用电子设备来精确测定参与者的睡眠和清醒状况。Still, she said, “These results are valuable and have put us on the route to understanding how we can utilize naps. Now people are starting to understand how powerful short bursts of sleep can be.”不过她还是认为“这些结果很有价值,它指引我们走上研究如何充分利用午睡的道路。现在人们已经开始认识到睡眠时的短脉冲有多么强大了”。 /201511/408479平湖市激光祛痘多少钱 The Eastern Han was another strong and prosperous dynasty after the Western Han, and its economy went on booming.东汉是继西汉之后国力强盛,封建经济继续发展的一个王朝。Since its foundation by Emperor Guangwu, the empire lasted 196 years over fourteen generations.自光武帝建国起共传14帝,经历196年。The first 40 plus years of the Eastern Han witnessed the relative stability during the reign of the emperors Guang Wu, Ming and Zhang.汉光武帝、明帝和章帝统治的前40多年,东汉的社会比较稳定。After a civil war that had lasted from 25 A. D. to 36 A. D. , Emperor Guangwu finally reunited the country.公元25年至36年光武帝平定各地叛乱,重新一统天下。He tried to reinstate the central government, so the new dynasty was more autocratic than the Western Han.建国之初,光武帝重新加强中央集权,东汉政权较之西汉政权更为专制。Although the emperor re-established the princedoms and marquisates, and gave titles and fiefs to his followers, all of them were free from executive powers actually.光武帝大封功臣,却剥夺了他们的实权。He made a comprehensive reform on the policies made by Wang Mang, rectifying the bureaucratic system.全面改革王莽所实施的旧政策,整顿吏治。The power of the reputed three chancellors, i. e. , the chancellor of civil administration, the chancellor of military affairs and the great censor, was weakened.削弱三公即司徒、司空和太尉的权力。Being still in high positions, but in name only,they didn’t have any real power any longer.三公的职位虽高,徒有虚名,并无实权。Then all the power was centralized in the imperial board of ministries, which took orders from the emperor directly. This played an important role in the autocratic sovereignty, which sustained and further enhanced the centralization of the Western Han.权力集中于尚书台,尚书台则直接听命于皇帝, 这对皇帝的个人专制独裁起到重要作用,The inspection system was strengthened, and prefectural governor was appointed to each prefecture.这是对西汉武帝加强中央集权的继续和发展。He should go on an inspection tour around his administrative region in August every year, reviewing the lawsuits, inspecting the official achievements, and presenting a memorial of his inspection to the emperor at the end of the year.加强监察制度,每州设刺史一人。The local forces were also cut down step by step in order to enhance the central military power.刺史于每年8月巡行所属郡国,检阅刑狱情况,考察官吏政绩,年终奏于皇帝。Therefore, armies in prefectures and fiefdoms were too few to fight independently, and a big war had to resort to the central forces.一再削弱地方的军权,加强中央军权。Economic Policies:One crucial task for the Eastern Han Empire was the reconstruction of the economy.为此郡、国的军队很少,一般不能作战。大的战争要依靠中央军队。Long years of war and the flooding of the Yellow River rendered many peasant refugees roam around in the countryside.社会经济政策:东汉面临的首要问题是恢复经济。In order to control the population and to restrict the power of the local nobility, Emperor Guangwu tried to implement a system of “measuring fields”.由于常年战乱,加之黄河泛滥,各地流民甚多。In 39, he ordered a country-wide check-up on land reclamation and census.为控制人口,限制地方豪绅势力,光武帝实施“度田”政策。However the local officials shielded the landlords and cheated on figures in order to shift tax burden onto the peasants.公元39年,下令清查土地和人口。The emperor had a dozen magistrates executed, for being guilty of false measurement, and ordered to speed up measuring fields.然而地方官吏偏袒地主,谎报数据,将赋税转嫁到农民身上。The large land owners began to resist the property assessment with armed forces.光武帝以“度田不实”之罪诛杀了10余个郡太守,下令加紧度田。The deceived peasants also put up a violent resistance.这引起大地主的武装反抗,许多农民不明真象,也跟从反抗,这就是史称的“度田事件”。The emperor, who could do nothing effective, had to end the matter up with nothing definite. Therefore the counterattack was calmed down.后度田不了了之,反度田斗争也就平息下来。Later, he issues six prescripts to release bondservants, which helped to stabilize the social order, restore and develop economy effectively.光武帝6次颁布释放奴婢的诏令,对稳定社会秩序,恢复发展社会经济,都起了巨大的作用。After a series of reforms, the Eastern Han Dynasty had recovered its former prosperity under the reign of Emperors Guangwu, Ming and Zhang in the middle of the first century. This period of time is known as the Rule of Guangwu.经过一系列的改革,到公元一世纪中叶,经过光武帝、明帝(58 ~76年在位)、章帝(76?89年在位)三代的治理,东汉王朝已经逐渐恢复了往日汉朝的强盛,这一时期被后人称之为“光武中兴”。After Emperor Guangwu died in 57, Emperor Ming and Emperor Zhang came to the throne successively, and they all carried on the practice of the founder of the Eastern Han.公元57年,光武帝死后继承帝位的先后是明帝、章帝。This period of time was seen as days of peace and prosperity, when the economy found time to recover from the damage.二人皆遵奉光武之治, 为此这一时期国家繁荣、安定,社会经济得到恢复。The two emperors also attached importance to Confucianism.两位皇帝也都很重视儒家思想。In 59, Emperor Ming personally lectured in the imperial academy and discussed Confucian classics with scholars.公元59年,明帝亲自到太学讲学,并与士讨论儒家经典。Nearly 100 000 people are said to have attended.据说有近10万人 参加这一活动。In 79, since there were theoretical diversities existed within Confucianism, Emperor Zhang brought together the famous scholars in the White Tiger Hall in Luoyang to discuss the varieties and unities of the Five Classics. He ordered Ban Gu to incorporate the conclusions into a book, Bai Hu Tong Yi (Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall), which served to deify and consolidate imperial authority.公元79年,因经学家多分歧,章帝集中诸卿、士等于洛阳白虎观讲议五经同异,并命班固将讨论结果整理成书,名为《白虎通德论》(又称《白虎通 义》、《白虎通》),为神化和巩固封建政权务。 /201512/413030The Great Wall of China, a world heritage site, has suffered severe damage from both natural and man-made corrosion over the years.世界文化遗产之一,中国的万里长城,多年来,在自然环境的侵蚀和人为破坏下,饱经沧桑,生存状况堪忧。As the world#39;s biggest defense project, it was first started more than 2,000 years ago, and what is left today was mostly built during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644).作为世界上最大的防御工程,长城最早于2000多年前开始修建,今天我们所看到的长城大多是修建于明朝时期(1368-1644年)。However, not all of the Wall is preserved like the Badaling section in northern Beijing. According to a 2012 report by the State Administration of Cultural Heritage, of the 6,259 kilometers of the Ming Dynasty Wall, less than 10 percent is well preserved, while 31 percent of the Wall, or 1,961 kilometers, has disappeared. The remaining several thousand kilometers of the Wall has been dilapidated because of wind and rain, as well as human activities.然而,并非所有的长城都像北京北部的八达岭长城那样保存完好。据国家文物局2012年统计数据显示,全长6259公里的明代长城,保存完好的部分仅有不到10%,而31%的城墙(约1961公里)已消失在了历史长河中。由于风雨侵蚀和人类活动,剩下的几千公里城墙也都破旧不堪。In Shanxi Province, which is home to more than 3,500 kilometers of the Wall built in different historical periods, stealing of bricks from the Wall has been rampant, especially during the socially turbulent years.山西省内的长城长达3500多公里,建于不同的历史时期。当地人从城墙上偷砖块的行为一直很猖獗,特别是在社会动荡的岁月。Ge Shufang from Deshengbao village near the Wall, who is now a member of the Datong People#39;s Congress, has been promoting awareness among local villagers for more than a decade. Now that more tourists are coming to the village to see the Wall, the villagers have realized its value, and are starting to benefit from the tourism business.大同市人大代表葛书芳来自长城脚下的大胜堡村,十多年来一直致力于提高当地居民保护长城的意识。现在,随着越来越多的游客来到村子里参观长城,村民们终于意识到它的价值,并开始从旅游业中受益。However, pursuit of economic return has also ruined the Wall in some places. In order to cash in from tourism, the Youyu county in Shanxi leveled off the Wall in Shahukou and rebuilt the section with a tacky new design, drawing fierce criticism from conservation experts.然而,对经济回报的追求也破坏了一些地方的城墙。为了从旅游中获利,山西右玉县杀虎口的长城被推平,翻新重修,它失去了古风的新设计遭到了文物保护专家的强烈批判。 /201601/421791嘉善县职工医院激光祛痣多少钱

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