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2019年09月18日 03:57:57 | 作者:好医爱问 | 来源:新华社
Take this pool table.看这个桌球台The surface looks flat and smooth, but up close,表面看起来平整光滑,但靠近了看it#39;s actually anything but.实际并非如此It#39;s full of gaps and holes.它的表面布满了裂缝和小孔Even something as smooth as a pool ball就连桌球这样的光滑事物has tiny crevices, wrinkles, and voids.都有小的裂缝,细纹和小孔Now, it#39;s easy to show that显而易见this is true in the first three dimensions,这在三维空间里毋容置疑but, trust me,但是相信我 it#39;s also true of the fourth dimension, as well.在第四维空间里这也是正确的There are tiny crevices, wrinkles, and voids在时间空间里in time.也有小的裂缝,细纹和小孔Down at the smallest of scales,不断地缩到最小的范围smaller even than molecules,甚至比分子原子还微小时smaller than atoms, we get to a place我们所得到的called the quantum foam.就是量子泡沫This is where wormholes exist.虫洞就存在于此Tiny tunnels, or shortcuts,在量子的世界里through space and time constantly form,穿越时空的微小隧道或捷径disappear, and reform within this quantum world.不断地形成,消失,再形成And they actually link two separate它们实际上连接了两个独立的区域places and two different times.和两处不同的时间Unfortunately, these real-life time tunnels are不幸的是,这种真实存在的时间隧道just a billion trillion trillionths of a centimeter across --只有10的-33次方厘米的大小way too small for a human to pass through.远不足以容纳人类通过But here#39;s where the notion of wormhole time machines is leading.但虫洞时间机器的概念正带来更多灵感Some scientists think it may be possible to一些科学家认为或许可以捕捉capture one and enlarge it near trillions of times其中一个虫洞将其放大数万亿倍to make it big enough for a human让它大到足以能让人类or even a spaceship to enter.甚至宇宙飞船进入Given enough power and advanced technology,假设有足够的能量和高科技perhaps a giant wormhole could even be constructed in space.或许可以在宇宙中构造一个巨大的虫洞I#39;m not saying it can be done,我不是说这一定可行 but if it could be,但如果真能面世it would be a truly remarkable device.它将是一个非常卓越的机器One end could be here near the earth,一端在地球附近and the other far, far away, near some distant planet.而另一端则在遥远的星际 Article/201507/384576They say Messi doesn#39;t talk much. They are wrong.有人说,梅西不怎么爱说话。他们错了He#39;s been preaching to us all along. If you look him, you can hear him.其实,他一直都在告诉我们该怎么做。看他的比赛,你就知道了He is saying: don#39;t go down, brothers and sisters. Don#39;t go down!他在呐喊:不要倒下,兄弟们!千万不要倒下!When life kicks you, tries to tackle you, don#39;t go down!当生活踢了你一脚,试图阻拦你继续向前时,不要倒下;When your legs are heavy, you lungs are burning, don#39;t go down!当你已经步履沉重,肺部像炸开了一样时,不要倒下;When you have every reason to go down, do not go down!当一切都在迫使你屈时,千万不要倒下!You can#39;t defy the odds when you are down.一旦倒下,你就无法再藐视困难;You can#39;t make someone a believer when you are down.一旦倒下,你就不会再让人信Messi is spraining the world, don#39;t let things in outside.梅西令世界颤抖,不要屈,继续前进!Be stronger than what#39;s inside, because life has more stuffing, if you just stay up.坚强起来,超越自我!只要屹立不倒,生命便充满能量! Article/201701/487381Vitamin E is the next fat soluble vitamin we will discuss.我们接下来讨论的脂溶性维生素是维生素EAny ideas on what role vitamin E might have in the body?有人知道维生素E在人体内的作用吗?The chemical structures of vitamin E are complicated.维生素E的化学结构很复杂There are 8 different forms of vitamin E known已知的维生素E有8种however Alpha-Tocopherol is但α-生育酚the most active form of vitamin E in humans.是在人体中最活跃的一种维生素EThe main function for this vitamin is这种维生素的主要功能是as an antioxidant in the membranes of the cells.作为细胞膜的抗氧化剂All cells of the body are surrounded by人体的所有细胞外都包裹着a membrane that contains fat,一层含有脂肪cholesterol and various proteins.胆固醇,和多种蛋白质的膜Vitamin E interdisperses with the fats in the membrane维生素E分散在细胞膜的脂肪中and binds to oxidative agents that attack the fats.与进攻细胞膜脂肪的氧化基团结合In this role vitamin E has been found由于具有抗氧化作用to have a wide range of benefits to the body including人们发现维生素E对身体有很多益处a protective effect on cardiovascular disease and cancer.包括对于心血管疾病和癌症的预防保护Antioxidants protect the body from free radicals抗氧化剂能保护人体,清除自由基which can damage the cell这些自由基会破坏细胞and contribute to the development of并且加剧cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer.心血管疾病和某些肿瘤的生长However research to study the role of然而补充维生素Esupplementing vitamin E to prevent heart disease对于预防心脏疾病or cancer have not been very successful.或癌症的研究并没有获很大进展Vitamin E is a scavenger of oxidation agents in the body维生素E可以说是人体内氧化性物质的清除专家collecting the free radicals它会收集自由基and providing a defense against tissue damage.为人体组织提供一道有效的保护屏障Therefore having an adequate supply所以摄入足量的of vitamin E is important.维生素E十分重要However taking large amounts of supplements然而用大量补品do not seem to be of much value.似乎不那么有用Vitamin E has also been shown to aid还显示维生素E有助于in the healing of wounds伤口愈合because of its role in cell proliferation这都是因为它在细胞增殖and free radical protection.及自由基保护中的作用Here are the recommended intakes of vitamin E.这里是推荐的维生素E摄入量Again we see the use of IUs我们再一次用到国际单位because of the many chemical forms of vitamin E.因为维生素E有多种化学形式You may also see vitamin E expressed as TE你们也可能看到维生素E被称为TEor tocopherol equivalents.或者生育酚等价物This refers to the chemical name of vitamin E,这是指维生素E的化学名称tocopherol and the most active form alpha-tocopherol.生育酚及其最具活性的形态α-生育酚Men and women over the age of 1414岁以上的男性和女性每天should consume approximate 22.5 IUs应摄入22.5国际单位or 15 milligrams per day.或15毫克During pregnancy the recommendation怀期间推荐的摄入量stays the same however during lactation与此相同,但哺乳期间the recommendation increases to 28.5 IUs推荐的日摄入量增加到每天28.5国际单位or 19 milligrams per day.或19毫克Vegetable oils, nuts, green leafy vegetables植物油,坚果,绿叶菜and fortified cereals are common sources of vitamin E.及强化谷物是维生素E的常见食物来源There has never been any known deficiency of vitamin E至今还没有人类缺乏维生素Ewith defined symptoms in the human, presumably的典型症状because vitamin E is so widely available in foods.可能是因为维生素E是如此广泛存在于食物中Leafy green vegetables are绿叶菜也是also good sources of vitamin E as well as grains补充维生素E很好的食物来源such as fortified cereals and wheat germ.像强化谷物和麦芽这样的谷类也是Avocados, peanut butter and tomato sauce鳄梨,花生酱,及番茄酱are also good sources of vitamin E.也是补充维生素E很好的选择 Article/201507/385278栏目简介:《英语视频之Top10》是英语视频听力下的子栏目,栏目包含中英字幕,而且能够了解世界上10大新奇或者有意思的事物,比如奇葩犯罪记录、科学骗局、邪恶老师等,通过简单有趣的讲述,能够提高学习英语的兴趣,积累一些英语知识,是比较生动的英语学习材料。 Article/201510/402169

When a particularly large tidal surge from the Atlantic大西洋上无比巨大的潮汐get funnelled into the increasingly shallow water of the river,会涌进当地河流里不得不流入越来越浅的河水里it turns into a single powerful surging wave.它就会变成一股力量巨大向上涌动的海浪A tidal bore.The most surprising thing,潮水钻孔 最让人惊奇的事物the most worrying thing, is the speed of that wave.最让人担忧的是这个浪的速度This is a pretty fast boat and we#39;re just staying ahead of it.这艘船很快我们也只能被它紧逼The bore travels upstream at up to 20 miles per hour.可以流进内陆蔓延几十公里It rolls inland for miles, tearing apart the riverbank along the way.那个浪可一直奔腾着撕裂沿途的一切This wave will move over 13 million cubic feet of water every minute.每一分钟会移动400000立方米的水That#39;s up to 150 times the minimum flow of the Niagara Falls.最高达到尼亚加拉瀑布水量的150倍This bore shows just how much energy is created这个潮涌显示了这个能量是多么强大by the power of gravity, and released in a tide.来自重力的能量,通过潮汐释放出来 Article/201511/408381

When I found out you were coming当我发现你即将到来时,it was the happiest day of my life那是我生命中最幸福的一天。A boy. A boy that would love football as much as I did.一个男孩。一个会像我一样热爱足球的男孩。I waited nine long months我已经等了长达9个月。And then you were born and you gave me the most unexpected surprise然后你就出生了,你给了我最意想不到的惊喜。You were a beautiful girl, football just wasn#39;t your sport.你是一个美丽的女该,而足球并不是你的运动。I wanted so much to teach you about this game我是那么希望教你这项运动的一切but in the end up, it was you ended up teaching me about life.但是最终,是你教会了我关于生活的一切。I#39;m your biggest fan.我是你最忠实的粉丝。 Article/201703/500216

The education materials presented here本片呈现的教育材料were developed by students and faculty是由爱荷华州立大学食物科学of the Department of Food Science和人类营养学学院的and Human Nutrition at Iowa State University.学生和教员总结完成的Funding for this project was provided by grants本项目由中西部美国癌症协会from the American Cancer Society Midwest和兰斯·阿姆斯壮基金会and the Lance Armstrong Foundation.出资赞助The materials are intended for educational use本材料用于教育and are not meant to provide medical advice.而非提供医疗指导We welcome your feedback about these materials.我们欢迎您对本材料做出反馈Please use the evaluation survey link on the homepage请登录首页,点击评估调查链接to provide your comments and suggestions.提供您的和建议This presentation will cover information本课程内容包括about vitamin D and calcium and the role维生素D和钙的相关信息these nutrients play in cancer prevention.以及这两种营养物质对癌症防治的作用Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin.维生素D是一种脂溶性维生素This means that it can only be absorbed with fat.这意味着它只能被脂肪所吸收Vitamin D is not found in many foods.很多食物没有维生素D的成分In fact it can be difficult to obtain事实上从食物中很难摄取到足够数量的required amounts of vitamin D from foods.满足人体需求的维生素DFoods that naturally contain significant富含维生素D的食物amounts of vitamin D are fatty fish and eggs.有多脂鱼和蛋类To increase intake of vitamin D为了增加维生素D的摄取foods have been fortified.食物中的维生素D量已经得到强化Milk is the most commonly consumed product牛奶是人们最常购买的that is fortified with vitamin D.强化维生素D的食品Juices, breakfast cereals, bs and yogurt蔬果汁,早餐谷物食品,面包和酸奶are also fortified with vitamin D.也都是维生素D强化食品Dietary supplements are also consumed很多个人购买膳食补充剂by many individuals to meet来满足日常所需the daily requirements of vitamin D.的维生素DThere are many forms of supplements还有很多补充维生素D的方法and I will discuss these later.稍后我会讲到Cholecalciferol is a form of vitamin D维生素D3是维生素D的一种形式made naturally by the body是皮肤裸露在太阳光下时when the skin is exposed to sunlight,人体自然形成的一种物质however most people do not get然而,大多数人enough sunlight to satisfy their daily并没有获得足够的阳光recommended intake through sunlight来满足每日推荐摄入量especially in the winter.尤其是在冬天Recommended daily intakes are given每日推荐摄入量的多少in international units which is abbreviated IU.通过国际单位来表示One IU is equal to 40 micrograms.缩写为IU,一个IU等同于40毫克The recommendations are 200 IU从出生到50岁from birth to 50 years of age,推荐摄入量为200IU400 IUs from 51 to 70 years of age从51岁到70岁为400IUand 600 IUs for 71 plus years of age.71岁以后为600IUThese recommendations meet the minimum推荐摄入量满足了最小需求requirements mostly based on bone health.以保持骨骼健康为基础Currently there#39;s debate within the medical community当前,医学界about the daily recommended intake for vitamin D.对维生素D的日常推荐摄入量存在争议The debate is about whether or not争议围绕的问题是the current amounts are adequate for all of当前的的日常推荐摄入量the functions vitamin D plays in the body.是否能够满足人体的所有功能的需求Current research suggests consuming amounts目前的研究表明closer to 1000 IU may be needed to obtain人体需要吸收将近1000IU的维生素Dall the potential benefits of vitamin D.才能得到维生素D的所有潜在益处Some examples of vitamin D content下面列举一些含有in foods are shown here.维生素D成分的食物Fish including salmon and tuna are excellent sources.鲑鱼和金鱼是很好的维生素D来源Egg also contains vitamin D.鸡蛋也含有维生素DThe highest concentration is in the yolk.酸奶中的维生素D最为丰富Other good food sources include 3 oz of beef liver另外 3盎司的牛肝含有42IU的维生素Dwhich contains 42 IU and 3 oz of pork spare ribs3盎司的猪排骨包含88IUwhich contain 88 IU. Some foods that are fortified下面是一些with vitamin D are shown here.维生素D强化食物An 8 oz glass of milk will contain 115 IU8盎司牛奶包含115IUand 8 oz of fortified orange juice8盎司强化橙汁contains 100 IU of vitamin D.含有100IU维生素DCheerios are a good source as are other如同其他强化的早餐谷物食品一样fortified breakfast cereals.麦片也是一种很好的维生素D来源Yogurt is another diary product that酸奶是另一种also provides vitamin D.提供维生素D的奶制品 Article/201508/389815

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