樊城区妇幼保健中医院看鼻息肉大概多少钱费用丽大夫

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原标题: 樊城区妇幼保健中医院看鼻息肉大概多少钱费用咨询优惠
Dementia is a scary word. So is senile. Both words conjure up images of being helpless in old age, of losing your memories. Of losing yourself. And the worst thing about losing your mind is that once its gone, its gone. Youre never the same. Except when thats not the case.痴呆症是个令人害怕的词。衰老也一样。这两个词呈现给人们的是一幅老来无助,精神错乱,迷失自我的画面。精神错乱最糟糕的地方在于,一旦记忆褪去,就永远消失了。你就再也不是以前的你了。除非另有隐情。In recent years, doctors and scientists have seen more and more cases where memory loss isnt just a natural consequence of aging. Sometimes its caused by other things, like medication. The wrong combination of medicine can cause confusion and forgetfulness. So can doses that are too high or too low.近年来,医生和科学家们遇到的越来越多的案例显示失忆并不只是人类老化的自然结果。有些时候是由于其它原因造成,例如药物作用。错误的药物结合疗法会导致记忆混乱,使人健忘。药物剂量过高或者过低也会造成影响。And stress is also a factor. Being stressed out can shrink the hippocampus--a part of the brain that helps form and hold onto memories. So how do you know if an elderly parent is suffering from dementia, or if its a problem with meds or stress?此外,压力也是一方面的因素。长期的压力也能缩小海马体的尺寸。海马体是大脑内负责形成和掌握记忆的部分。但你怎么知道上了年纪的父母到底是患上了老年痴呆症,还是因为药物或者压力导致了失忆?First, find out what medication theyre taking and learn about possible side effects. And try to find out whats going on in their lives that might be stressful. And, of course, talk with their doctor to see about trying a new medication or changing doses. Because the good news is that if medicine or stress is to blame for memory problems, making a change could solve the problem and help your parent be themselves again.首先要找到他们用的药物,尽量了解其副作用。然后试图弄清楚他们生活中承受了什么压力。当然,也要通过与医生的谈话了解父母有没有用新药,或者有没有更改药剂。令人欣喜的消息是,如果记忆问题归咎于药物或压力,那么稍作改变就能解决问题,让父母重新找到自己。原文译文属!201210/204261Science and technology.科技。Malaria,Not swatted yet.消灭疟疾任重道远。A new vaccine is one step towards a distant goal.一种新疫苗让人类离消灭疟疾更近了一步。MAN has vanquished only one disease, smallpox. In 2007 Bill Gates set out to eradicate another, malaria. The World Health Organisation (WHO) was soon rallying its troops to the cause and a flood of money followed. 2m went to research in alone. This week the Bill amp; Melinda Gates Foundation trumpeted another announcement: results from a phase III trial (the more extensive process of testing drugs in people) of a malaria vaccine called RTS,S. This is the worlds most advanced vaccine for malaria and the results, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, were encouraging.到目前为止人类只消灭了天花这一种疾病。2007年,比尔?盖茨宣布开始着手消灭另一种疾病即疟疾。世界卫生组织迅速召集队伍致力于这项事业,并在随后投入大量资金,年仅在研究上就投入了6.12亿美元。本周,;比尔和梅琳达?盖茨基金会;发表了另一个声明,内容是世界上对抗疟疾最先进的疫苗RTS,S的第三试验阶段(在人群中广泛使用药物并测量反应)的结果,发表于《新英格兰医学杂志》上的结果振奋人心。It is an important step in combating a disease that still kills more than 700,000 people a year and debilitates millions more. But it is also a reminder of how much work remains to be done.每年因疟疾致死的人有700000人,致残的有 数百万人,这个试验结果是战胜这一疾病的重大进步。但是它也提醒人们还有多少任务尚未完成。Mr Gates is only malarias latest adversary. The parasite has plagued man for millennia. Chinese texts from 2700 describe plants to treat its fevers. More recently, in 1955, the WHO embarked on its first malaria-eradication effort. But transmission rates in Africa seemed intractable. After 14 years the WHO gave up. The last time the world tried to eliminate malaria, some scientists lament, the world eliminated malariologists.疟疾祸害人类千年,盖茨先生最近一个反抗它的对手。公元前2700年中国的文字资料就记载着一些植物能治疗由疟疾引起的发烧的。再往离现在近的时间看,世界卫生组织在1955年展开首次消灭疟疾的行动。但是在非洲,遏制疟疾的传播率似乎非常棘手。14年之后,世卫放弃了。有些科学家慨叹,上一次世界本来试图消灭疟疾,结果被消灭的是疟疾学家。The new wave of enthusiasm came with the founding of the Roll Back Malaria Partnership in 1998 (to co-ordinate planning), the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative in 1999 (with money from the Gates Foundation) and the ed Nations Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria in 2002. This culminated in Mr Gatess call to arms four years ago and has helped to lower the number of malaria deaths by 20% over the past decade.随着1998年;遏制疟疾伙伴关系;(共同测绘)、1999年;疟疾疫苗开发计划;(资金来自盖茨基金会)和2002年联合国全球治疗艾滋病肺结核和疟疾基金的建立,对抗疟疾的新一轮热潮出现了。四年后盖茨振臂一呼,在十年里疟疾死亡率降低了20%,推动抗疟疾的热潮达到顶峰。More progress will be difficult. The existing tools of insecticide-treated bed nets and treatment drugs require careful co-ordination and good health systems. Eliminating malaria in a stable country is dramatically easier than doing so in a turbulent one. Worryingly, these tools may become less effective. Parasites in South-East Asia, for example, seem to be developing resistance to artemisinin-based treatments. To achieve eradication-or anything close to it-new weapons are needed.要想获得更多进展非常困难。现有的带有杀虫剂蚊帐和药物治疗要求配合细致和良好的医疗系统。在一个政局稳定的国家消灭疟疾比在政局动荡的国家更容易。比如,东南亚的寄生虫似乎对基于青蒿素的治疗起了抗药性。要想消灭疟疾——或是向这个目标再迈进一大步—就得发展新武器。RTS,S, developed by GlaxoSmithKline (GSK), a British pharmaceutical company, will help. The vaccine tries to stop one type of malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, before it has a chance to wreak havoc. A mosquitos bite delivers malaria to the body. Travelling swiftly to the liver, the parasites hide, mature and multiply before staging a grand second act in the bloodstream, where they invade red blood cells, multiply again, and invade more cells. RTS,S combines a circumsporozoite protein, which exists on the parasites surface, with a protein from a hepatitis B vaccine. Together, these trigger an immune response which can fight off invading parasites before the second act.这个新武器就是由英国制药公司葛兰素史克公司(GlaxoSmithKline研制的RTS,S。该疫苗能停止疟疾寄生虫恶性疟原虫的活性,使它不能为非作歹。蚊子叮一口就会把疟疾传到人身上。它传播敏捷,在寄主身上隐藏起来、成熟、繁殖,然后在血液里进行第二个大的行动,入侵红细胞后再次繁殖,接着侵占更多细胞。RTS,S把存在于寄生虫表面的环子孢子蛋白和肝炎B型疫苗里的一种蛋白结合在一起。它们共同作用引发一种免疫反应,在第二次活动前就击退入侵的寄生虫。GSK tested the vaccine in 6,000 infants across sub-Saharan Africa. It reduced the risk of clinical malaria by 56% and severe malaria by 47%. This efficacy was ;on the positive side of what we were expecting,; says Christian Loucq of the PATH Malaria Vaccine Initiative, GSKs partner on RTS,S.葛兰素史克公司在撒哈拉以南非洲的6000名婴儿身上测试了这种疫苗。患临床疟疾的风险减少了56%,患严重疟疾的风险减少了47%。葛兰素史克公司在研制RTS.S的搭档;疟疾疫苗开发计划;的Christian Loucq说这种效力;是我们曾期待的积极一面;。However, more is to come. The trial examined children aged 5-17 months. Results for younger babies will follow. Still uncertain is how long the vaccines protection lasts. The first year that the vaccine might be used would be 2015, and that is if everything goes as planned. Even then, it is unclear how RTS,S might be deployed. Its price is uncertain and its power limited. ;We realise that RTS,S is not the ultimate malaria vaccine,; says David Brandling-Bennett of the Gates Foundation. ;But it will have some role. The challenge is figuring out what that role is.;然而,更多的试验紧随其后。上面提到的试验测试对象是5-17个月大的婴儿。随后会出炉年龄更小婴儿的结果。这种疫苗的保护能持续多久还不清楚。疫苗投入使用可能会从2015年开始,前提是如果一切按计划进行的话。即使到那时候,还不清楚RTS.S会怎样投放。价格不定,效力也是有限的。;我们认识到RTS.S并非是最好的疟疾疫苗,;盖茨基金会的大卫?布兰丁-内特这样说,;但是它会起到一些作用。我们的挑战是研究出这种作用是什么。;Researchers are aly working on the next generation of vaccines. GSK hopes to induce a stronger immune response by combining RTS,S with a vaccine from Crucell, another drug firm. Scientists are also keen to develop vaccines that target different kinds of malaria parasites and in different ways-for example, in mosquitoes guts. All of this work requires further investment at a time when global health programmes must compete fiercely for cash. Mr Gates has helped to spur progress. Sustaining it is the next challenge.研究者已经开始从事下一代疫苗的开发。葛兰素史克公司希望使用RTS,S和另一家制药公司Crucell的一种疫苗的结合体来引起更强烈的免疫反应。科学家也努力研制针对不同种类疟疾寄生虫和不同感染途径——比如,在蚊子的内脏里——的疫苗。这些工作都需要继续投入资金,而现在正是全球医疗项目必须为资金激烈竞争的时候。盖茨先生已经为推动研究进步做出贡献。如何保持这种势头是下一个挑战。 /201208/196129Obituary;Sai Baba;讣告;赛巴巴;Sathya Sai Baba (Satyanarayana Raju), one of Indias most controversial gurus, died on April 24th, aged 85;萨提亚·赛巴巴(赛提亚纳拉亚纳·喇举),印度最具争议的上师之一,死于4月24日,享年85岁;With a mere circling wave of His Hand, Sai Baba could make objects materialise out of the air. Gold rings, amulets and necklaces; blocks of sugar candy; images of Shiva made of topaz and sapphire; bottles of tonic and packets of blue pills; rosaries, silver vessels and even medallions inscribed with the name of the recipient, the day and date. He could produce vibhuti too, holy Ash that poured from under His fingernails. On average a pound a day flowed from Him as He gave darshan, allowing His followers a sight of God as He moved among them, a tiny ochre-robed figure with an immense black afro, or halo, of hair. The Ash might be salty or sweet, blackish or white. Smeared on the body, it forgave sins; taken in water, it helped digestive complaints.赛巴巴仅仅挥手划一个圈,就能够使空中突然出现很多东西:金戒指、护身符、项链、冰糖块、黄水晶与蓝宝石制成的湿婆神像、药瓶、汞丸袋、念珠、银器、甚至是刻有接受者名字和年月日的纪念章。他还能够变出圣灰,它们从他的指甲下流出。赛巴巴身材较小,穿着赭黄色长袍,一头巨大的圆蓬式黑发象光晕一般。当他赐福时,通常一天变出一磅的圣灰。他在信徒中走动,使他们能够瞥见一眼神性。圣灰的味道或咸或甜,颜色略黑或白。把它涂在身上,可以消除罪障;它吸水后有助于消除心中的抱怨。Sceptics were always trying to show how it was done, saying that the Ash was a pellet crushed between His fingers, or that the gold and silver ellipsoidal lingams (the Form of the Formless) that He coughed up at certain festivals were in fact hidden in His handkerchief. The B made a documentary, and slow-motion s were all over YouTube. Sai Baba laughed at their efforts. His miracles were as trivial, in comparison with His Reality, as a mosquito to an elephant. But at least 6m people, probably closer to 100m, in 126 countries of the world, accepted them as tokens of the Divinity He personified. And He was defended by figures no less than Manmohan Singh, prime minister of India, and Sonia Gandhi, leader of the Congress party, who journeyed to pay their respects before his state funeral.怀疑者们总是企图揭露这一过程,他们说,圣灰是在赛巴巴的手指间碾碎的小球,在某些节日上赛巴巴咳出的金质和银质的椭圆体形男根雕像(无形湿婆神的象征物)实际上藏在他的手帕里。B拍摄过一部纪录片,慢镜头视频在油条吧上随处可见。赛巴巴对他们的企图不屑一顾。因为与实相相比,他的神通是微不足道的,就如同蚊虫比之于大象。但是在世界上的126个国家里,至少有六百万,或许接近于一亿人,相信它们是赛巴巴所代表的神的象征物。拥护他的人数不亚于曼莫汉·辛格和索尼亚·甘地,前者是印度首相,后者是国大党领袖。信徒们在赛巴巴被国葬之前远程而来表达敬意。Besides, he said, all the enquiries and science in the world could not begin to explain the other things that He, as an avatar of God, could will to happen. He could raise people from the dead, even when ants were aly crawling over them. He could hold back the rains. He could leave His own body, letting it slump stiff and lifeless in His chair for five minutes while He travelled to the Kashmir Front or the seashore at Mumbai. Sufferers from duodenal ulcers would find Him operating on them, materialising the instruments from thin air. He could change water into petrol or diesel on which cars ran for many miles.此外,他曾说,这个世界上的所有探索和科学都绝不可能解释作为神之化身的他所做的其他一些事情。他可以使死人复活,即使蚂蚁已经爬满他们的身体。他可以使下雨停止。他可以离开自己的身体,让它在椅子里陷入僵直和毫无生气的状态达五分钟,此时他飞往克什米尔前线或者孟买的海滨。十二指肠溃疡患者找他做手术,他可以使手术器械从虚空中突然出现。他可以将水变成汽油或柴油,很多汽车加上这些油可以跑好几英里。A number of more straightforward good works could also be attributed to Him. At remote Puttaparthi in Andhra Pradesh, His birthplace and the site since 1948 of His ashram, He established an airport, two sports stadiums, a free super-speciality hospital and an institute of higher learning rated A++ by the National Assessment and Accreditation Council. He set up free primary and secondary schools all over India, had another free hospital built at Bangalore, and paid for drinking water to be piped from the Krishna river to Chennai and from the Godavari river to upland Andhra Pradesh. Perhaps 2m people benefited. This helped to muffle, though never to quiet entirely, controversies about His billion trust fund and claims of sexual abuse of His boy disciples.他也直接做了很多善行。遥远的安德拉邦的普塔帕蒂是他的出生地和1948年后他的静修地,他在这里修建了一座飞机场、两个运动场、一所免费的综合专业医院,和一所被全国评估与鉴定委员会评为A++级的高等教育机构。他在全印度建立了很多免费的小学和中学,在班加罗尔建了另一所免费医院,为从奎师那河输送到金奈市、从戈达瓦里河输送到安德拉邦高地的饮用水付费。大约有二百万人受益。这些有助于抑制关于他的五十亿美元的信托基金的争论,和关于他的一些男孩门徒被性虐待而要求索赔的争论,尽管争论从没有完全平息下来。But then there had always been people who had refused to believe in his Godhead—from His father, who in the beginning beat Him with a stick and made a village healer lacerate His scalp and rub it with garlic and lime juice to cure His madness, to the rationalist who sued Him in 1986 under the Gold Control Act for bringing so many gold articles out of the air. (The case was dismissed.) They ignored the obvious signs of His divinity, such as the cobra that had cradled Him at birth, or His ability as a schoolboy to bring forth peppermints out of an empty bag. He mostly hid His Godhead in those years, but found it frustrating, and was glad at 14 to be able to reveal (after a scorpion sting had put Him into a trance) that His previous body had been that of a 19th-century saint called Shirdi Sai Baba, whose statue, in marble, He placed beside His own in His Temples, and whose fresh photograph, in several copies, He would often produce out of the sands of the Chitravathi river.然而总是有一些人,从他的父亲到唯理论者,拒绝相信他的神性。为了治好他的疯病,起初他的父亲用棍子打他,让一个乡村医生割破他的头皮并用蒜汁和石灰水擦。1986年唯理论者根据《黄金管理法》控告他从空中搞出来如此多的黄金制品。这一诉讼被驳回了。这些人忽视了明显显露他的神性的迹象,例如,在他出生时有一条眼镜蛇将他放进摇篮,在他是个学童时就能从一个空瓶子里弄出薄荷糖来。那些年他通常都在隐藏他的神性,但是他发现隐藏不了。在14岁时,他曾被一只蝎子蛰了,使他陷入神志恍惚,之后他很高兴他能够发现他前世曾是一位十九世纪的圣人,叫做舍帝·赛巴巴。在他的寺庙中,他将舍帝的大理石雕像置于他自己的雕像旁;他根据舍帝的一些摹本,经常用齐彻瓦底河的沙子制作舍帝的新图像。As a boy He demanded to be worshipped on Thursdays; as a man He enforced no particular rites or rituals, save the chanting of Om and the names of God. (He Himself had 108 names, and this was the number of crystals formed by His steps on the shore, and the number of pearls on the garland that was once presented to Him by the sea.) He endorsed no particular religion, though He used the terms of Hinduism, embracing all faiths as valid ways to truth, love and peace. He ignored distinctions of race or caste, and was happy to eat rice from an aluminium plate in the house of an untouchable. If His teachings had any flavour, it came from His background among poor farming folk. The hearts of His devotees were dry, He said, like a village tank before the monsoon; they had to be ploughed by the mind, watered by prayer, sown with seeds of Love.年少时,他要求每周四被礼拜;成人时,除了念诵咒语“唵”和神的名字外,他没有举行特殊的仪式。他自己有108个名字,这是他踩在海滩上形成的水晶体的数量和有一次大海送给他的花环上的珍珠的数量。尽管他使用印度教的术语,但他不认可任何特定的宗教,他利用所有的信仰作为通向真理、爱与和平的有效途径。他不理睬种族与种姓的差异,他曾经在一个贱民的家里很高兴地从铝盘子里取米饭来吃。如果说他的教导有什么特色,那么这些特色是来自穷苦农民这一背景。他曾说,他的信徒们的心田是干涸的,就像雨季到来前的乡间池塘,它们必需要用理智耕耘,用祈祷浇灌,用爱的种子播种。The devotees who crowded the Puttaparthi ashram, hoping for Blessing or stuffing their letters of petition into His hands, never questioned who He was. He was all the multiple forms of God in human shape. Though His forecast that he would die in 2020 was a little out, that did not dent the belief that He would return in a new body to carry on His work. And Sai Baba, patting them on the back, had always told them they were God also. All they needed was, like Him, to know it.挤满普塔帕蒂静修处的信徒们,从未怀疑过他是谁。他们期待着赐福,或将他们的祈祷文塞入赛巴巴的手里。他是化身为人的所有的神。虽然他预言自己将死于2020年有点不大准确,但这并不妨碍他将以一个新的身体回来继续他的工作这一信念。赛巴巴总是轻轻拍着信徒们的后背,说他们也有神性。他们所需做的一切,就是像他一样,去了知神性。 /201212/215500

Tchaikovsky was deeply affected.柴可夫斯基被深深地影响了。When I this terrible judgment, I hardly knew what I was doing and everything went black before my eyes.当我读到这点,我不知道自己在做什么而且在我眼前的一切都是漆黑一片。My head began to spin and I ran out of the café like a mad man.我的头开始天旋地转,之后我就像一个疯子般跑出咖啡馆。I was not aware of what I was doing or where I was going.我不晓得自己在做什么或者是要去哪里。The whole day long I wandered the streets repeating to myself, I am sterile and shall never amount to anything.整整一天我徘徊街头并对自己重复道,我是个另类,永远不会做任何事。But alone among the critics, his friend Herman Laroche had seen his potential.但在批评家中的唯一一人,他的朋友赫尔曼?拉罗什则看出他的潜力。I tell you frankly that I consider yours is the greatest musical talent to which Russia can look forward.我坦白地告诉你,我认为你具有俄罗斯可以期待的最伟大的音乐天赋。I see in you the greatest, or rather the only hope for our musical future.我看到你最伟大的,或者说是我们音乐的未来唯一希望。Your own original creations will probably not make their appearance for another five years.你自己的原创作品可能不会在另一个五年内出现。But they will surpass everything that we have heard since Glinka.但它们将超过自从格林卡以来我们听到过的一切。To sum up, I do not honor you so much for what you have done as for what the force of vitality of your genius will accomplish one day.总之, 因为我并不这么尊重你的你的所做,但你的天才的生命力终有一天将得以施展。Tchaikovsky responded to both the encouragement and the criticism by plunging himself so fiercely into the composition of his first symphony that he came close to collapse from exhaustion.柴可夫斯基通过让自己沉浸在第一首交响乐的创作回应鼓励和批评,他是自己如此强烈,几近疲惫崩溃。注:听力文本来源于普特 201210/203531Its an incredible idea. But most experts now believe that todays birds are the direct descendants of ancient dinosaurs.这是一个很不可思议的观点。但是大多数专家认为今天的鸟类是古代恐龙的直系后代。So does that mean birds actually are dinosaurs?这么说鸟类是恐龙?Yes. Absolutely.是的,当然。How can you be sure about that?你怎么如此肯定?You have evidence from the skeletal anatomy. You have evidence from the shape of the eggs and the microstructure of the eggshell, the discovery about a wealth of feathered dinosaurs, animals that are unquestionably dinosaurs and yet have feathers. They looked just like the feathers on modern birds.你能从骨骼解剖图里找到据,从卵的形状、卵壳在扫描电镜下的微观结构找到据。发现大量长有羽毛的动物,毫无疑问这种动物就是恐龙,长有羽毛的恐龙。他们看起来就像现代的鸟类。Its a discovery that revolutionizes the way we see dinosaurs. Even some tyrannosaurs were feathered. But the relationship between birds and dinosaurs can tell us much more than simply what they may have looked like.这个发现彻底改变了我们对恐龙的看法。有些霸王龙竟然也长有羽毛。鸟和恐龙的关系会为我们揭开更多奥秘,而不是仅仅展示外貌上的相似。So does this mean that we can use living birds to help us understand dinosaurs?那么这意味着我们能利用活着的鸟类帮助我们了解恐龙吗?Absolutely. You know you have 10,000 living species of birds that are providing you an enormous amount of information that you can use to understand the biology of the ancient dinosaurs.当然。你也知道世界上有10000种鸟类,这就为我们研究古代恐龙的生物学提供了大量的信息。Its quite amazing. But it also makes a certain degree of sense when really you look at them.这太令人惊奇了。但当你真正观察它们的时候,在一定程度上也合情理。If we want to learn about how the ancient dinosaurs moved and even how quickly they ran, few animals can tell us more than ostriches. They evolved on an early branch of the avian family tree. And like dinosaurs they are related to, they are large, bipedal and flightless.如果我们想要了解古代恐龙如何运动,了解他们跑得多快,那就没什么能比鸵鸟带来更多信息。鸵鸟是由早期的鸟类家族分进化而来。正如与之关系密切的恐龙一样,鸵鸟个头巨大,两足且不能飞翔。I have some living dinosaurs here to take a look at.我这儿有一些活恐龙可供观察。Hello, ladies.嗨,女士们。Theyre all ladies, are they?他们都是雌恐龙,是吗?Yes. Yes. They are a bit more manageable when they are females.是的,是的。雌恐龙才更容易控制。原文译文属!201210/203166Science and Technolgy.科技。Visible-light communication.可见光通信。Tripping the light fantastic.与光共舞。A fast and cheap optical version of Wi-Fi is coming.一个高速而廉价的光学Wi-Fi即将问世。AMONG the many new gadgets unveiled at the recent Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas was a pair of smartphones able to exchange data using light.最近,在国际消费电子展上首次展出的电子产品中,有一对能利用光交换数据的智能手机。These phones, as yet only prototypes from Casio, a Japanese firm, transmit digital signals by varying the intensity of the light given off from their screens.目前,这两部不过是日本卡西欧公司的样机,它们能通过改变自身屏幕的光强来传传输数字信号。The flickering is so slight that it is imperceptible to the human eye, but the camera on another phone can detect it at a distance of up to ten metres.这样的闪光很微弱,人眼无法感知,但另一部手机的摄像头能够在十米的范围内检测得到。In an age of Wi-Fi and Bluetooth, flashing lights might seem like going back to sending messages with an Aldis lamp.在这个Wi-Fi和蓝牙横行的时代里,使用闪光可能有点像回到用奥尔迪斯手提信号灯发送信息的年代。In fact, they are the beginning of a fast and cheap wireless-communication system that some have labelled Li-Fi.事实上,它们正是有人称之为Li-Fi的高速、廉价的无线通讯系统的鼻祖。The data being exchanged by Casios phones were trifles: message balloons to be added to pictures on social-networking sites.两部卡西欧手机交换的数据量非常小:不过是添加在社交网站图片中的虚拟对话框。But the firm sees bigger applications, such as pointing a smartphone at an illuminated shop sign to information being transmitted by the light: opening times, for example, or the latest bargains.但卡西欧公司发现这项技术有更大的应用前景,比如将智能手机对准发光的商店招牌读取通过灯光传送的信息:如营业时间或最新优惠。Yet that is still only a flicker of what is possible.但是,这项技术可能有万千功能,以上不过是冰山一角。Last October a number of companies and industry groups formed the Li-Fi Consortium, to promote high-speed optical wireless systems.去年十月,多家公司及实业集团共同成立了Li-Fi联盟,以推广高速无线光学通信系统。The idea is that light can help with a looming capacity problem.他们的想法是可见光通信将有助于解决即将来临的数据传输瓶颈问题。As radio-based wireless becomes ubiquitous, more and more devices transmitting more and more data are able to connect to the internet, either through the mobile-phone network or through Wi-Fi.随着无线电通讯的普及,越来越多的数据传输量越来越大的设备能够通过移动网络或Wi-Fi与互联网连接。But there is only a limited amount of radio spectrum available.但可用于通信的无线电频段是有限的。Using light offers the possibility of breaking out of this conundrum by exploiting a completely different part of the electromagnetic spectrum, one that is aly ubiquitous because it is used for another purpose: illumination.运用一个完全不同的电磁波段——可见光,就有可能解决这个难题;这个波段其实早已相当常用,因为它有另一个作用:照明。Lighten the darkness.照亮黑暗。To turn a light into a Li-Fi router involves modulating its output, to carry a message, and linking it with a network cable to a modem that is connected to a telephone or cable-broadband service, just like a Wi-Fi router.要将一个可见光源变成能够携带信息的Li-Fi路由器,需要调制其光强以及用网线将其与一个调制解调器(与电话或宽带网线相连)连接,一如Wi-Fi路由器。Incandescent light bulbs and fluorescent tubes are not really suitable for modulation, but they are yesterdays lighting technology.白炽灯和日光灯的光其实并不适合调制,不过它们已是旧式的照明技术了。Tomorrows is the light-emitting diode. LEDs are rapidly replacing bulbs and tubes because they are more efficient.新式的照明技术是发光二极管(LED),LED正凭借其更高的能量利用率迅速取代电灯泡和灯管。And because they are semiconductor devices, tinkering with their electronics to produce the flickering signals required for data transmission is pretty straightforward, according to Gordon Povey, who is working on light communication with Harald Haas and his colleagues at the University of Edinburgh, in Britain.歌登?波文在英国爱丁堡大学与哈拉尔德·哈斯及其同事一起研究光通信;他说,因为LED是半导体器件,调整一下其电路就能很轻易地产生传输数据所需的闪光信号。The rate of data transfer is also good.用可见光传输数据的速度也相当可观。Dr Poveys group is aly up to 130 megabits a second (faster than some older Wi-Fi routers) over a distance of about two metres, using standard LEDs.波文士的研究小组已能利用标准LED在约两米内以最高每秒130兆位的速度(比一些老式Wi-Fi路由器还快)传输数据。Dr Povey, who is also the boss of VLC, a firm set up to commercialise the technology, thinks such devices should be able to reach 1 gigabit per second (Gbps), and do so over greater range.同时也是VLC公司(为使这种技术商业化而成立的公司)的老板的波文士认为这种器件应能达到每秒1千兆比特(Gbps)的传输速度,且传输距离可以更远。Specially constructed LEDs would be even faster. The Li-Fi consortium reckons more than 10 Gbps is possible.采用特制LED所达到的速度将会更高。Li-Fi联盟估计传输速度可能达到10 Gbps以上。In theory, that would allow a high-definition film to be downloaded in 30 seconds.理论上,这个速度意味着不到30秒就能下载一部高清电影。Dr Povey believes that adapting existing LEDs to work with the sensors and light sources-cameras, ambient-light detectors, screens, flashbulbs, torches and so on-aly found in smartphones and similar devices will be the fastest way to bring Li-Fi to market.波文士认为,改造现在的LED使之适应智能手机及类似设备上已有的感应器及光源,如摄像头、环境光感应器、屏幕、闪光灯泡、手电筒等,是将Li-Fi推向市场最快的方法。VLC has aly produced a smartphone app which allows low-speed data transmission between a pair of iPhones.VLC已设计了一款智能手机软件,两部iPhone能用此软件以低速传输数据。It has also made an experimental optical transceiver that plugs into a laptop to receive and send light signals.该公司也制造了一台用作试验的光收发器,可插入笔记本电脑以收发光信号。Later this year it will bring out Li-Fi products for firms installing LED-lighting systems.今年再过不久,VLC将面向安装了LED照明系统的企业推出Li-Fi产品。There are limitations to using light, of course. Unlike radio, light waves will not penetrate walls.当然,利用可见光通信也存在局限性。可见光不同于无线电波,无法穿透墙壁。Yet for secure applications that could be a bonus.但对于安全应用而言这可能是个意外的优点。And light bulbs—some 14 billion of them around the world-are almost everywhere and often on.而全球大约共有一百四十亿个灯泡,它们几乎随处可见,而且经常亮着。As they are gradually replaced by LEDs, every home, office, public building and even streetlight could become a Li-Fi hotspot.随着电灯泡逐渐被LED所取代,每家每户、办公室、公共建筑物、甚至路灯都可能成为一个Li-Fi热点。Having a line-of-sight connection with the LED in question would undoubtedly improve the signal, but light reflected from walls or ceilings might often be enough.若你正在使用的LED光源处于视线范围内,信号强度无疑会有所增加,不过仅靠墙壁或天花板的反射光可能往往也足够了。In any case, having a good line of sight helps Wi-Fi as well. And spotting a nearby light in order to sit next to it is certainly easier than finding the location of a Wi-Fi router.同样,不论如何,若在视线之内有Wi-Fi信号源,信号当然也会更强。而在身边找一个光源就近使用之当然要比寻找Wi-Fi路由器来得容易。Communication, though, is a two-way street. That means the LEDs involved in Li-Fi would need photodetectors to receive data.不过通信是双向的。这意味着Li-Fi中的LED需要有光电探测器来接收数据。Some LED systems have such sensors aly (to know when to turn on at night).一些LED系统已经配备这种探测器了(以便在夜间判断何时开灯)。But even if LEDs are not modified Dr Povey reckons hybrid systems are possible: data could be downloaded using light but uploaded (typically a less data-intensive process) using radio.但即使不对LED进行改造,波文士认为混合系统也可能行得通:通过光下载数据,而上传数据则使用无线电波(这一过程的数据量通常小些)。In an office, for example, an LED-powered desk lamp could work as a Li-Fi router, able to link up with any networked device placed on the desk.例如在一个办公室里,一盏LED台灯也可以是一个Li-Fi路由器,它能连接桌上任何一个已经联网的设备。A big advantage of light is that it can be used in areas which contain sensitive equipment that radio signals might interfere with, such as aircraft and operating theatres.可见光通信的一大好处在于:它在装有可能会受无线电信号干扰的敏感设备的场所能派上用场,如飞机上及手术室内。LEDs in the ceiling of an airliner would not only allow internet access but could also transmit films on demand to individual seats, removing the need for lots of expensive and heavy cabling, thus saving airlines fuel.将LED安装在大型客机的舱顶,不仅能提供网络务,还能将旅客点播的电影传送至他们的座位上,这样就不必安装许多昂贵而又笨重的线缆,如此一来也会节省燃油。That alone could be enough to, as it were, make this idea fly.光是这一点,似乎就足以令这项技术腾飞。 /201209/201876

Books and Arts; Book Review;Terminal care;文艺;书评;临终关怀; Go gentle into that good night;温和地走入那个良夜; The Best Care Possible: A Physicians Quest to Transform Care Through the End of Life. By Ira Byock.《可能是最好的医护手段:一位内科医生试图改革生命尽头的医护方法。》Ira Byock著作。 Asked where they would like to spend their last days, Americans almost always say at home, surrounded by people they love. In real life, though, only one in five achieves that. More than 30% die in a nursing home, where almost no one wants to be, and over half end up in a hospital, often in an intensive-care unit, heavily sedated and attached to life-saving equipment until their doctors give up the battle.对大多数美国人来说,倘若最后的时光能在家中度过,周围环绕着挚爱亲朋,便是走也能走得称心了。然而,只有五分之一的人能实现这个愿望。谁也不想去疗养院,可却有超过三成的人死在那里;另外有超过半数的人死在医院的重症监护室里,身上注射了大量镇定剂,连接在生命维持设备上,直到医生宣布投降。Death is a difficult subject for anyone, but Americans want to talk about it less than most. They have a cultural expectation that whatever may be wrong with them, it can be fixed with the right treatment, and if the first doctor does not offer it they may seek a second, third or fourth opinion. Litigation is a constant threat, so even if a patient is very ill and likely to die, doctors and hospitals will still persist with aggressive treatment, paid for by the insurer or, for the elderly, by Medicare. That is one reason why America spends 18% of its GDP on health care, the highest proportion in the world.死亡对所有人来说都是个难题,相比之下美国人却很少谈起死亡。在他们的文化里,大家都觉得不管生了什么病,只要医治得当就能安然无恙;如果一个医生不行,他们就会去找第二个,第三个,第四个……他们还常常威胁着要起诉医生,所以就算有人病入膏肓,行将就木,医院和医生也会坚持实施高强度治疗,反正年轻人有保险公司付账,老人也有医疗保险撑腰。所以,美国的医疗出占GDP的18%,高居全球之首。That does not mean that Americans are getting the worlds best health care. For the past 20 years doctors at the Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice in New Hampshire have been compiling the “Dartmouth Atlas of Health Care”, using Medicare data to compare health-spending patterns in different regions and institutions. They find that average costs per patient during the last two years of life (when health spending is heaviest) in some regions can be almost twice as high as in others, yet patients in the high-spending areas do not survive any longer or enjoy better health as a result.花了最多的钱,未必就能得到最好的卫生保健务。20年来,新罕布什尔州达特茅斯卫生政策与临床实践学院一直在编纂《达特茅斯卫生保健地图册》。该学院使用医保数据,比较了不同的地区和医疗机构卫生保健出之间的差异。研究者发现,虽然在生命最后两年中(医疗出最大),有些地区病人的平均出可达其它地区的两倍,但是他们的寿命没有延长,健康状况也不比其它地方好。Ira Byock is the director of palliative medicine at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Centre and a professor at Dartmouth Medical School. His book is a plea for those near the end of their life to be treated more like individuals and less like medical cases on which all available technology must be let loose. With two decades experience in the field, he makes a good case for sometimes leaving well alone and helping people to die gently if that is what they want.Ira Byock是美国达特茅斯希契科克医疗中心的姑息疗法主管,也是达特茅斯医学院教授。他在书中恳请人们把那些生命尽头的人当做“人”来看待,别把他们当成冷冰冰的医疗个案,也别把他们当成各种医疗措施的跑马场。Ira Byock从业已有二十载,在书中为姑息疗法做了强有力的辩护。如果人们只想走得安详些,便不应该徒生枝节,而应该帮助他们满足心愿。That does not include assisted suicide, which he opposes. But it does include providing enough pain relief to make patients comfortable, co-ordinating their treatment among the different specialists, keeping them informed, having enough staff on hand to see to their needs, making arrangements for them to be cared for at home where possible—and not officiously keeping them alive when there is no hope.但是要满足病人的心愿,并不意味着帮助他们自杀,Ira Byock也反对自杀。相反,姑息疗法应该为遭受剧痛折磨的病人缓解痛苦,与其它医疗专家协同合作治疗病人,让病人了解治疗情况,保有充足的人手为病人务,还尽可能为病人提供上门务。当大限到来之时,也不将病人强留于世。This is slippery territory. The Medicare Hospice Benefit act, passed by Congress 30 years ago, offers palliative care to those expected to die within six months, but requires that once they take it up, treatment for their condition must stop. That puts many patients off. And when they hear “palliative care” and “hospice”, their usual reaction is, “Im not that far gone yet.” Yet hospice patients typically last only two or three weeks. As Dr Byock says, this has become “brink-of-death care”.姑息疗法处境尴尬。美国国会30年前通过了《临终关怀医疗保障法案》,为那些预期寿命只有6个月的病人提供姑息疗法。但是根据该法案,病人一旦选择了姑息疗法,就不得再接受对其病症的治疗,使得许多病人望而却步。而且人们听到“姑息疗法”或者“临终关怀”,总会觉得:“我的情况还没有那么糟吧。”所以,大多数接受临终关怀的病人往往只能生存两到三周。正如Byock所说,这成了“死亡边缘的关怀”。Nor is it easy to decide when to stop making every effort to save someones life and allow them to die gently. The book es the case of one HIV-positive young man who was acutely ill with multiple infections. He spent over four months in hospital, much of the time on a ventilator, and had countless tests, scans and other interventions. The total bill came to over m. He came close to death many times, but eventually pulled through and has now returned to a normal life. It is an uplifting story, but such an outcome is very rare.究竟何时可以不再尽一切努力挽救病人的生命,而是放手让他们从容走向死亡?很难判断。书中便举出了一个例子:从前,有一位青年身患艾滋病,病情危重,并发多种感染。他在医院里度过了四个月,大多数时间都连在呼吸机上,做了许多次检测、扫描和其它干预治疗,最后医疗总账单超过了100万美元之巨。他曾一次次濒临死亡,最终却挺了过来,过上了正常的生活。这是个让人振奋的故事,但是如此美好的结局很少出现。Dr Byocks writing style is not everybodys cup of tea. The patients personal stories are told in minute detail, leaving the er gagging at the degree of physical and psychological suffering that is most peoples lot towards the end of their lives. And the author gets rather messianic, advocating a more caring society that shows no sign of materialising. But he is surely right to suggest better management of a problem that can only get worse. As life expectancy keeps on rising, so will the proportion of old people in the population. And with 75m American baby-boomers now on the threshold of retirement, there is a limit to what the country can afford to spend to keep them going on and on.Byock士的写作风格可能不会合所有人的胃口。他把病人的故事事无巨细地一一写出,让读者对多数人死亡前将要面对的心理和生理折磨感到窒息。作者也有些以救世主自居,在书里宣扬一个不太可能出现的更有爱心的社会。不过,他说要妥善处理一个必将越来越严重的问题,这是对的:随着预期寿命不断提高,老年人口的比重也会越来越大。如今,美国婴儿潮中出生的7500万人即将退休,国家财力有限,无法在生命的路途中将他们送上一程一程又一程。 /201210/203127

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