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2019年10月23日 19:54:05 | 作者:华龙分类 | 来源:新华社
Every day, in a former Beijing aeroplane factory that is now the headquarters of Jinri Toutiao, servers sort and tag some 200,000 articles and s that the mobile app’s users will consume that day.今日头条的总部设在北京一座曾经的飞机制造厂里,每天,这里的务器都要对约20万条文章和视频进行整理和贴标签,供这个移动应用的用户当天阅览。With nearly 600m users, five-year-old Toutiao has overtaken traditional and state-owned media to become a significant channel through which the world’s most populous country gets its news.成立五年、拥有近6亿用户的今日头条,已超越传统和国有媒体,成为世界人口第一大国获取新闻的一条重要渠道。Meaning “Today’s Headlines”, Jinri Toutiao is also one of China’s most valuable tech start-ups, valued at bn after its latest Series D funding round led by Sequoia Capital last month. That is more than 20 times its 0m valuation in 2014, sparking a debate over the worth of what is essentially a news aggregation app.今日头条也是目前中国估值最高的科技初创企业之一。在完成由红杉资本(Sequoia Capital)领投的D轮融资后,其估值已达110亿美元,较2014年5亿美元的估值高出20余倍,由此引发了一场围绕本质上是一款新闻聚合应用的价值的辩论。While Toutiao hosts content but does not produce it, it maintains it has a key selling point in its “intelligent news feed”, where artificial intelligence and machine learning software tailor content.尽管今日头条发布内容,但并不生成内容。它坚称自己有一个关键卖点:“智能新闻推送”,即由人工智能与机器学习软件对内容进行个性化定制。“We strive to become the information platform that knows each individual best,” Tina Zhao, vice-president, said in an interview. “No two users’ feed lists are alike.”今日头条高级副总裁赵添(Tina Zhao)在接受采访时表示:“我们努力成为最了解每一位用户喜好的信息平台。没有两位用户的新闻列表是一样的。”It is betting that a personalised user experience will give it an edge over its competitors — the tech triumvirate of Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent.今日头条押注的是,个性化的用户体验将使其相对于竞争对手——科技三巨头百度(Baidu)、阿里巴巴(Alibaba)和腾讯(Tencent)——拥有优势。“Back in the days when Toutiao was born, the Chinese information market was dominated by web portals like Sina and Sohu. Their mobile products were simply moving content from web to mobile, and user experience?.?.?.?was not good enough,” said Ms Zhao.赵添表示:“今日头条刚诞生时,中国的信息市场还是由新浪(Sina)和搜狐(Sohu)之类的门户网站把持着。他们的移动产品仅仅是把内容从网络端挪到移动端,用户体验……并不太好。”Founded in 2012 by Zhang Yiming, a former software engineer, Toutiao has grown rapidly in the past year. Its number of daily active users rose from 30m to 78m in 2016 — making it the tenth most-used app in China — as it capitalised on voracious demand for interesting content, in a country still dominated by state-owned media.今日头条是2012年由前软件工程师张一鸣创建的。过去一年里,公司发展迅速。日活用户数从3000万增至2016年的7800万,在中国热门应用中排名第10。在中国这个仍由官方媒体主导的国家,人们对于有趣的内容有着旺盛需求,今日头条利用了这一点。“We are not like other news portals which provide news with a certain position. Rather, we are a neutral platform, providing news to every person depending on what they are interested in,” said Mr Zhang, in a 2015 interview with Chinese media.张一鸣在2015年接受中国媒体采访时曾表示:“我们和其他带有一定立场提供内容的新闻门户网站不一样。我们是一个中立的平台,根据每个人的兴趣来提供新闻。”Toutiao’s ers can browse Chinese-language news, commentary and sourced from 4,000 partnerships, which the company says it has forged with both state-owned and independent media organisations, including Xinhua and Caixin.今日头条的中文新闻、和视频来自4000家合作伙伴。据该公司称,这些合作伙伴既有国有媒体,也有独立媒体,例如新华社和财新。Sina Weibo, one of China’s largest social media platforms, invested 0m in Toutiao in 2014 and now publishes non-news content by verified bloggers directly to Toutiao’s app.2014年,中国最大的社交媒体平台新浪微向今日头条投资1亿美元,如今,可直接在今日头条应用上发布来自微认主的非新闻内容。To beef up its news-sorting algorithms, Toutiao has aggressively poached engineering talent. In February, it hired Ma Wei-Ying, the former assistant managing director of Microsoft Research Asia, to lead its AI Lab.为了增强自己的新闻排序算法,今日头条一直在积极挖技术人才。今年2月,微软亚洲研究院(Microsoft Research Asia)常务副院长马维英加盟今日头条,执掌其人工智能实验室。Yet some of Toutiao’s investors have expressed concern over how solely providing content can sustain long-term growth.但对于仅凭提供内容如何能维持长期增长,今日头条的一些投资者表示了担忧。“We are still undecided about ‘new media’ firms. They build audience and popularity through third-party mega-platforms but are not really building something on their own. They are dependent on the mega-platform,” said Anita Huang, a managing partner at Beijing-based Sinovation Ventures.总部位于北京的创新工场(Sinovation Ventures)运营合伙人黃蕙雯(Anita Huang)表示:“对于‘新媒体’公司我们仍有些犹豫。这些公司通过第三方大平台来构建受众和人气,但并不是真正靠自己。他们依赖大平台。”Nearly all of Toutiao’s revenue comes from advertising. The company said it earned Rmb6bn (9m) last year from in-app advertisements and aims to increase that to Rmb10bn by 2020.今日头条几乎全部营收都来自广告。该公司称,去年通过应用内广告创收60亿元人民币(合8.69亿美元),力求到2020年提升至100亿元人民币。“The value of Toutiao is indeed overestimated for a platform without original content,” wrote Zhang Luoyang, a prominent online tech commentator. “Toutiao’s 600m user base has pretty much found all of China’s 680m internet users. To make only Rmb6bn in advertisements, despite having so many users, means its margins are extremely low and dependent on one source, so it must create more value within its own services.”知名在线科技员张洛阳撰文表示,“作为一个没有原创内容的平台,今日头条确实被高估了。今日头条6亿用户已逼近中国6.8亿网民的总量。如此多用户只贡献了60亿元人民币的广告费,说明其利润率极低,且创收来源单一。因此,它必须挖掘自己的务,创造更多价值。”That has prompted Toutiao to seek additional sources of revenue abroad and to explore other service areas.这促使今日头条去海外寻找其他营收渠道,并开发其他务领域。In February, it bought Los Angeles-based app Flipagram, an Instagram rival, for an undisclosed amount, and has taken controlling stakes in several Indonesian and Indian media apps. A partnership with Chinese ecommerce platform JD.com enables users to browse and purchase directly JD.com products featured within the Toutiao app.今年2月,今日头条收购了Instagram的竞争对手、总部位于洛杉矶的视频应用Flipagram(收购金额未对外披露),还买下数款印尼和印度媒体应用的控股股份。此外,公司还与中国电商平台京东(JD.com)进行合作,让用户可直接在今日头条应用里浏览并购买京东商品。Toutiao also has made a big push into hosting user-created content. Last year, it said it would invest bn in streaming and now allows anyone to set up a channel on Toutiao to post non-news content.今日头条还开始大举发力用户原创内容领域。去年,该公司称将向视频流业务投资10亿美元。现在任何人都可以在今日头条上开设频道,发布非新闻内容。Meanwhile, media professionals and investors worry that Toutiao could encounter the problems of algorithm bias and fake news that have entangled social media platforms such as Facebook. Toutiao employs “human intelligence” teams to screen for dubious content and refine its algorithms but analysts say a personalised news source runs the danger of becoming too narrow.与此同时,媒体专业人士和投资者担心,今日头条会遇到一直困扰着Facebook等社交媒体平台的算法偏差和假新闻等问题。今日头条组建了多个“人类智能”团队来筛查可疑内容,并改进算法,但分析师们表示,个性化新闻存在着新闻来源变得太窄的风险。Lou Meijing, an analyst at iiMedia, a Beijing media consultancy group, said: “There is this problem of creating a filter bubble from a news source based on an algorithm and what our friends recommend, so that what we further creates an even more subjective, more biased stream of information.”北京媒体咨询集团艾媒网(iiMedia)分析师娄梅静表示:“要当心一个问题,这种基于算法和朋友推荐的新闻来源会形成一个‘过滤泡沫’,我们的阅读历史会导致推送的信息更加主观、更有偏见。” /201705/508852On Sunday my family and I will unwrap our Christmas presents under a glossy Nordmann fir tree that was brought to the door of our London home last week. It is festooned with decorations and a string of lights.周日,我和家人将在一棵闪闪发亮的诺德曼(Nordmann)冷杉下打开我们的圣诞礼物。这棵树上周被送到我们的伦敦居所门口。树上挂着许多装饰品和一串灯。There is nothing unusual in that: the same or similar no doubt goes for many ers. But our Christmas tree and its decorations are symbols of more than the festive season. They also epitomise the way in which technological innovation occurs steadily and stealthily as companies compete globally.这没有什么不寻常的:许多读者无疑也有相同或类似的圣诞树。但是,我们的圣诞树和上面的装饰品不仅仅是节日的象征,还体现了技术创新是如何随着公司的全球竞争而稳步和悄悄地发生的。This thought occurred to me the other day as I was admiring our tree and realised that its appearance would have been impossible not long ago. It is covered with light-emitting diodes instead of incandescent bulbs and they glow in a warm white that is cosier than the harsh blue-white of older LEDs.我在几天前产生这个想法。当时我在欣赏那棵圣诞树时意识到,即使在不那么久之前,它的外观也不可能是这个样子的。这颗树上覆盖着发光二极管、而不是白炽灯泡,而且它们发出温暖的白色光芒,比老式LED刺眼的蓝白光舒适多了。The lights are better in other ways, too. They were cheaper — £23 for a 30m string of 300 lights — and more reliable than the Christmas tree lights of my youth, which were wired in series so a whole line would go dark if a bulb burst or loosened. They are also energy efficient: LED bulbs do not get hot and can be safely touched.从其他方面看,这些灯也更好。它们更便宜——30米长、300个灯构成的灯串仅售23英镑——而且比我年轻时的圣诞树灯更可靠。那时的灯是串联的,如果一个灯泡烧坏或者接触不好,一整串灯都会变黑。它们也很节能:LED灯泡不会变烫,可以安全地触摸。It encouraged me to find out more about our Christmas lights, and this is what I discovered.这鼓励我了解关于我们的圣诞树灯的更多情况,以下是我的发现。We bought them on Amazon, influenced by the price and the number of stars in the customer reviews. They came from a small UK company called Ansio, a Finnish word for “merit” or “worth”, which its founders chose because it sounded good, started with A, and was not taken. 我们从亚马逊(Amazon)购买了圣诞树灯,影响我购买的因素是价格和客户中的星级。它们来自一家名叫“Ansio”的英国小公司,Ansio是芬兰语,意思是“优点”或“价值”。公司创始人选择这个词,是因为它听起来不错,以A开头,而且没被用过。Ansio was founded in London in 2014 by three Indian-born immigrant entrepreneurs — two from Chennai and one from Hyderabad — to import and sell household products direct to consumers. They started with electric fans and have diversified into lighting, particularly decorative LEDs.2014年,三名印度出生的移民企业家——其中两人来自金奈(Chennai),一人来自海得拉巴(Hyderabad)——在伦敦创立了Ansio,进口并直接向消费者出售家居产品。他们从电风扇做起,然后拓展进入灯具领域,特别是装饰用LED。The partners chose the manufacturers for their lights by visiting the Canton fair, the largest trade fair in China, which is held twice a year in Guangzhou. It is a vast emporium for foreign buyers seeking to strike deals with Chinese suppliers in many industries.这几个合伙人通过访问中国最大的贸易展览会——广交会(Canton fair)选定制造商。广交会每年在广州举办两次。它是外国买家与许多行业的中国供应商谈生意的盛会。Having selected three (since reduced to two) LED manufacturers in Ningbo, an industrial city near Shanghai, they visited the factories to ensure the quality of the products. There was plenty of choice: Ningbo is full of LED makers and China competes with Japanese and South Korean companies so fiercely that prices have fallen.在上海附近的工业城市宁波选定三家(后来减为两家)LED制造商之后,他们访问了工厂,以确保产品的质量。他们有很多选择:宁波有大量的LED制造商,同时随着中国企业与日韩同行激烈竞争,价格已经下降。Our Christmas tree lights were shipped from Ningbo across the world and through customs to a British warehouse, then delivered to us by an Amazon courier. Many of Ansio’s customer service and back-office tasks are carried out over the internet by remote workers in India. Although tiny, the company has a global supply chain.我们的圣诞树灯从宁波发运,长途运输后通关进入一家英国仓库,然后由一名亚马逊送货员送到我们家。Ansio的许多客户务和后台任务是由印度境内的工作人员通过互联网远程完成的。该公司虽然很小,却拥有一条全球供应链。Globalisation is only half the story of the lights; the other is technology. US Christmas trees followed the German tradition of being lit with candles until Edward Johnson, a vice-president of the Edison Electric Light Company, fixed electric lights to the tree in his New York house in 1882 to show off the invention to passers-by. By 1903, its successor General Electric was selling “festoons” of 24 tree lamps for .全球化只是圣诞树灯故事的一部分,另一部分是技术。美国圣诞树之前沿袭德国传统,用蜡烛装饰,直至1882年爱迪生电灯公司(Edison Electric Light Company)副总裁爱德华.约翰逊(Edward Johnson)在其纽约家中用电灯装饰圣诞树,向路人炫耀这项发明。后来爱迪生电灯公司和另一家公司合并为通用电气(General Electric)。到1903年,通用电气以12美元的价格销售包含24个树灯的“饰”。The visible LED was invented by Nick Holonyak, a GE research scientist, in 1962 but it glowed red and early LEDs were confined to devices such as clocks and calculators. It became possible to light offices and homes with them a decade ago when companies such as Philips started making blue LEDs treated with phosphor to glow white.发光LED由通用电气研究科学家尼克.霍洛尼亚克(Nick Holonyak)在1962年发明,但它只能发出红光,因此早期的LED只用于时钟和计算器等设备。10年前,飞利浦(Philips)等公司开始制造蓝光LED,然后加上荧光粉使其发出白光,从而能够为办公室和家里提供照明。The technology has improved rapidly. Today’s diodes emit four times as much light in lumens per watt of power as they did eight years ago and the cost per lumen has fallen one hundred fold, according to Philips. As technology has advanced, economies of scale have grown. China’s push into LEDs has caused a leap in global capacity: there is a reason my lights were cheap.LED技术已迅速改善。菲利普表示,如今的二极管发出的每瓦流明是8年前的4倍,同时每流明成本下降了100倍。随着技术的发展,规模经济显现。中国大力发展LED导致全球产能飙升:我们家的圣诞树灯如此便宜是有原因的。New technology tends to be expensive but prices often fall to a fraction of their original level once second, third, fourth and later generations appear and it gradually becomes a commodity. To buy 300 of the tree lamps sold by GE in 1903 would have cost ,320 at today’s prices; a display such as ours would have been a great luxury.新技术往往非常昂贵,但一旦第二代、第三代、第四代乃至更新的产品出现,它就逐渐成为一种大宗商品,价格往往下降至最初价格的一个零头。如果在1903年购买300个通用电气销售的那种树灯,按当今价格计算将需要3320美元;像我们这样装饰就太奢侈了。The quality of LED lights has also improved. Not only are our lights safer than crudely wired incandescents but modern LEDs are capable of glowing in a range of colours and of changing during the day. As I press a button on the plug, made in Changzhou in the eastern province of Jiangsu, our lights display seven patterns, in turn flashing, glowing and twinkling. We chose white but could have picked other shades.LED灯的质量也有所改善。我们的灯不仅比接线简陋的白炽灯更安全,而且现代LED灯能够发出多种色光,还能在一天中不断变换。当我按下插座上的按钮时——插座是中国江苏省常州市生产的——我们的灯显示出7种模式,依次闪烁、发光、忽明忽暗。我们选择了白色,但本来也可选择其他色调。If there is a parable in our Christmas lights — sold by a British-Indian company through a US e-commerce platform, made in China and given a Finnish name — it is this. Globalisation and technological innovation have grown unpopular this year, blamed for the loss of some jobs and fracturing of communities in developed economies, but they also bring material benefits.如果说我们的圣诞树灯有什么寓意的话——中国制造,芬兰名称,由英印合资公司通过美国电子商务平台销售——那就是这个。全球化和技术创新在今年不再受欢迎,它们被指导致发达经济体丧失一些就业机会和社会分裂,但它们也带来了实实在在的益处。Many things we buy easily are not only cheaper but much better than they used to be. If we allow it, they will carry on improving. Merry Christmas.我们很容易就能买到的许多东西不仅更便宜,而且比过去好得多。如果我们允许的话,它们将继续改善。圣诞快乐! /201612/485553

BEIJING: China will hold seven-day military drills around disputed islands starting on Tuesday the maritime safety administration announced on Sunday ahead of an arbitration court ruling on its sweeping claims to the South China Sea. 北京:在针对南海全面主张所有权的仲裁裁决公布之前,中国海事局于周日宣布,中国将于星期二开始在争议岛屿进行为期七天的军事演习。China is boycotting the case before The Hague-based Permanent Court of Arbitration in which the Philippines is challenging the validity of the nine-dash line that China uses to demarcate its claims to most of the South China Sea.中国拒绝参加此前由菲律宾提起的挑战中国据以对绝大部分南海地区宣称主权的九段线划分的合法性仲裁,该仲裁由海牙的常设法院审理。 /201607/453854

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