旅游  |  攻略  |  美食  |  自驾  |  团购
您的位置: 青海省旅游网 / 规划 / 新闻动态 / 青海要闻

芜湖三山区男性男子男科医院治疗睾丸炎多少钱安社区芜湖南陵县人民男科医院包皮手术怎么样

来源:周分类    发布时间:2019年06月19日 11:58:34    编辑:admin         

At billion, Uber has become more valuable more quickly than any other start-up we’ve seen in recent years — faster than Facebook FB 2.03% , Google GOOG 0.43% , Amazon.com AMZN 0.50% and Salesforce.com CRM 0.29% , according to our analysis of VC-backed start-ups founded since Uber was created in 2009. Earlier this month when the taxi service announced a round of financing that gave it a billion valuation at 5.93 years old, Uber set itself apart. At the same stage, Facebook was valued at about billion, while Google was just over billion.打车应用务公司Uber目前估值已经达到410亿美元。我们发现这家公司自2009年成立以来,是由风投持的初创型企业中增值最快的一家,超过了Facebook、谷歌(Google)、亚马逊(Amazon.com)和云计算务供应商Salesforce.com。本月早些时候Uber宣布了新一轮融资消息,公司估值在成立5.93年后达到410亿美元,在市场中脱颖而出。在同一阶段,Facebook的估值约为320亿美元,谷歌的估值则刚刚超过30亿美元。Uber’s valuation does not guarantee it will be the next long-term superstar. But if the company can use its rapidly rising valuation to accelerate its expansion, it has a real shot at both beating its competitor, Lyft, and growing beyond personal transportation. Further, it can expand it’s services — potentially to delivery, logistics, other adjacent markets. To be sure, Uber is facing an ever increasing amount of challenges, from legal battles with local governments, to bad PR for the way it portrays women, all of which could hamper its growth and damage its brand. Additionally competitors like Lyft are nipping at its heals and more will surely come as the market for smart-phone powered point-to-point transportation expands. Despite these problems, Uber’s lead is so large and its value has grown so quickly, it would have to stumble badly to lose the battle for supremecy in this new space.但这样的估值并不能保Uber成为下一个持久的超级巨星。但如果该公司能将快速攀升的价值用于提高扩张速度,它就真的有可能击败竞争对手Lyft,并将业务延伸到个人交通领域之外。Uber可以进一步将其范围扩大到快递、物流以及其他相关市场。当然,Uber面临的挑战也与日俱增,比如和地方政府的法律纠纷,再比如涉嫌不尊重女性的糟糕公关,所有这些都可能对其发展和品牌产生不利影响。此外,Lyft等对手正在奋起直追;而且,随着基于智能手机的点对点(P2P)交通务市场继续扩大,必将出现更多竞争者。不过,虽然存在这些问题,但在如此巨大的领先优势和增速之下,除非Uber犯下大错误,才会在这个新兴领域的王者争夺战中落败。This comes amid the development of two important trends. First, among all VC-backed technology start-ups created since 2009, the rate at which their values have risen is three times faster today compared to just a decade ago. This increase in “time to market cap”, the measures how quickly companies increase in value, has become a major advantage for modern startups as they are able to build massive financial war chests at speeds never seen before. With this latest financing Uber has become the time to market cap champ.伴随Uber成长的有两大趋势。首先,就所有2009年以来成立并且获得风投持的科技初创公司来说,其价值上升速度与10年前相比快了三倍。作为衡量公司价值增速的指标,“市值形成速度(time to market cap)”的提升已经成为现代初创企业的一项主要优势,因为它们可以用前所未有的速度筹集到巨额资金。最新一轮融资过后,Uber已经在这场速度较量中成为冠军。What’s more, it appears that new markets are being dominated by one company, especially in tech. Uber’s latest valuation is partly driven by how quickly the company is expanding abroad, but it also reflects demand for a growing global market for on-demand transportation, and Uber’s dominance in this category for years to come.其次,新兴的市场看来都由一家公司主导,特别是在科技领域。Uber最新估值提升的部分动力来自该公司在海外的迅速扩张,但这也体现了全球按需交通务市场的不断扩张和由此带来的需求,以及今后几年Uber在这个领域的统治地位。We like to call Uber a “Category King” — companies that define, develop and dominate new markets. Airbnb is doing that in on-demand rentals. Salesforce.com did it in cloud-based CRM. Of the 80 or so billion companies founded since 2000, half are Category Kings. They are more valuable than all the other companies in their categories combined. These firms routinely take more than 70% of the total available market cap of their market.我们倾向于把Uber称为“细分类之王”,即那些定义了一个全新市场,并大力开拓,占据市场主导地位的公司。Airbnb就在按需租房领域扮演着这样的角色。在基于云技术的客户关系管理务市场,Salesforce.com也是如此。2000年以来成立而且市值达到10亿美元的公司有80家左右,其中一半都是“细分类之王”。它们的价值超过了本领域其他公司的价值之和,而且往往占据所在市场中所有公司总市值的70%以上。Uber is clearly being valued as the king of a new category that stretches way beyond taxi rides. Investors see potential in on-demand delivery from Uber vehicles, for instance. Unless Uber screws up, its competitors, such as Lyft and Sidecar, will fade into the background. If Uber truly proves to be the Category King in a vastly expanding new category, it’s record valuation will seem rational.显然,人们在评估Uber的价值时,认为其所统领的新领域将远远超越出租车务。举例来说,投资者就看到了Uber车辆的按需递送的潜力。除非Uber自毁前程,否则Lyft和Sidecar这样的竞争对手就只能生活在其阴影之中。如果Uber能明自己在一个大范围扩张的新领域居于王者之位,该公司创纪录的估值就应该属于合理水平。Al Ramadan, Christopher Lochhead and Dave Peterson are co-founding partners at Play Bigger Advisors, a San Francisco-based firm that coaches technology executives to build market-leading companies. Neither the firm or its partners have investments in Uber, Lyft, Google, Amazon.com or Salesforce.com.本文作者艾尔o拉马丹、克里斯托弗o罗克海德和戴夫o彼得森是Play Bigger Advisors公司联合创始人。这家总部位于旧金山的咨询机构致力于指导科技公司高管如何打造市场领先的公司。该公司和这三位合伙人均未向Uber、Lyft、亚马逊或Salesforce.com投资。(财富中文网) /201412/349390。

Coming to San Francisco for the first time in a few years brings home how much it has been transformed. Whatever you call what is happening — a boom, a bubble or a flood of money into what was known as new technology before the “new” became redundant — has augmented the city’s reality.有些年没来过旧金山,这次来到这里,我意识到这座城市发生了巨大的变化。不管你怎么形容这里正在发生的事情——繁荣、泡沫或者大量资金流入技术(以前曾被称为“新”技术,现在“新”字可以省略了),这座城市的现实状况因此而提升。Once, there was a gaping divide between southern and northern California — between Hollywood and Silicon Valley. To the south was the dream factory of fantasy and imagination; in the north was science, hardware such as the transistor and chino-clad venture capitalists who worked in business parks on Sand Hill Road and lived in sprawling suburbia. San Francisco was a pretty, but unexciting tourist town.过去,加利福尼亚州的南部和北部——好莱坞和硅谷——之间存在巨大的鸿沟。南部是制造幻想和想象的梦想工厂;北部则属于科学,属于晶体管等硬件,以及那些在沙山路(Sand Hill Road)商业园工作、在不断扩张的广大郊区居住、衣着休闲的风险资本家。旧金山那时是一个美丽,但也平淡乏味的旅游城市。It feels more like Hollywood now, full of people writing scripts and honing pitches. “Brave new world companies create something that was not there before. They do not just save somebody money,” a middle-aged man told a young entrepreneur at a nearby table in a diner on Monday morning. The ingénu should portray his venture as more than “faster, better, cheaper”.现在这里给人感觉更像好莱坞了,满是写“脚本”和打磨推介词的人。那个周一的早上,餐馆邻桌的一名中年男子对一名年轻创业者说:“这些建造‘美丽新世界’的企业创造过去不存在的事物。它们不仅仅是帮某些人省了钱。”这个生涩的小伙子应该将他的项目描述为不只是“更快、更好、更便宜”。Later that day one venture capitalist described his own firm’s decision to turn down Uber when it was first raising money as “a lamentable failure of imagination”. The partners should have realised that the pitch for a smartphone limousine service in San Francisco implied a platform to revolutionise global transport. Instead of thinking of the legal obstacles, they ought to have suspended their disbelief.当天晚些时候,一名风险资本家讲述了他自己的企业在优步(Uber)首次募集资金时拒绝了它的事情,称那个决定是“一次令人惋惜的想象力失灵”。他的合伙人们当时应该意识到,那场关于一款旧金山智能手机叫车软件的推介活动,预示着一个将为全球交通出行带来变革的平台。他们本不应考虑法律方面的障碍,而应暂时放下自己的怀疑。The old things are shrunken — the San Francisco Chronicle is thin and full of wire stories — and others are exploding. An entire district has sprung up around China Basin on the edge of the city; Apple, which used to carve its stores into old buildings, has levelled a building by Union Square to build a Foster + Partners retail temple; the city’s bars are sleek and vibrant.陈旧的东西正在萎缩——旧金山的编年史不长,充满了新鲜事物——其他的东西则在爆炸。在这座城市的边缘,围着China Basin,一整片城区拔地而起;过去曾将门店挤进老旧建筑中的苹果(Apple),拆除了联合广场(Union Square)上的一栋大楼,建造了一座由Foster + Partners建筑事务所设计的标志性零售门店;这座城市的酒吧既时髦又充满活力。Silicon Valley is at one of those historic moments when a set of technologies start to work — and to work together — in unexpected ways. In this case, the interaction of mobile, robotic and artificial intelligence is producing a wave of applications and devices, from voice-activated software to self-driving cars. The machine knows what you want and where you are, and is steadily learning how to serve you.硅谷正处在这样一个历史性时刻:一系列技术开始以一种意想不到的方式发挥作用——并且协同并进。在这种情况下,移动智能、机器智能和人工智能的互动产生了大批应用和设备,从语音激活软件到自动驾驶汽车。机器知道你想要什么,身处何地,并且不断地学习如何为你务。Andrew McAfee, co-author of The Second Machine Age, describes the experience of being transported in one of Google’s self-driving cars as going “from terrifying to thrilling to boring in 15 minutes”. The machine not only drives competently but with tedious predictability, always observing the speed limit and slowing at every obstacle, as if constantly trying to pass a driving test.《第二次机器革命》(The Second MachineAge)的合著者安德鲁#8226;麦卡菲(Andrew McAfee)称自己乘坐谷歌(Google)自动驾驶汽车的心路历程是“15分钟内从害怕到兴奋到索然无味”。机器不仅能胜任驾驶,还开得极为标准,其驾驶表现毫无悬念到令人厌烦的地步——总能观察到限速标志,在每一个障碍物前都会减速,就像总在参加路考一样。Behind innovations that have suddenly come to feel routine, such as facial and voice recognition, lie rapid ad#173;vances in pattern recognition and emerging forms of artificial intelligence. The capacity of computers to sift through databases and comprehend what people are saying, what they mean and what they desire is evolving faster than many researchers had anticipated.在面部和语音识别等人们骤然感觉习以为常的创新背后,模式识别迅速发展,各种新型人工智能纷纷涌现。计算机筛查数据库并理解人们在说什么、意思是什么、以及想要什么的能力,发展得比许多研究者预想得更快。As a result, plenty of investors are eager to throw money at start-ups that look as if they possess a piece of technology and a business idea that will form at least part of the brave new world. The fear of missing out is overwhelming the fear of losing money, as Bill Gurley of Benchmark Capital warned recently.结果是,许多投资者急切地向这样一些初创企业大举投资——它们看上去拥有一样技术或一个商业点子,能至少部分构成这美丽新世界。Benchmark Capital的比尔#8226;格利(Bill Gurley)最近警告称,错过的恐惧压倒了赔钱的恐惧。History’s famous investment bubbles often formed around such combinations of easy money and fantastical inventions, and some of today’s venture capitalists suffered through the dotcom bust of 2000. Prod them about that and the optimists respond that the bn invested by US venture capital funds last year is only half the amount sloshing around at the last peak 15 years ago.历史上著名的投资泡沫往往萌生于这种轻易可得的金钱和美妙非凡的发明的结合。如今的风险资本家中,有一些曾经历过2000年互联网泡沫的破灭。我故意问起关于那次泡沫的事情,一些乐观的人回应说,美国风投基金去年投资了480亿美元,这仅是15年前上一次高峰时期总额的一半。This ignores the fact that a lot of the new money is coming not from venture funds but from other investors, including mutual funds such as T Rowe Price and Fidelity. Three-quarters of recent fundraising rounds by “unicorns” — start-ups valued at bn or more — were led by “non-traditional” investors, according to a recent study by Fenwick amp; West, a Silicon Valley law firm.这种说法忽略了一点,很多新投资并非来自于风投基金,而是来自其他投资者,包括普信集团(T Rowe Price)和富达(Fidelity)等共同基金。硅谷律师事务所Fenwick amp; West的最新研究表明,“独角兽”公司(指价值10亿美元或者以上的初创企业)最近几轮融资中,有四分之三是由“非传统”投资者牵头。One is Carl Icahn, the activist investor, who this week put 0m into Lyft, a rival to Uber. Mr Icahn often makes life difficult for his investment targets but is as enamoured as everyone else with his Silicon Valley picks. “We’ll be the first to admit that you are more knowledgeable in these areas than we are,” he wrote fulsomely to Apple this week.维权投资者卡尔#8226;伊坎(Carl Icahn)就是其中之一。不久前伊坎给优步的竞争对手Lyft投资了1亿美元。伊坎经常让他的投资目标公司日子不好过,但他还是像其他所有人一样迷恋于他挑选的硅谷公司。不久前他写给苹果的信极尽恭维:“我们将头一个承认你们更懂这些领域。” /201505/377707。

Gezhouba Water Control Project on Yangtze River葛洲坝水利枢纽工程The experimental dam of the TGP(Three Gorges Project) Gezhouba Water Control Project is located at the lower end of the Three Gorges in the suburb of Yichang City, 2.3 km near Nanjin pass of Xiling Gorge, 38 km downstream of the TGP.葛洲坝水利枢纽工程是长江第一座水利枢纽工程,是三峡工程的实验坝,位于长江三峡出口,湖北省宜昌市区,距离西陵峡口南津关2.3千米,距上游的三峡大坝38千米。The Dam is 2595 meters long, with a total storage capacity of l.58 billion m3 and a maximum flood discharging capability of 110,000 m3/s. The two hydro-electric plants have 21 generating units with a total installed capacity of 2.715 million kw. and annual output of 15.7 billion kwh. The annual one-way shipping capacity of the navigation facilities is 50 million tons.大坝全长2595米,总库容量15.8亿立方米,最大泄洪量,为每秒11万立方米。水电站共两座,一在大江,装机14台;一在二江,装机7台,总容量271.5万千瓦。采用低水头径流发电,年均发电可达157亿度。三座船闸年单向通过能力为5000万吨。The construction of the Gezhouba Project, including two stages, started in 1970. On January 3, 1981, the Yangtze River was completely blocked and the construction of the second stage of the project begun. The whole project ended in 1991.葛洲坝水利枢纽工程于1970年动工,分两期进行建设。1981年1月3日大江截流,6月二、三江蓄水通航发电,一期工程基本完成。第二期大江工程于1982年开始施工,1986年大江电站第一台机组开始发电,1988年14台机组全部建成并网发电。1991年整个枢纽工程全部竣工。 /201602/422141。

Ling Qu灵渠Ling Qu(Ling Canal),also called Dou River or Xing’an Canal,was an ancient canal that connected the Yangtze River system and Pearl River system. ling Qu,located in the current Xing’an County in Southwest China’s Guan-gxi Zhuang Autonomous Region,was the earliest canal with sluice gate in the world.灵渠是中国沟通长江水系和珠江水系的古运河。又名陡河、兴安运河,在今广西壮族自治区兴安县境内。灵渠是世界最早的有闸运河。The canal was dug in 219 at the order of Din Shihuang(the First Emperor of China),to facilitate the transportation of grain for the military after he sent his troops south to conquer the territory south of the Meiling Mountain. It connected the Xiangjiang River and the Lijiang River.Later, every dynasty revamped the canal,making it the major water course that linked the Lingnan Region(current Guang-dong Province and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region)and the central partof China.秦国统一六国后,向岭南用兵,秦始皇二十八年(前219年),派监郡御史禄开凿灵渠运粮,沟通了湘江和漓江。由于历代不断增修改进,灵渠成为联接来岭南(今中国南部广东广西)与中原地区的主要交通线路。After the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949,the canal undertook extensive repairs, turning into an important water resource for irrigation,drinking and industrial production,as well as a scenic spot. Currently,it is an important cultural relic of the country.中华人民共和国成立后,国家对灵渠全面整修,基本保留了传统工程面貌,使其成为灌溉、城市供水和风景游览综合利用的水利工程,是全国重点保护文物。 /201512/410687。

Two years ago, Neil Shen, head of Sequoia China, attempted to broker a marriage between two of the internet companies in which he was invested Meituan.com and Dianping Holdings. His efforts came as both were burning through cash as they spent heavily to gain customers and market share in businesses which partially overlapped. At that time, Mr Shen did not succeed.两年前,红杉中国(Sequoia China)掌舵人沈南鹏(Neil Shen)曾尝试撮合他投资的两家互联网企业美团(Meituan.com)与大众点评(Dianping Holdings)联姻。那时,两家公司都在烧钱,投入大笔资金在部分重叠的业务上争夺客户和市场份额。那一次,沈南鹏没有成功。This month, however, the war between the two groups, which are both in the business of delivering food and offering discounts at restaurants among other things, was called off and Meituan and Dianping agreed to combine.但在本月,美团和大众点评同意合并,它们之间的战争被叫停了。除了其他业务,美团和大众点评都在提供送餐和餐饮折扣务。The deal, worth up to bn, was just the latest in a series of mergers between Chinese competitors who have decided often with the forcible intervention of their investors that they had more to gain by joining forces.这笔价值高达200亿美元的交易,只是中国竞争对手之间一系列合并案(经常涉及投资人的强力干预)中的最新一笔。这些企业已意识到,结盟会带来更大收益。“In this case one plus one will equal three or four,” says Mr Shen.“在这种情况下,一加一将等于三或四,”沈南鹏说。“Consolidation is the best way to maximise returns,” adds Bao Fan, whose Beijing-based Chinese Renaissance advisory and banking boutique advised both companies. “Everything is a function of the supply of capital.”“整合是实现回报最大化的最佳途径,”为美团和大众点评都提供咨询的华兴资本(Chinese Renaissance)的掌舵人包凡补充说。“一切都是资本供应的函数。”华兴资本是一家位于北京的咨询机构和精品投行。This year is becoming the banner year for mergers in the sector. According to Mergermarket, there have been 267 Chinese technology mergers worth bn so far this year, compared with 338 deals worth bn for all of 2014.今年将成为互联网企业合并的标志性年份。Mergermarket的数据显示,今年迄今,中国发生了267起科技企业合并案,交易额达320亿美元,而2014年全年合并案为338起,交易额为260亿美元。As the flow of money into these companies slows, valuations have ceased their gravity-defying ascent and investors have begun to enforce greater discipline on their portfolio companies, despite objections from some of the founding entrepreneurs.随着流入互联网企业的资金放慢,貌似不受地心引力作用的估值已停止上升,投资人开始对被投资企业施加更严格的约束,尽管这遇到了一些企业创始人的反对。Investment firms such as Sequoia and Tiger Global have drastically reduced the money they are putting into the Chinese internet sector in recent months and have warned the companies in which they invest that if they are too greedy they will not be able to raise money at higher valuations in the future, people familiar with the matter say.知情人士表示,近几个月,红杉资本(Sequoia Capital)和老虎环球基金(Tiger Global)等投资机构已大幅减少了对中国互联网行业的投入,并向被投资企业发出警告:如果它们过于贪婪,那么它们未来将不能以较高估值获得融资。Both the trend toward consolidation and the resistance to it on the part of many entrepreneurs reflect an environment that bears little resemblance to that of the US, even as many Chinese internet companies now challenge their American counterparts in valuation and exceed them in scale.行业整合趋势,以及许多企业创始人对该趋势的抵制,都表明中国的环境跟美国没有相似之处,尽管许多中国互联网企业如今开始在估值上挑战美国同行,在规模上超过后者。In the US, start-ups “tend to begin life with original business models, the winners tend to emerge early”, said Mr Fan. In China, where most start-ups tend to be modelled on an overseas template, “there are many more players, and consolidation takes place over time”, he said.包凡说,在美国,初创企业“通常靠着原创的商业模式起步,胜者倾向于较早涌现”。他说,在多数初创企业通常拷贝海外模板的中国,“参与者更多,随着时间的推移必然走向整合”。But that means egos are at stake and negotiations can become personal. At times the ill-feeling has become so pronounced that investors sometimes require their unruly entrepreneurs to sign non-disparagement agreements.但这意味着创始人的虚荣心可能发作,谈判可能走上“往心里去”的歧路。有时怨恨成为太大的妨碍,以致投资者要求难搞的创业者签署非贬低(non-disparagement)协议。Ctrip and Qunar, the great rivals in the online travel business, finally agreed to merge earlier this week, in a bn tie-up.作为在线旅游业务的两大对手,携程(Ctrip)和去哪儿(Qunar)终于同意合并,合并后估值达150亿美元。But a slowing of outside funding may change things now. Analysts widely expect online travel companies and auto rental firms to either merge with each other or with companies in related spaces. Likely candidates include search engine companies such as Baidu or for the taxi booking firms such as Didi Kuaidi. The goal would be to preserve cash and migrate to different, more value-added business models.但如今,外部融资放慢或许会改变局面。分析师普遍预计,在线旅游企业和租车公司或者彼此合并,或者跟相关行业公司合并。可能合并的企业包括,百度(Baidu)等搜索引擎企业,或者滴滴快的(Didi Kuaidi)等出租车叫车企业。目标将是保存现金,过渡到不同的、附加值更大的商业模式。In addition, business models in China tend to be fluid, which can make for shifting alliances. What could be seen as conflicts of interest elsewhere in the world occur with frequency in the mainland.此外,中国的商业模式经常变化很快,可能导致联盟关系洗牌。在世界其他地区可能被看作利益冲突的事情,在中国大陆经常发生。Internet group Alibaba is both the third-biggest investor in Meituan, which is primarily a group buying site, and one of its biggest rivals now.互联网集团阿里巴巴(Alibaba)既是美团(主要是一家团购网站)的第三大股东,如今也是美团最大的竞争对手之一。But the two were not in direct competition at the time the larger group made its investment. And there may be even more bitter rivalry to come. Meituan plans to go from selling film tickets to the film distribution business. Such a step could lead to a face-off against Alibaba’s Ali Pictures in the future.但是,当阿里巴巴入股美团时,两者并未处于直接竞争之中。未来,两者之间或许会发生更激烈的竞争。美团计划从销售电影票拓展到影片发行。此举可能导致美团在未来与阿里影业(Ali Pictures)发生冲突。Similarly, Mr Shen invested in VIP Shop when it didn’t compete with JD.com, another Sequoia investment. Today, however, the two are bitter rivals.类似地,沈南鹏投资唯品会(Vipshop)时,唯品会并未与京东(JD.com)竞争。京东也是红杉中国的投资对象。但如今,唯品会和京东发生了激烈竞争。 /201510/406686。

Plastics. Computers. Metamaterials?塑料。电脑。超材料?Almost half a century after Dustin Hoffman was taken aside in “The Graduate” and given the famous “one word” line about the future, it may be time to update the script again. And metamaterials appear to have the same potential to transform entire industries. Over the past 15 years or so, scientists have learned how to construct materials that bend light waves, as well as radar, radio, sound and even seismic waves, in ways that do not naturally occur.在电影《毕业生》(The Graduate)中,有人将达斯汀·霍夫曼(Dustin Hoffman)叫到一旁,对他说出了那句著名的“一个词”未来预言。现在距离电影上映已过去将近半个世纪,或许是时候更新剧本了。超材料似乎也具有那种可以改变整个产业的潜力。在过去大约15年的时间里,科学家已经学会如何制造能够以非自然的方式使光波、雷达波、无线电波、声波,甚至地震波弯曲的材料。First theorized in 1967 by the Russian physicist Victor Veselago and invented in 1999 by a group led by the physicist David R. Smith, the new design approach was first seen as a curiosity that hinted at science fiction applications like invisibility cloaks.俄罗斯物理学家维克托·韦谢拉戈(Victor Veselago)于1967年首次在理论上提出设想,物理学家戴维·R·史密斯(David R. Smith)领导的研究小组于1999年将理论转变为现实。这种新方法起初被视作科幻小说中提到的稀奇之物,比如隐形披风。But today, researchers have gained a better understanding of the science and are generating innovations in an array of fields, including radio antennas, radar, cosmetics, soundproofing and walls that help protect against earthquakes and tsunamis.但如今,研究人员已经更好地了解了这项技术,正在各个领域进行创新,制造产品,比如无线电天线、雷达、化妆品、隔音材料,以及能抵御地震和海啸的墙壁。Last year, the aircraft manufacturer Airbus announced that it was joining with Lamda Guard, a Canadian company, to test a metamaterial-based coating for cockpit windows to protect pilots in commercial aircraft from being blinded by laser pointers.去年,飞机制造商空客(Airbus)宣布将与加拿大Lamda Guard公司合作,测试一种由超材料制成的驾驶舱窗户保护层,以使商用飞机飞行员的视力免受激光指示器的影响。A key innovation behind metamaterials is that they are constructed with subcomponents that are smaller than the wavelength of the type of radiation they are designed to manipulate. The precise, often-microscopic patterns can then be used to manipulate the waves in unnatural ways.超材料背后的关键创新在于他们是由子部件制成的,这种子部件小于它们将会控制的放射线的波长。这种精密的、通常十分微小的子部件可以用来以非自然的方式控制波动。The implications of these new materials can be seen in two prototype radar antennas being designed at Echodyne, a start-up firm here that has been funded with backing from Bill Gates, a Microsoft co-founder, and Madrona Venture Group.可以从Echodyne正在设计的两种雷达天线原型机中看到这些新材料的影响,这家初创公司获得了微软(Microsoft)联合创始人比尔·盖茨(Bill Gates)及麦德罗纳风险投资集团(Madrona Venture Group)提供的资金。There are obvious markets for the technology in automotive safety and self-driving cars. Google’s advanced experimental vehicles use a costly mechanical laser-based device called a lidar to create an instantaneous high-resolution map of objects around the car. Based on a rapidly spinning laser, Google’s lidars still cost roughly ,000. The radars being designed by Echodyne may soon be able to create similar maps at a much lower cost.汽车安全及自动驾驶汽车方面的技术明显存在市场。谷歌先进的实验性汽车能够利用昂贵的激光机械设备——被称作激光雷达——创建一份有关车周围环境的即时高清地图。在快速旋转激光的基础上制成的谷歌激光雷达售价约为8000美元(约合4.97万元人民币)。Echodyne正在设计的雷达可能很快就会创建类似的地图,但成本会低很多。Echodyne is the third metamaterials company to be spun out of Intellectual Ventures, an investment and patent firm created by Nathan Myhrvold, a physicist who was Microsoft’s chief technology officer. Two other firms, Kymeta and Evolv Technology, are working on other metamaterial-based applications.Echodyne是高智发明(Intellectual Ventures)剥离出来的第三家超材料公司。高智发明是物理学家内森·梅尔沃德(Nathan Myhrvold)创办的投资和专利事务所,他曾在微软公司担任首席技术官。其他两家公司Kymeta和Evolv Technology正在研究超材料的其他应用方式。Evolv is pursuing higher-performance airport-security-scanning technology, and Kymeta recently announced a partnership with Intelsat to design land-based and satellite-based intelligent antennas that would greatly increase the capacity and speed of next-generation satellite Internet services.Evolv希望开发出性能更高的机场安全扫描技术。Kymeta最近宣布与Intelsat公司合作,共同设计一种安装在地面和卫星上的智能天线,可以大大提高下一代卫星互联网务的容量和速度。Xiang Zhang, a professor of mechanical engineering at the University of California, Berkeley, runs a laboratory that has pioneered a number of applications for metamaterials, including so-called optical “superlenses” that may one day surpass the power of today’s microscopes.张翔是加州大学伯克利分校的机械工程教授,他领导的实验室在超材料的很多应用中处于前沿位置,其中包括光学“超级透镜”,有一天这种透镜的能力可能会超过目前的显微镜。Dr. Zhang says he hears from many military contractors and commercial companies that are interested in pursuing metamaterial applications.张翔说,很多军事承包商和商业公司都对超材料的应用很感兴趣。Several years ago, he said, he received several calls from what he thought was Loral Space amp; Communications, a military contractor. He then learned that the caller was the French cosmetics and beauty firm L’Oréal, which was interested in metamaterials that might be used to change appearance or to create a more effective sunblock.他说,数年前,他接到几个电话,本以为对方是军事承包商劳拉空间与通信公司(Loral Spaceamp; Communications),结果发现打电话的是法国化妆品公司欧莱雅(L’Oréal),该公司对超材料改变人体形象,或者调制出更有效的防晒霜的潜力很感兴趣。Dr. Zhang and others are pursuing applications that could drastically lower the cost and increase the performance of optical computer networks.张翔等人正在研究如何把超材料应用到大幅降低光学计算机网络的成本,并提高其性能上。In 2012, the Berkeley Nanosciences and Nanoengineering Institute published a paper with South Korean scientists describing a metamaterial-based electro-optical modulator made from a sheet of graphene just a single atom thick that was able to switch lightwaves at terahertz frequencies.2012年,伯克利纳米科学和纳米工程学研究所(Berkeley Nanosciences and Nanoengineering Institute)发表了一篇论文,韩国科学家在文中描述了一种超材料电光调节器,它使用了厚度只有一个原子直径的石墨烯片制作,可以用于太赫兹光波的开关。More recently, a group at City College of New York, led by the physicist Vinod Menon, demonstrated light emission from ultrafast-switching LEDs based on metamaterials. Together, such innovations could make possible optical computer networks far faster than today’s gigabit networks.近来,纽约市立学院(City College of New York)物理学家维诺德·梅农(Vinod Menon)率领的一个团队,展示了基于超材料的高速开关LED的发光。把这样的创新结合起来,就有可能研制出一种光学计算机网络,比现在的千兆网络远远更快。Indeed metamaterials are still finding their way into new fields. Papers have recently been published that explore the idea of using metamaterial-based “walls” to dampen the seismic waves in earthquakes or the effects of tsunamis.事实上,超材料还在陆续进入一些新的领域。最近发表的一些论文,探索了使用超材料“护墙”,在地震或海啸中衰减地震波影响的想法。In 2013, scientists at the French construction firm Menard published a paper on arxiv.org, an automated electronic archive for research articles, describing a test of a novel way of counteracting the effects of an earthquake from a metamaterial grid of empty cylindrical columns bored into soil. They reported that they were able to measure a significant dampening of a simulated earthquake with the array of columns.2013年,法国建筑公司梅纳尔(Menard)的科学家在自动化研究文献库arxiv.org上发表论文,描述了对一种新方法进行的测试。这种方法是把超材料制作的中空柱状栏杆插在土里,以抵消地震波的影响。论文称,他们的测量显示,在经过这些柱状栏杆后,一场模拟的地震出现了显著衰减。New applications for metamaterials are certain to emerge in coming years, Dr. Zhang said.张翔说,未来几年内,超材料一定会出现新的应用方式。“It’s beyond our imagination right now,” he said. “But we will push the frontiers.”“目前它是超出我们想象的,”他说。“但我们将继续推进它的研究。” /201503/366458。