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来源:天涯诊疗    发布时间:2019年07月23日 09:34:10    编辑:admin         

Shared bikes must be scrapped after three years of use and have a GPS positioning function, and children under the age of 12 will be banned from using the bikes, according to draft regulations from Shanghai government.上海政府出台的一份条例草案指出,共享单车在使用三年后必须报废,必须拥有GPS定位功能。此外,12岁以下的儿童禁止使用。Shanghai government said that an investigation has showed that the bikes produced under current national standards might have potential safety problems after being in high demand and over long distances.上海政府称,一份调查显示,按现有国家标准生产的自行车由于需求量大,长距离使用,往往存在潜在的安全风险。The investigation also showed that companies put too many bikes on the market as there aren#39;t enough workers for management and maintenance. Problems also include misplacing bikes and the unclear management of cash deposits.调查还显示,一些公司将大量的自行车投放到市场上,却没有足够的工人去管理和维护。另外还存在车子乱停放和保金管理不清等问题。Guo Jianrong, secretary-general of the Shanghai Bicycle Association, said that misplacing bikes is a big problem in urban management, and Shanghai government is expected to offer parking places for shared bikes.上海自行车协会秘书长郭建荣表示,单车乱停乱放是城管遇到的一大问题。上海政府将提供更多的空间供单车停放。The draft regulations require shared bikes to be installed with positioning devices, which would help the companies and users find the bikes, Gou said.郭建荣称,这份草案要求共享单车安装定位功能,这样便于公司和用户找到单车。Bike share users should be from 1.45 meters to 1.95 meters tall and ages 12 to 70. People over 70 must provide their health documentation to apply to use the bikes.此外,共享单车的使用者年龄应该在12岁到70岁之间,身高在1.45米到1.95米。70岁以上的使用者需要提供健康明才能使用。 /201703/499574。

About 500,000 solar panels were installed daily last year as a record-shattering surge in green energy saw renewables overtake coal as the world’s biggest source of power capacity.去年,全球每天安装约50万块太阳能电池板——本轮创纪录的绿色能源热潮使可再生能源超越煤炭,成为全球发电装机容量最大来源。Two wind turbines went up every hour in countries such as China, according to International Energy Agency officials who have sharply upgraded their forecasts of how fast renewable energy sources will grow.已大幅上调可再生能源增速预测的国际能源署(IEA)官员表示,在中国等国,每小时就有两台风力发电机安装到位。“We are witnessing a transformation of global power markets led by renewables,” said Fatih Birol, executive director of the global energy advisory agency.这家全球能源顾问机构的执行主任法提赫.比罗尔(Fatih Birol)说:“我们正在见一场由可再生能源引领的全球电力市场变革。”Part of the growth was caused by falls in the cost of solar and onshore wind power that Mr Birol said would have been “unthinkable” only five years ago.当前增长的部分原因是太阳能和陆上风力发电成本下降,比罗尔称,这在短短五年前还是“难以想象的”。Although coal and other fossil fuels remain the largest source of electricity generation, many conventional power utilities and energy groups have been confounded by the speed at which renewables have grown and the rapid drop in costs for the technologies.虽然煤炭及其他化石燃料仍贡献最大的发电量,但许多传统供电企业和能源集团对可再生能源的增长速度及其成本的快速下降感到措手不及。Average global generation costs for new onshore wind farms fell by an estimated 30 per cent between 2010 and 2015 while those for big solar panel plants fell by an even steeper two-thirds, an IEA report published yesterday showed.国际能源署昨日发布的一份报告显示,2010至2015年间,新建陆上风电场的全球平均发电成本下降了约30%,而大型太阳能发电场的成本降幅甚至更大,达到三分之二。The Paris-based agency thinks costs are likely to fall further over the next five years, by 15 per cent on average for wind and by a quarter for solar power.总部位于巴黎的该机构认为,未来五年,可再生能源的发电成本很可能进一步下降:风力发电平均下降15%,太阳能发电下降25%。It said an unprecedented 153 gigawatts of green electricity was installed last year, mostly wind and solar projects — more than Canada’s total capacity.该机构称,去年绿色电力新增装机容量(主要是风能和太阳能项目)达到了空前的1530亿瓦特,比加拿大的总装机容量还高。It was also more than the amount of conventional fossil fuel or nuclear power added in 2015, leading renewables to surpass coal’s cumulative share of global power capacity — though not electricity generation.该数字还超过了2015年化石燃料或核能的新增装机容量,使可再生能源超过了煤炭在全球装机容量(尽管不是发电量)中的累计占比。A power plant’s capacity is the maximum amount of electricity it can potentially produce. The amount of energy a plant actually generates varies according to how long it produces power over a period of time. Because a wind or solar farm cannot generate constantly like coal, it will produce less energy over the course of a year even though it may have the same or higher level of capacity.电厂的装机容量是其能够产出的最大数量的电能。电厂的实际发电量根据其在一段时间内发电时间长短而变化。由于风力或太阳能发电场无法像煤炭那样不间断地产生电力,因此,虽然它们可能拥有与煤炭相同或更高的装机容量,但在一年内的发电量还是少于煤炭。Coal plants supplied close to 39 per cent of the world’s power in 2015, while renewables, including older hydropower dams, accounted for 23 per cent.2015年,燃煤电厂提供了全球近39%的电力,而可再生能源(包括历史较久的水电)占23%。But the IEA expects renewables’ share to rise to 28 per cent by 2021, when it predicts they will supply the equivalent of all the electricity generated now in the US and EU combined.但国际能源署预计,到2021年,可再生能源的占比将上升至28%,届时将提供相当于现在美国和欧盟总发电量的电力。It revised five-year forecasts to show renewables’ capacity growing 13 per cent more than estimates made just last year, mostly due to strong policy backing in the US, China, India and Mexico.该机构修正了其五年期预测——可再生能源装机容量增长比去年的估算高出13%,这主要归功于美国、中国、印度以及墨西哥强有力的政策持。 /201610/474140。

What does the future hold for the world’s ageing populations? When experts try to answer this question, they often look at Japan, a country whose demographic profile turned sharply older in the early 1990s. Growth fell, deflation set in and capital investment flatlined. Nominal interest rates stayed incredibly low for a long time.日益老龄化的世界人口的未来会如何?当专家们尝试回答这个问题时,他们经常会看看日本——在上世纪90年代初,日本的人口结构大大老龄化了。接下来发生的事情是:日本经济增长率下降,通缩来临,资本投资停滞。名义利率在长时期内保持在极低水平。That outcome, however, owed much to events outside Japan. At the precise moment that large numbers of Japanese people began retiring from the workforce, the rest of the world was awash with labour. People born in the 1970s were just entering the workforce. Hundreds of millions of workers in China and eastern Europe were integrated into the global economy. All of this allowed real wages to fall.然而,这一结局在很大程度上要归因于发生在日本之外的事情。恰恰在大量日本人开始退出劳动力队伍之际,世界其他地区的劳动力非常充足。上世纪70年代出生的人刚刚加入劳动力大军。中国和东欧的数亿名劳动者融入到全球经济之中。所有这一切,导致实际工资下跌。Meanwhile, China’s investment boom meant that less investment was needed in the advanced economies, calling real interest rates to fall and asset prices to rise. Taken together, lower wages and higher asset prices could mean only one thing: rising inequality.另一方面,中国的投资热潮意味着,发达经济体需要的投资更少,导致实际利率下降、资产价格上升。工资降低加上资产价格上升的共同作用,只可能意味着一件事:不平等程度加剧。In the coming three decades, the populations of many advanced economies will age sharply, just as Japan’s did in the 1990s. So will the populations of north Asia. But the story that unfolded in Japan will not be repeated.未来三十年,许多发达经济体的人口将大大老龄化,正如上世纪90年代的日本那样。亚洲北部国家也将如此。但日本的故事不会重演。This time round, demographic change is far more widesp. In Japan, inflation fell when the ageing population dropped out of the global labour force and was replaced by workers elsewhere. But when most of the world grows old at once, there are few places left to turn.这一次,人口结构变化的覆盖面要广得多。当年日本的老龄人口退出全球劳动力队伍并被其他地区的劳动者取代之际,通胀下降了。但当世界大部分地区同时发生人口老龄化时,没有几个地区可以填补劳动力空缺。Healthcare is a telling case. People who live longer will require more of it. Meeting that demand will take workers — increasing the demand for labour and lifting real wages, precisely the opposite of what happened in Japan.医疗是一个颇能说明问题的例子。人的年龄越大,需要的医疗务将越多。我们需要劳动力来满足这一需求,这会增加劳动力需求并提高实际工资——跟日本当年发生的事情恰恰相反。Real interest rates, which fell in Japan as the population grew older, are likely to rise in an ageing world. This is because of the balance between savings and investment. Demographics will lower both, but savings will fall by more.在日本,实际利率随着人口变老而降低。在世界人口老龄化的情况下,实际利率却可能升高,原因就在于储蓄与投资之间的平衡。人口结构将同时降低储蓄和投资,但储蓄的降幅将更大。Why? For one thing, higher wages will transfer money from the rich to the less well-off, who spend a higher proportion of their income and save correspondingly less. For another, the scarcity of workers will force companies to substitute capital for labour, increasing their investment rate. A third factor is housing. The elderly will resist moving out of their homes; a huge wave of construction will be needed to house the young and the millennials.为什么?首先,提高工资将把资金从富人手中转移到不太富有的人手中,在后者的收入中,消费所占比例更高,储蓄所占比例相应更低。其次,劳动力短缺将迫使企业以资本取代劳动力,提升企业的投资率。第三个因素是住房。老年人将不愿搬出自己的房子;我们需要启动一波巨大的建设浪潮,为年轻人和千禧一代提供住所。Since Japan reached its demographic tipping point, the country has endured an unending stream of bad economic news. But the future is not all toil and trouble. Productivity will rise — allowing real wages to rise, too, along with living standards. Even if the rate of growth itself falls, the quality of that growth will thus be quite decent. Per capita income, which is ultimately what matters, will find more support than the headline of falling growth suggests. And lower inequality will create far less social strife than we have seen over the past three decades.自从达到人口结构拐点以来,日本在经济方面承受了无休无止的坏消息。但未来并非完全是辛劳与麻烦。生产率将会提升——也让实际工资与生活水平一同提高。即便增长率本身降了下来,但增长的质量因此将相当优良。归根到底重要的是人均收入,它将获得比增长率下降的消息所透露出的更大的撑。不平等程度的减轻也将让社会冲突较过去30年大为缓和。Most investors equate rising productivity with solid business investment: companies pay for new equipment, which enable employees to produce more output for each hour they work. In the past, substantial investment has usually been forthcoming only at times of widesp optimism about economic prospects. But that need not be the case. As labour becomes scarce and wages rise, profit maximising companies will look to add some physical capital to offset some of those costs. The result will be rising productivity.大多数投资者把生产率提高视同为实实在在的经营投资:企业花钱买新设备,使得员工在每个工时内生产出更多产品。过去,通常只有在人们普遍看好经济前景时,企业才会进行大举投资。但如今不需要这样。随着劳动力变得稀缺、工资上涨,企业在利润最大化的驱动下将寻求增加一些实物资本以部分抵消前述增加的成本。结果将是生产率提高。An older world will in many ways be an unrecognisable place. The future of the world economy will be very different from its past. But it will also be quite unlike Japan’s present.从很多方面来看,一个人口结构更加老龄化的世界将面目全非。世界经济的未来将迥异于它的过去,但也将跟现在的日本大不相同。 /201510/405843。

In the back of an ambulance the other day, an anxious father-to-be rattled off his wife’s medical history in Cantonese as she went into labor. It took the two emergency medical technicians onboard, both fluent in Chinese, just seconds to act, and they pulled the ambulance over to the side of the Franklin D. Roosevelt Drive in Manhattan after learning that the couple’s first child had been born quickly.不久前的一天,在一辆救护车里,一位焦急的准爸爸急促地用粤语说着妻子的就医史。她即将临盆。车上的两名急救医务人员都能说流利的中文。在得知这对夫妇的第一胎生产过程很快时,他们只用了几秒钟时间便采取行动,将救护车停在了曼哈顿富兰克林·D·罗斯福大道(Franklin D.Roosevelt Drive)的路边。In less than two minutes, they delivered a howling baby boy.过了不到两分钟,一个嚎啕大哭的男婴降生了。“The fact that I can speak their language was a tremendous help,” said Jason Lau, 26, one of the medical technicians who helped deliver the baby.“我会说他们的语言这一点帮了大忙,”26岁的贾森·刘(Jason Lau)说。他是帮助接生的医务人员之一。The dramatic birth was a first for a new service started by a private ambulance company in Brooklyn that provides Chinese language emergency medical care to New York City’s growing population of Chinese immigrants. The company’s three amubulances with Chinese-speaking health care workers have aly responded to calls beyond Brooklyn — including Chinatown in Manhattan and Flushing, Queens.这是布鲁克林一家私人救护车公司推出的新务第一次遇到这么惊心动魄的生产。该公司为纽约市日渐增多的中国移民提供中文紧急医疗务,拥有三辆配备了会说中文的医护人员的救护车。这三辆车的务范围已经扩大到了布鲁克林之外的地方,包括曼哈顿的唐人街和皇后区的法拉盛。The service was started last month by Alonzo Rapisarda, 42, who lives in the Bay Ridge neighborhood of Brooklyn and traces his family’s roots to a great-grandfather who immigrated to the ed States from Italy. During the three generations of Rapisardas who have run the family business, Midwood Ambulance, the south Brooklyn area has changed, from historically Jewish and Italian to largely Chinese.这项务是42岁的阿隆佐·拉皮萨尔达(Alonzo Rapisarda)在上月推出的。拉皮萨尔达生活在布鲁克林的湾脊,其曾祖父是来自意大利的移民。名为先锋救护车(Midwood Ambulance)的这个家族企业,在拉皮萨尔达家传承了三代人,在这期间,布鲁克兰南区变了,从历史上以犹太人和意大利人为主变成了中国人的天下。Bensonhurst, one of its main service areas, is now home to one of the city’s largest concentration of Chinese residents. From 2000 to 2013 the number of foreign-born Chinese in the borough increased by nearly 50 percent, to 128,000 from 86,000, according to the census.本森赫斯特是该公司主要的务地区之一。聚居在那里的华人规模在该市名列前茅。根据人口普查数据,从2000年到2013年,该行政区的华裔增加了近50%,从8.6万增至12.8万。Unlike city-run ambulances, which respond to 911 emergency calls, private ambulance companies have their own direct phone numbers and will, among other services, transport ill patients from their doctor’s offices to hospitals or take women in labor to hospitals.市政运营的救护车会在接到911急救电话后出车。和它们不同的是,私人救护车公司有自己的直线电话号码,提供的务包括将病患从医生的办公室转移到医院,或是送临产妇就医。The city is home to a small network of private ambulance companies that cater to certain neighborhoods, including a few that serve non-English speakers, such as Chevra Hatzalah, whose workers speak Hebrew, and Assist Ambulance, which focuses on Russian-speaking patients. Ambulances operated by the city, as well as private companies, do have access to telephone-based translation services, but people facing medical issues often find it easier and more comforting to speak to emergency responders in their native language, according to doctors, and emergency medical provider.该市的私人救护车公司构成了一个小网络,它们专门面向某些社区,其中一些公司务于不会说英语的人群,比如急救公司(Chevra Hatzalah)的工作人员会说希伯来语,爱施慈救护车公司(Assist Ambulance)的重点客户是说俄语的患者。市政机构和私人公司运营的救护车的确都可以使用电话上的翻译务,但据医生和提供急救务的人表示,遇到医疗问题的人往往会觉得,用母语和急救人员沟通更容易、更放心。Over the years, Mr. Rapisarda’s regular crews — 107 ambulances in all — found that they were frequently unable to speak with their patients.此前的多年里,拉皮萨尔达的常规团队——包括总计107辆救护车——发现,自己常常无法和患者交流。“If you can’t communicate with your paramedic, you could leave out something, or the paramedic could misunderstand something,” Mr. Rapisarda said.“如果无法与急救护理人员沟通,就可能会有遗漏,或是导致急救人员产生误解,”拉皮萨尔达说。He said patients sometimes confused chest pain for indigestion, particularly older people. His workers, he feared, “might miss something if you’re not fully able to understand them, or them, you.”他表示,患者有时候会误以为胸痛是消化不良,尤其是上了年纪的人。他担心手下的工作人员“如果不能完全听懂他们的话,或他们不能完全听懂工作人员的话,便可能会漏掉某些信息”。Several years ago, he started hiring Chinese-speaking dispatchers, paramedics and emergency medical technicians. But it was only last year, after Mr. Rapisarda heard a story from a local doctor, that the idea of a dedicated fleet and a 24-hour Chinese dispatch was born. The doctor, Gary Chen, an internal medicine specialist in Bensonhurst, said an older couple who were sick waited through the weekend for a Monday appointment with their Chinese-speaking doctor rather than call an ambulance because they were afraid they would not be understood.几年前,他开始招募会说中文的调度员、护理员和急救医务人员。但直到去年从当地一名医生那里听说一个故事后,拉皮萨尔达才萌生了成立一专门的队伍,24小时派遣会说中文的医护人员的想法。他从本森赫斯特一位名叫加里·陈(Gary Chen)的内科医生那里听到的故事是,一对患病的老年夫妇宁可等上整整一个周末也不愿叫救护车,就为了到周一去看会说中文的医生,因为他们害怕对方听不懂他们说的话。Dr. Chen’s neighbors suggested that the community needed its own ambulances, and Mr. Rapisarda agreed. Now Mr. Rapisarda has three ambulances emblazoned with English and Chinese characters traveling around the city.陈医生的邻居表示,社区需要有自己的救护车。拉皮萨尔达也同意这一点。如今,拉皮萨尔达有三辆印着英汉双语标识的救护车,在全市穿梭。He said the response had been so positive that he was hiring more Chinese-speaking workers and had ordered three more ambulances, each of which costs ,000. On a recent day in the company’s parking depot in the Gravesend section of Brooklyn, newly hired employees practiced carrying a dummy strapped to a chair up and down a steep staircase. He said this was an essential skill in the city.他说反响非常积极,因此他正在招聘更多会说中文的工作人员,并且又订购了三辆救护车,每辆7.6万美元。前不久的一天,在该公司位于布鲁克林格拉夫森德的停车场,新招来的员工正在练习抬着一个被绑在椅子上的假人上下陡峭的楼梯。拉皮萨尔达说,在该市这是一项必备技能。In New York and around the country, emergency responders have historically been white and male, said Scott Moore, a human resources and operations consultant with the American Ambulance Association, a national trade organization, and an emergency medical technician for 26 years. Beyond translating words, Mr. Moore said, a diverse emergency response fleet can add cultural competency to how their work is done.全国性的行业组织美国救护车协会(American Ambulance Association)的人力资源与行动顾问、有26年急救经验的斯科特·穆尔(Scott Moore)说,在纽约和全美,急救人员历来是白人和男性。他表示,除了翻译外,组建多元的应急响应队伍可以增加他们在工作中的文化能力。Last year, Mr. Moore’s organization issued its first handbook for intercultural communication. “Demographic trends across the ed States indicate a growing need for better cross-cultural communication skills among health care professionals,” the guidebook begins. 去年,穆尔所在的组织首次发布跨文化交流手册。这本指导手册开篇写道,”全美的人口变化趋势表明,越来越有必要提高医护专业人员的跨文化交流技巧。”The profession is “becoming more aware of the challenges” that a diverse patient population presents, Mr. Moore said, “and understanding that care is something more than maybe just taking medical care of them.”这个职业“更加意识到”多元的患者群体带来的挑战,“并认识到护理不仅仅是对他们进行医疗护理。”The Midwood Ambulance service has teamed up with the ed Chinese Association of Brooklyn, a community organization, which is helping sp the word about the service. Steve Chung, the association’s president, said the service was drawing rave reviews from the community and, in particular, accolades for Mr. Rapisarda. Mr. Chung noted the only-in-New-York factor that the new Chinese-language ambulance fleet was started by an Italian-American.先锋救护车公司推出的务与社区组织布鲁克林华人联合会(ed Chinese Association of Brooklyn)合作,后者正在帮助宣传这项务。其会长钟承楚(Steve Chung)称,社区对这项务好评如潮,尤其是对拉皮萨尔达的称赞。钟承楚指出了一个纽约独有的因素,即新的中文救护车队是由一名意大利裔美国人成立的。But there is a history of collaboration — a long one — between the communities, he said.但他说,两个群体相互合作的历史源远流长。“Think about it, in Marco Polo’s time, he visited China and we gave him good things: spaghetti and pizza,” Mr. Chung said with a laugh. “I think this is the best thing about human culture — we know each other and we’re sharing and who knows what good things pop-up.”“想想,在马可·波罗时代,他去中国,我们给了他好东西:意面和披萨,”钟承楚大笑着说。“我觉得这是人类文化最好的一面,我们相互了解,共同分享,谁知道会出现什么好东西呢。” /201605/446093。

HEGANG, China — In the dank shower room where the miners soak, the coal dust from their bodies staining the water chocolate, a lone worker sat smoking a cigarette, staring at the floor.中国鹤岗——在阴冷潮湿的淋浴室内,矿工们身体上洗下的煤灰把水染成了巧克力色,一名工人一个人坐着抽烟,眼睛盯着地上。He lingered, he explained, because since his pay had been cut in half, he had been eating dinner at his parents’ apartment, and he ded the humiliation of going there again.他说想多待会,因为自从工资被减半,他就一直在父母家吃晚饭,每次去都觉得丢人,不想再过去。“If any of the leaders would do their job properly, the situation would not be like this,” said the worker, Mr. Guo, 39. “If they want to sack me, they should just do it. Can it get any worse?”“要是有任何一个领导把自己的工作做好,情况就不会是这样,”这名姓郭的39岁工人说。“如果他们想开除我,就开除好了。还能比现在更坏?”It probably will.可能真的会更糟。The mine’s owner, the Longmay Group, the biggest coal company in northeastern China, announced in September that it planned to lay off 100,000 workers. The elimination of about 40 percent of the work force at 42 mines in four cities is the biggest reduction in jobs that anyone could recall in this steadily declining rust belt near the Russian border.这个矿场的所有者龙煤集团是中国东北部最大的煤矿公司。它在9月宣布,计划裁掉10万名员工。在位于四个城市的42座煤矿削减40%的劳动力,是这片靠近俄罗斯边境、正在逐渐衰落的“铁锈地带”最大规模的一次裁员。China has managed mass layoffs at creaky, state-owned businesses like Longmay before, averting the threat of strikes and unrest by suppressing protests and offering payouts and job training.中国一直对龙煤这样的老旧国企的大规模裁员进行管控,通过压制抗议行动、提供补偿金和工作培训,避免出现罢工和骚乱的局面。But that was when the economy was booming and could ily absorb displaced workers. The test the government now faces in this depressed coal town and in other hard-hit areas across the country is whether it can head off labor discontent in a slowing economy.不过,那是在中国经济蒸蒸日上的时期,比较容易对下岗工人进行安置。现如今,在这个萧条的煤矿城镇和全国其他一些遭受沉重打击的地区,中国政府面临的考验,是能否在经济放缓之际妥善处理劳工的不满情绪。Longmay has so far delayed the bulk of the layoffs, cutting only several hundred older workers who held nonessential jobs. Last month, the government of Heilongjiang Province, which owns Longmay, announced a 0 million bailout that would help the company repay its bonds. But analysts see the infusion as short-term relief that will not prevent the inevitable reckoning.龙煤集团目前推迟了大部分裁员计划,只裁掉了几百名年纪比较大、职位不重要的工人。上个月,龙煤集团所有者黑龙江省政府宣布,提供38亿元人民币资金,帮助公司偿还债券。但多名分析师表示,这类援助只能在短期内缓解问题,无法避免最终的命运。The coal industry is hurting nationwide, as coal prices have fallen nearly 60 percent since 2011, said Deng Shun, an analyst at ICIS C1 Energy, a consultancy based in Shanghai. And Longmay, he said, produces far less coal with extra workers than newer, more efficient companies.位于上海的咨询公司安迅思息旺能源(ICIS C1 Energy)的分析师邓舜表示,自2011年至今,煤炭价格下降了近60%,全国整个煤炭工业都不好过。他表示,相比于效率更高、更新的煤矿公司,龙煤集团员工更多,但产煤量却比前者少得多。“They are quite worried about social unrest, so they delay,” he said. “These layoffs should have happened two years ago.”“他们非常担心出现社会动荡,所以就往后延,”他说。“这些裁员两年前就该进行了。”Still, there have aly been flashes of discontent.但是,不满情绪已经开始露头。In April, even before the layoffs were announced, thousands marched on the streets of Hegang, a city of about one million, to protest delayed salaries. The organizers were arrested and jailed.今年4月,龙煤集团还没有公布裁员计划的时候,就有数千人在人口约百万的鹤岗的街头游行,抗议拖欠工资。这次活动的组织者被带走关了起来。In October, company management stifled a protest by locking workers in the mines. The police patrolled the streets outside the company headquarters on the day the rally was planned.到了10月份,企业管理层把工人堵在矿区,以阻止他们举行抗议活动。在他们计划进行集会行动那天,警方还在公司总部外的街道上进行巡逻。A few weeks later, Internet regulators exposed a group of workers discussing a demonstration on an online bulletin board. They were hauled to a police station, fingerprinted and warned that jail sentences would follow if they dared do it again.几周后,互联网监管机构曝光了一群工人,表示他们曾在网络论坛上商讨举行示威活动。他们被带到派出所,取了指纹,并被警告,如果敢再这么做,就会被判刑。“We are all on edge, the company is on edge,” Mr. Chen, 27, an organizer of that abortive protest, said over breakfast at a nearly empty restaurant, washing it down with a couple of beers at the end of his night shift. “We don’t know what is going to happen. It all depends on how the company takes care of the laid-off workers.”“我们紧张,公司更紧张,”27岁的小陈在一家几乎空无一人的餐馆一边吃早餐一边说。他是这次夭折的抗议活动的组织者之一。此时,他刚结束晚班工作,就着几杯啤酒吃完了自己的早餐。“我们不知道以后会发生什么。完全要看公司怎么安排下岗工人。”Like other miners here, he spoke to a foreign reporter on the condition that he be identified only by his surname for fear of reprisal.和这里其他矿工一样,他在接受外国记者采访时要求只用姓来指代自己,以免遭到报复。 Of greater concern to the government, Hegang is not the only place where tensions with workers are increasing. The number of strikes and labor protests nationwide nearly doubled in the first 11 months of this year, to 2,354, compared with 1,207 in the same period last year, according to China Labor Bulletin, a monitoring group based in Hong Kong. The organization said strikes and worker protests hit a record high of 301 incidents last month.让中国政府更加担忧的是,鹤岗不是唯一一个政府与劳工的关系日益紧张的地方。据位于香港的观察机构中国劳工通讯(China Labor Bulletin)统计,今年前11个月,中国共有2354次罢工和劳工抗议活动,相比于去年同期的1207次,几乎翻了一倍。该组织还表示,上个月中国出现了301次此类事件,达到了历史新高。The reaction of the demoralized workers is being watched closely because the staying power of the Communist Party has been immutably linked to its ability to deliver continued economic progress. The unwritten social compact here is that the party delivers growth, jobs and higher living standards, and in exchange, the workers acquiesce to its monopoly on power, surrendering the right to organize unions or protest.沮丧的工人们的反应受到了密切关注,因为中国共产党的权力能否持久,总是和它能否持续带来经济增长相关联。这里有一个不成文的社会契约,即党带来经济增长、工作机会和更高的生活水平,作为交换,劳工们默许其独揽大权,放弃组织工会或进行抗议的权利。That bargain could unravel if workers no longer believe the government is living up to its end.如果工人认为政府无法兑现它的承诺,这种约定就有可能解除。The outward signs of severe economic trouble are evident. For-sale signs hang on the facades of restaurants that draw few customers. Robberies are on the rise: manhole covers and cellphones are popular targets. Women say they have stopped wearing jewelry for fear of being assaulted.严重经济困境的外在迹象颇为明显。顾客寥寥的餐馆正面挂着转让的牌子。抢劫案件增加:井盖和手机是常见的目标。女性表示因为害怕被抢而不再戴珠宝。Heilongjiang is one of the most depressed provinces in China, and has been for years. Its economic output fell 2.2 percent in the first three quarters of this year compared with the same period last year, without adjusting for inflation, according to the National Bureau of Statistics.黑龙江是中国经济最不景气的省份之一,并且这种情况已经持续了多年。从国家统计局的数据来看,今年前三季度,该省未扣除通胀因素的经济产出同比下降2.2%。“What you have now is a very, very severe economic situation in one part of the country,” said Andrew Batson, China research director at Gavekal Dragonomics in Beijing. “It is very striking and very unusual.”“现在我们看到的,是中国的一部分地区经济形势非常非常严峻,”北京龙洲经讯(GaveKal Dragonomics)中国问题研究总监白安儒(Andrew Batson)说。“这种情况非常惊人,非常不寻常。”Still, the state-owned mines have been reluctant to cut production because there is little other work here. The first round of layoffs at Longmay, though relatively small, came soon after the September announcement.然而,国有煤矿不愿减产,因为这里几乎没有其他工作。9月发出通知后不久,龙煤就进行了第一轮裁员,不过规模相对较小。Older workers in their late 50s were called to an office on the second floor of a disused building. Two young clerks barked orders at men. They were told to sign two-page contracts that pledged a small monthly stipend and vague promises of retraining.快60岁的员工被叫至一栋废弃建筑二楼的办公室。两名年轻的工作人员厉声向他们下达命令。他们被要求签署一份两页纸的合同。合同承诺每月向他们发放一小笔补贴,并含糊地承诺将为其提供再培训。Mr. Hui, 55, was one of the first. “It was 7 o’clock in the morning,” he recalled. “Our captain came to our changing room after meeting with the leaders. He said: ‘Here is bad news for you guys.’ Then he said, ‘Hui, you are one of those who are above the age limit.’”55岁的老会便是第一批被裁的员工之一。“当时是早上7点,”他回忆说。“和领导开完会以后,队长来到我们更衣室。他说:‘伙计们,坏消息来了。’接着他又说,‘老会,你属于年龄超标的。’”Mr. Hui said he was crushed. He had worked as a firefighter at the mine for 35 years and expected a pension. He had not been told how much severance pay he would get, he said.老会说他很伤心。他在矿上当了35年的消防员,本指望着领退休金。他说,没人告诉他会拿到多少离职补偿。Although his wife, son and daughter-in-law had jobs, he could not make ends meet. “I have been paying the mortgage of my son, and the day-to-day expenditures for our grandson,” he said. “I’m short of cash. I have to work. What else can I do? I want to give my grandson the best education so he can leave this place. There is no future in coal.”尽管妻子、儿子和儿媳都有工作,他还是入不敷出。“我一直在给儿子还房贷,还有负责孙子的日常花销,”他说。“缺钱,必须得工作。我还能怎么办?我想让孙子接受最好的教育,这样才能离开这个地方。煤炭没有前途。”The management of the Longmay Group declined to be interviewed. In response to a request to its headquarters in Harbin, the company said, “We are busy planning the reform of the company, and we are not y to give information to the public.”龙煤集团的管理层拒绝接受采访。记者向其设在哈尔滨的总部提出了采访请求,对方回复称,“我们正忙于规划公司改革,尚未做好向外公布消息的准备。”As the region’s population has dwindled in the last decade, the younger people who stayed say they feel trapped. They have few skills to offer to factories in southern China, which in any case no longer hire like they used to. And they are boxed in, they say, by family traditions that expect men to work in the mines.过去十年里,随着该地区人口减少,留下来的年轻人说觉得自己被困住了。他们几乎没有可以进入南方工厂的技能,何况那些工厂也不再像过去那样招聘了。他们说自己被希望男的都去矿上工作的家庭传统束缚住了。A 29-year-old mechanic, who declined to be identified, said he loved his job working with precision instruments in one of the mine’s workshops. He had tried to get a job in the port town of Dalian, but his parents forbade him to move, he said.一名29岁的机修工说,他喜欢在矿上的车间里和精密仪器打交道的工作。拒绝公开姓名的他表示,自己之前曾尝试在港口城市大连找工作,但父母不允许他去。Blinking back tears, he said he depended on his fiancée, who earned a handsome salary as a editor, and his father, who made more money than he did driving a truck.他忍着眼泪说,现在自己要靠未婚妻和父亲。他的未婚妻是一名视频编辑,收入不菲。他父亲靠开卡车也比他挣得多。“Most who are still here are like me, they don’t have a way out,” he said. “If the company would pay our salaries on time and in full, the workers would love to work.”“还留在这里的大部分人都像我一样,没有出路,”他说。“如果公司按时全额发放工资,工人是很愿意干活的。”One employee, Mr. Cui, 40, a driver, said he had quit rather than wait to be laid off. He hopes to secure a taxi license to augment his severance of 4 a month, which he says is not enough to get by on, much less pay back the ,000 he borrowed for his wife’s medical bills.40岁的老崔是一名司机。他说自己不愿等着被裁员,于是主动辞职了。他希望能拿到出租车牌照,以便补贴每个月104美元的离职补偿。他说补偿金还不够过日子用的,更别说还给妻子看病欠下的6000美元医药费了。When the full brunt of the layoffs comes, the violence could be terrible, he predicted. Since the last economic crisis, in the 1990s, a conspicuous new group had appeared: the owners of recently privatized small mines who drove around in Mercedes-Benzes.他预测等裁员到了最厉害的时候,会有可怕的暴力事件。90年代的上一次经济危机之后,出现了一个惹眼的新群体:被私有化不久的小煤矿的老板。他们开着梅赛德斯-奔驰四处招摇。“In the 90s, everyone was poor,” he said. “Now the rich are too rich, and the poor are too poor. Because of the layoffs everyone is worried. No one has a way to live outside the mines. With the New Year holidays coming, there will be chaos in Hegang.”“90年代,大家都穷,”他说。“现在富的太富,穷的太穷。因为裁人,大家都提心吊胆。没人有在除了煤矿以外的地方谋生的路子。马上过年了,鹤岗肯定要乱。” /201512/417120。

Mark Zuckerberg, the co-founder and chief executive of Facebook, and his wife, Dr. Priscilla Chan, made a bold statement on Tuesday: In honor of the birth of their daughter, they said they would give 99 percent of their Facebook shares to charitable purposes. That amounts to about billion.Facebook联合创始人兼首席执行官马克·扎克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)和妻子普莉希拉·陈(Priscilla Chan)在周二发表了一份大胆的声明,称为了纪念女儿的降生,他们将把所持Facebook股份的99%用于慈善事业。这些股票目前市值约450亿美元。While philanthropy by the rich is not a new concept, Silicon Valley’s newer billionaires appear eager to sp their wealth while they are still young. Yet Mr. Zuckerberg, 31, and his wife, 30, are entering largely uncharted waters with a charity effort of such scale. Other than noting that their initial focus would be on education, curing disease, connecting people and building communities, their announcement was vague on specifics.富人做慈善并不新鲜,但硅谷的新一代富豪,似乎迫切地想在还很年轻时就把自己的财富捐献出去。一笔如此巨额的捐献,意味着31岁的扎克伯格和30岁的妻子将进入一个在很大程度上仍属未知的领域。除了表示一开始会侧重于教育,疾病治疗,把大家连接起来,以及建立社区外,夫妇两人的声明细节模糊。It made us wonder how others would use that money, so we put the question to ers. If they had billion to spend, what charities or causes would they support? We received hundreds of responses from ers around the world. They ranged from ideas for stemming the effects of climate change to providing homes to the homeless to fostering mental health. Below is a selection.这让我们好奇,如果是别人会怎么用那笔钱。于是,我们把问题抛给了读者。如果有450亿美元,他们会持什么样的慈善机构或事业?他们想法多样,从遏制气候变化的影响到为无家可归的人提供住所,再到促进心理健康。以下是选登内容。Casimir Guzowski, 38, Reading, Pa.卡西米尔·古佐夫斯基(Casimir Guzowski),38岁,宾夕法尼亚州雷丁If I had the billion to donate to any cause, I would start a renewable energy business that paid for people in need to install solar or wind generation on their homes. This would allow them to heat and light their homes while generating green credits. The extra money from the energy production could be sold to the power companies, lowering the nation’s carbon footprint. The money from the sale of this surplus energy could be either used to pay back the initial investment to install the green technology so the program could continue on or allow the families in these homes to have a small amount of extra pocket cash to help them with whatever they need.如果有450亿可以捐给任何事业,我会创办一家可再生能源公司,出钱给需要的人家里安装太阳能或风能发电技术。这样既能给他们家里提供照明和供电,又能产生绿色积分。多余的电可以卖给电力公司,减少国家的碳足迹。出售多余的电带来的收入,要么用来偿还安装绿色技术的初始投资,以确保这个项目能继续下去,要么让那些家庭当做一小笔额外的零用钱,用在他们需要的任何事情上。Annemarie Latimer, 71, Columbia, N.J.安娜玛丽·拉蒂默(Annemarie Latimer),71岁,新泽西州哥伦比亚The Salvation Army, because they give most of their contributions to the people that need it.救世军,因为他们把大部分捐款都给了需要的人。Research for pancreatic cancer because it took my mother.胰腺癌研究,因为胰腺癌夺去了我母亲的生命。Addiction research because I work with addiction clients.嗜瘾研究,因为我的客户中有瘾君子。Any effort to get rid of Monsanto because they are destroying America.所有致力于关闭孟山都公司(Monsanto)的行动,因为他们正在毁灭美国。Domestic violence centers because I know and knew so many people who were affected by it.家庭暴力中心,因为我现在和过去都知道,家暴影响了很多人。Any public health agency who is nonprofit, whose C.E.O.s don’t get the most benefit.首席执行官不是最大获益人的任何非营利公共卫生机构。All the children in poor families, because I have seen children suffer when the parents spent their money foolishly on themselves.所有家庭贫困的孩子,因为我看到过家长愚蠢地把钱花在自己身上时,孩子多遭罪。Dental care for the people who need it and are unable to afford it.帮助那些需要获得口腔保健,但却无力承担费用的人。Emotional and physical care for all rape victims, because so many people stigmatize them.为强奸受害者提供情感和身体照顾,因为有太多人污蔑他们。All child prostitutes and adult prostitutes because no one wants to be in that position because it is abuse. This includes trafficked victims.所有雏妓和成年娼妓,因为没人愿意陷在这种备受虐待的处境。这也包括人口买卖的受害人。All torture victims because they need so much counseling.所有酷刑受害者,因为他们需要太多心理辅导。Tax credits for single people because they are too heavily taxed, proportionately.为单身者提供税收抵免,因为从比例上说,他们承担的税负太重。Counseling for children of divorce because they are heavily impacted.辅导离婚家庭的孩子,因为他们受到了严重影响。Counseling for abused people, regardless of the type of abuse.辅导遭受虐待的人,无论他们遭受的是哪种虐待。All single mothers and fathers who have difficulty providing for their children.所有抚养孩子有困难的单亲父母。Daniel Mokrauer-Madden, 29, Bangalore, India 丹尼尔·莫克劳尔-麦登(Daniel Mokrauer-Madden),29岁,印度班加罗尔I would invest in education in communities around the world. Philanthropy has tended toward short-term measurable impact. This is an improvement over the past, but it also means that some sectors that see change over the longer term are seriously neglected. Investments in human capital are one of the most important ways to shift countries’ growth curves upward. This means formal and informal education, working with rural primary schools, setting up research facilities at universities, establishing training programs for adults and much more.我会投资于世界各地的社区教育。慈善事业往往倾向于可衡量的短期影响。这比起过去是一个进步,但也意味着一些要长时间才见成效的部门受到了严重忽视。人力资本投资是国家增长曲线上扬的重要途径之一。这意味着正规和非正规教育、乡村小学工作、在大学设立研究机构、建立成人培训系统,以及更多的其他方案。Rashaad Denzel, 24, New York 拉沙德·丹泽尔(Rashaad Denzel),24岁,纽约I would give away my billion to improve the mental wellness among Americans. Oftentimes when we think of one being “sick” we think of a common cold, stomach flu or some sort of terminal illness. Hardly ever do we recognize depression as a sickness. I would pump resources into brain research and increase the funding for mental health facilities.我会把我的450亿投放到提高美国人的心理健康上。当我们想到“生病”时,通常会联想到普通的感冒、肠胃炎或某种绝症。我们几乎没有认识到抑郁也是一种病。我会把资源投入到大脑的研究,加大精神健康机构的经费。Ahmed Al Bayati, 25, Miami, Fla. 艾哈迈德·巴亚提(Ahmed Al Bayati),25岁,佛罗里达州迈阿密I would use the money to improve the education system in impoverished areas as it is my believe that doing so would solve many of the challenges our society faces. There’s a lack of access to opportunity that has crippled poor communities. Good education is the ladder that people can use to climb their way out of poverty. I used it myself to escape war-torn Baghdad. Among the poor kids in the ed States is the next Steve Jobs, the next Barack Obama, and the scientist who will make a breakthrough in treating cancer. But none of that is possible if we don’t make it easier to join a good school than to join a gang.我会用这笔钱改善贫困地区教育系统,我认为这样做会解决社会面临的很多挑战。得不到机会令贫困社区举步维艰,而人们可以透过良好的教育来摆脱贫困。我就是用它来逃离了饱受战争蹂躏的巴格达。下一个史蒂夫·乔布斯、下一个贝拉克·奥巴马、在治疗癌症方面取得突破性进展的科学家,或许就在美国的穷孩子们当中。但是如果我们不把他们进入好学校变得比加入帮派容易,这些就都不可能实现。Mitchell Zimmerman, 73, Palo Alto, Calif. 米歇尔·齐默尔曼(Mitchell Zimmerman),73岁,加利福尼亚州帕洛阿尔托I would give billions to (1) basic research relating to global warming and (2) perhaps even more important, a massive educational and public relations campaign designed to force Americans to confront the reality and urgency of climate change.我想把数百亿美元花在:(1)关于全球变暖的基础研究;(2)或许更重要的是,开展一项大规模教育和公关运动,迫使美国人面对气候变化的现实性和紧迫性。Maksim Surguy, 29, Federal Way, Wash. 马克西姆·瑟盖(Maksim Surguy),29岁,华盛顿州费德勒尔韦I would spend a few billion to buy patent portfolios of companies in the following industries and make them available to anyone:我会花数十亿收购在以下行业的公司专利,让所以人都可以享用:Food (agriculture, water desalination, genetics)粮食(农业、海水淡化、遗传学)Energy (renewables, bio, solar)能源(可再生能源、生物质能、太阳能)Medicine (drugs, chemical compounds, methods)医药(药物、化合物、方法)Then I would invest a billion dollars into machine-learning development, specifically hardware that doesn’t exist yet, and create a marketplace of smart algorithms that can learn on their own. These algorithms will be used to further improve methods and processes to grow food, produce energy and help create new medicine. The rest of the money would be used to combat climate change and to automate mining resources on other planets instead of our own.然后,我将投资十亿美元到研发机器学习上,尤其是研发还不存在的硬件,并创造一个可以自我学习的智能算法市场。这些算法将被用于进一步改善粮食种植、能源生产的方法和过程,并帮助创造新药物。剩下的钱将用于应对气候变化,及在其他行星上自动开采矿产资源。Wulin, 40, Calgary, Alberta, Canada 吴林(Wulin,音),40岁,加拿大艾伯塔省卡尔加里I would use the money to solve the dilemma all humans have: aging and space colonization. If we can extend our human life expectancy to experience more human activities while humans live in the space. As Stephen Hawking said: “The human race shouldn’t have all its eggs in one basket ...”我会用这笔钱解决所有人类都有的难题:衰老和太空殖民。如果我们能够延长人类的寿命去体验更多,并在太空生活,那该有多好。正如斯蒂芬·霍金所说:“人类不应该把所有的鸡蛋放在一个篮子里......”Marti Elkins, 62, Flat Rock, N.C. 马蒂·埃尔金斯(Marti Elkins),62岁,北卡罗来纳州弗拉特罗克I would build more subsidized housing for seniors who are still trying to pay off their adult children’s student loans living on a fixed income. I would build tiny houses for the homeless. I would provide expensive medicine for veterans who can’t afford it and the V.A. won’t pay for. We owe them everything for our freedom. I would invest in state-of-the-art mental health facilities to treat those poor souls who are on the street and no one helps and everyone ignores unless they kill people. I would provide educational scholarships to underprivileged students. Keep your donations mostly in the ed States. People tend to forget how much poverty exists here. This will eventually make our country stronger again. Make free medical and dental clinics available because in spite of Obamacare, lots of people still can’t afford either and just accept the tax penalty. Give money to our National Park Service. They are one of our greatest treasures; do away with expensive entrance fees so everyone can enjoy them. They belong to all of us.我会为一些年长的人建造更多补贴住房,因为他们只有固定收入,但还在努力清还成年子女的学生贷款。我会为无家可归者建微型住所。我会为一些退伍军人提供昂贵药品,因为他们买不起,而退伍军人事务部又不会买给他们。我们一切的自由,都有赖于他们。我会投资最先进的心理健康机构,治疗那些在街头流浪没有人帮助的可怜人。他们被所有人忽略,除非杀了人。我会为贫困学生提供教育奖学金。主要在美国捐款吧。人们往往会忘记这里有多贫穷。最终这将使我们的国家再次强大起来。建设免费医疗和牙科诊所,因为尽管有奥巴马医改,很多人还是负担不起,而只能接受税务惩罚。把钱给我们的国家公园(National Park Service)。国家公园是我们最珍贵的东西之一;废除昂贵的入场费,让每个人都能享用它们。它们是属于我们大家的。Randy Rehwoldt, 66, Grand Junction, Colo. 兰迪·瑞沃特(Randy Rehwoldt),66岁,科罗拉多州大章克申I would use existing organizations with proven track records. I would do it this way to avoid the problem Mark had with his first experience in his giving. I think the Salvation Army is one good organization to use, for they have proven themselves.我会选择有可靠业务记录的现有组织。我会这样做来避免马克第一次捐款时的经历。我觉得救世军是一个很好的选择,因为他们已经明了自己。Ron Bannon, 58, Newark, N.J. 罗恩·班农(Ron Bannon),58岁,新泽西州纽瓦克Randomly to individuals on earth. The amount would equal the average local yearly wage. No strings attached.随机送给地球上任何一个人。相当于当地年平均工资,不会有任何附加条件。Angelo Paraiso-Arroyo, 17, Berkeley, Calif. 安杰洛·帕拉伊索-阿罗约(Angelo Paraiso-Arroyo),17岁,加利福尼亚州伯克利If I had billion, I would give it to struggling small businesses. They are middle-class Americans and are necessary in order to have a strong economy. If they flourish, we all prosper. Plus, who needs billion? Who needs a million dollars? Money comes and goes but the future is forever. Forty-five billion dollars is a gift, and like all gifts, it is always the thought that counts.如果我有450亿美元,我会给陷入困境的小型企业。他们构成了美国的中产阶级,对于强大的经济体来说,这也是必须的。如果他们蓬勃发展,大家也就都能富足。而且,又有谁需要450亿美元呢?谁需要一百万美元呢?财来财去,未来才是永远的。450亿美元是一份礼物,跟所有礼物一样,心意才是最重要的。Dange Cris Bejoc, 21, Cebu City, Philippines 丹吉·克里斯·贝周克(Dange Cris Bejoc),21岁,菲律宾宿雾市Mainly, I will build two foundations for those who are handicapped and for the homeless abandoned children. First reason is I want to help those who are disabled to see life differently and for them to see their true value despite of being incomplete. Give them training, education to mold their skills and talents. Second reason, for the homeless abandoned children so that they will feel that they are at home, protected by those people who love and respect them.主要来说,我会为残疾人士和遭遗弃的无家可归的儿童建立两个基金会。第一是因为,我想帮助那些残疾人士看到不同的人生,让他们看到自己的真正价值,尽管身体不健全。我想为他们提供培训和教育,培养他们的技能和才华。第二是因为,我想帮助遭遗弃的无家可归的儿童,让他们觉得自己是在家里,有爱护与尊重他们的人保护。Noah Weiss, 13, Los Angeles 诺亚·韦斯(Noah Weiss),13岁,洛杉矶I would give billion to Alzheimer’s research, because my great-grandma suffers from it, and other organizations around the globe.我的曾祖母得了阿尔茨海默氏症,所以我会把450亿美元捐给有关它的研究,还有世界各地的其他组织。Kate Krauss, 52, Philadelphia 凯特·克劳斯(Kate Krauss),52岁,费城I would announce a billion prize for a scalable cure for AIDS we are close, but the funding is not there. I would offer billion in grants to support an eclectic group of AIDS activists, who have been very successful over the years in supporting medical research. The rest of the money should go to other diseases and priorities.我会颁发十亿美元奖金给可大规模运用的艾滋病疗法我们目前接近成功,但却没有资金。我也会捐赠十亿美元,持各种艾滋病活动人士。他们多年来一直非常成功地在持医学研究。其余的钱则该用在其他疾病和优先项目上。 /201512/414446。