时间:2020年01月28日 05:37:10

I want to tell you the story about the time I almost got kidnapped in the trunk of a red Mazda Miata.我想和你们分享一个故事,关于我差点被绑到一辆红色马自达后备箱的故事。Its the day after graduating from design school and Im having a yard sale.那是从设计学校毕业之后第二天,我在后院里弄了个旧货拍卖。And this guy pulls up in this red Mazda and he starts looking through my stuff.这个家伙开着红色马自达过来了,他停了车并开始打量我的东西。And he buys a piece of art that I made. And it turns out hes alone in town for the night,最后,他买了一件我的艺术作品。我得知他今晚在这个镇上是孤身一人,driving cross-country on a road trip before he goes into the Peace Corps.他正在进行加入美国和平队之前的穿越美国的汽车旅行。So I invite him out for a beer and he tells me all about his passion for making a difference in the world.于是我请他出去喝了一杯,他跟我聊到关于他想要改变世界的所有宏图大略。Now its starting to get late, and Im getting pretty tired.时间有点晚了,我也挺累的了。As I motion for the tab, I make the mistake of asking him, ;So where are you staying tonight?;当我示意务员结账时,我犯了个错误,就是问了他,“那你今晚住哪儿?”And he makes it worse by saying, ;Actually, I dont have a place.;他说了一句话,情况就变得更糟了,“实际上,我没地方住。”And Im thinking, ;Oh, man!; What do you do? Weve all been there, right?这时候我心想,“哦,天呐!”这可怎么办?我们都遇到过这种情况,对吧?Do I offer to host this guy? But, I just met him -- I mean, he says hes going to the Peace Corps,我应该让他住我这里吗?我才刚认识他啊--我是说,他说他是要去美国和平队,but I dont really know if hes going to the Peace Corps and I dont want to end up kidnapped in the trunk of a Miata. Thats a small trunk!但我哪知道他到底是不是真的要去啊?我才不想被绑在那个马自达的后备箱里就这么玩儿完了。这后备箱也太小了!So then I hear myself saying, ;Hey, I have an airbed you can stay on in my living room.;之后我听到自己说,“嗨,我还有个气垫床,你可以睡在我客厅里。”And the voice in my head goes, ;Wait, what?;而我自己脑海中的声音是,“等等,你在干嘛啊?”That night, Im laying in bed, Im staring at the ceiling and thinking,那一晚,我躺在床上,盯着天花板开始想,;Oh my god, what have I done? Theres a complete stranger sleeping in my living room. What if hes psychotic?;“我的天,我到底做了什么?”怎么会让一个完全陌生的人睡在我客厅里?他要是有精神病该怎么办?”My anxiety grows so much, I leap out of bed, I sneak on my tiptoes to the door, and I lock the bedroom door.我越来越不安,于是从床上坐了起来,踮起脚尖偷偷溜到门前,锁上了卧室的门。It turns out he was not psychotic. Weve kept in touch ever since.当然,最后明,他没有精神病。那以后我们还常常保持联系。And the piece of art he bought at the yard sale is hanging in his classroom; hes a teacher now.他把从我这里买的那个艺术品,一直挂在他的教室里;他现在是个老师。This was my first hosting experience, and it completely changed my perspective.这就是我第一次留人住宿的经历,并且这件事彻底改变了我的看法。Maybe the people that my childhood taught me to label as strangers were actually friends waiting to be discovered.也许,在我童年时期被定义为陌生人的那些人,其实是等待被发现的朋友。The idea of hosting people on airbeds gradually became natural to me and when I moved to San Francisco,用气垫床留宿别人的想法渐渐变得很自然,当我搬去旧金山的时候,I brought the airbed with me.我带上了我的气垫床。So now its two years later. Im unemployed, Im almost broke, my roommate moves out, and then the rent goes up.两年之后,我失业了,几乎身无分文,我的室友搬走了,要付的租金也变多了。And then I learn theres a design conference coming to town, and all the hotels are sold out.之后我听说,镇上要开一个设计研讨会,但是所有的宾馆都被订满了。And Ive always believed that turning fear into fun is the gift of creativity.我一直坚信,把恐惧变成乐趣是创造力给予我们的礼物。So heres what I pitch my best friend and my new roommate Brian Chesky:所以我马上开始拉拢我最好的朋友,也是我的新室友Brian Chesky:;Brian, thought of a way to make a few bucks -- turning our place into designers bed and breakfast,“Brian,我想到了个挣零花钱的法子--把我们的住所改造成;设计者之家;这么个地方,offering young designers who come to town a place to crash, complete with wireless Internet,为匆忙来镇上开会的年轻设计师提供一个有无线网、a small desk space, sleeping mat, and breakfast each morning. Ha!;小桌子、睡垫和每日早餐的地方。不错吧!”We built a basic website and Airbed and Breakfast was born.我们建了一个很简易的网页,“气垫床与早餐”就这样诞生了。Three lucky guests got to stay on a 20-dollar airbed on the hardwood floor. But they loved it, and so did we.三个幸运的客人得以靠硬木地板上的廉价气垫床过夜。不过他们很满意,我们也是。I swear, the ham and Swiss cheese omelets we made tasted totally different because we made them for our guests.我发誓,我们为客人准备的瑞士奶酪蛋卷味道绝对与众不同,因为是专门为客人准备的。We took them on adventures around the city,我们还带他们在城里兜风,and when we said goodbye to the last guest, the door latch clicked, Brian and I just stared at each other.当我们向最后一个客人道别、锁好门之后,Brian和我对视了一下,彼此心照不宣。Did we just discover it was possible to make friends while also making rent?我们是不是发现了一个既能交朋友,又能收租金的好生意?The wheels had started to turn. My old roommate, Nate Blecharczyk, joined as engineering co-founder.命运的轮子开始转动了。我的旧室友,NateBlecharcyzk加入了我们,成为了工程方面的共同创始人。And we buckled down to see if we could turn this into a business.之后我们开始努力工作,看看是否能以此成就大业。Heres what we pitched investors: ;We want to build a website这是我们向投资者传达的讯息:“我们想建立一个这样的网站,where people publicly post pictures of their most intimate spaces, their bedrooms, the bathrooms让人们可以把他们最私密空间的照片,比如卧室和卫生间the kinds of rooms you usually keep closed when people come over.这种别人来访时不方便进入的空间--发布到网站上。And then, over the Internet, theyre going to invite complete strangers to come sleep in their homes.然后,通过网络,他们还可以邀请陌生人在家里暂住。Its going to be huge!;这会是个巨大的市场!”We sat back, and we waited for the rocket ship to blast off. It did not.于是我们开始像等火箭升空一样,坐等我们的事业蓬勃发展。但是,天不遂人愿。No one in their right minds would invest in a service that allows strangers to sleep in peoples homes. Why?没有人认为让陌生人住在自己家里是个靠谱的主意,我们也没有获得任何投资。为什么?Because weve all been taught as kids, strangers equal danger.因为我们从小就被教导,陌生人危险。Now, when youre faced with a problem, you fall back on what you know, and all we really knew was design.当你遇到问题时,往往会回想你所了解的东西,而我们所了解的,就只有设计。In art school, you learn that design is much more than the look and feel of something -- its the whole experience.在艺术学校里,你会学到,设计不仅仅关乎外表和感觉--而是整体的体验。We learned to do that for objects, but here,我们在学校学的是物品设计,但是在这里,we were aiming to build Olympic trust between people who had never met.我们的目标是要让素未谋面的人们彼此产生奥林匹克式的信任。Could design make that happen? Is it possible to design for trust?设计能做到这一点吗?设计可能会带来“信任”吗?I want to give you a sense of the flavor of trust that we were aiming to achieve.我想带你们体验一下我们所要实现的“信任”的感觉。Ive got a 30-second experiment that will push you past your comfort zone.我会进行一个三十秒的实验,会把你们推出孰悉的舒适区。If youre up for it, give me a thumbs-up. OK, I need you to take out your phones.如果你准备好了,请竖起你的大拇指!好,我需要各位拿出你们的手机。Now that you have your phone out, Id like you to unlock your phone.手机都拿出来了吧,现在请把手机解锁,Now hand your unlocked phone to the person on your left.现在请把你解锁后的手机递给你左手边的人。That tiny sense of panic youre feeling right now现在你们正感觉到的小小的不安is exactly how hosts feel the first time they open their home.就是那些提供住宿的人第一次敞开家门的感觉。Because the only thing more personal than your phone is your home.因为能比你的手机更私密的就是你家了。People dont just see your messages, they see your bedroom, your kitchen, your toilet.人们不仅会看到你的短信,还会看到你的卧室,你的厨房,你的卫生间。Now, how does it feel holding someones unlocked phone? Most of us feel really responsible.现在,拿着别人解锁的手机感觉如何?我们大多数人都会本能地生出一丝责任感。Thats how most guests feel when they stay in a home.这就是大部分房客在住宿时的感觉。And its because of this that our company can even exist. By the way, whos holding Al Gores phone?这也是为什么我们的公司到现在仍然存在的原因。顺便问一句,你们谁拿到了Al Gore的手机?Would you tell Twitter hes running for President?你能在推特上发一下,他准备要参选总统了吗?OK, you can hand your phones back now.好了,现在你们可以换回手机了。So now that youve experienced the kind of trust challenge we were facing,那么各位已经体验了我们曾经面对过的信任方面的挑战,Id love to share a few discoveries weve made along the way.我十分愿意通过这种方式来分享我们的发现。What if we changed one small thing about the design of that experiment?如果我们对这次实验的设计进行一个小改动呢?What if your neighbor had introduced themselves first, with their name,如果这次实验是你的邻居首先介绍他们自己,他们的名字,where theyre from, the name of their kids or their dog?从哪儿来,他们的孩子,或者小的名字呢?Imagine that they had 150 reviews of people saying, ;Theyre great at holding unlocked phones!;想象一下,随后有150个人评价了他们,“他们很擅长拿着解锁的手机!”Now how would you feel about handing your phone over?现在你们觉得把手机交出去感觉怎么样?It turns out, a well-designed reputation system is key for building trust.事实明,一个精心设计的信誉体系是建立信任的关键。And we didnt actually get it right the first time. Its hard for people to leave bad reviews.我们也并不是初次就成功了。要让人们留下负面的其实挺难的。Eventually, we learned to wait until both guests and hosts left the review before we reveal them.最终,我们学到了在展示所有的信息之前,需要先等待房东与房客都留下。Now, heres a discovery we made just last week. We did a joint study with Stanford,我们上周才发现一件事。我们与斯坦福大学合作进行合作,where we looked at peoples willingness to trust someone based on how similar they are in age, location and geography.以年龄、居住地和地理环境相似度为基础,调查了人们对其他人的信任程度。The research showed, not surprisingly, we prefer people who are like us.研究得出了一个意料之中的结果,我们更喜欢与我们相似的人。The more different somebody is, the less we trust them. Now, thats a natural social bias.与我们差异越大的人,我们越是不信任他们。这是一种与生俱来的社会偏见。But whats interesting is what happens when you add reputation into the mix, in this case, with reviews.不过有趣的是,当你把信誉放在一起考虑的时候会发生什么,在这里也就是评价。Now, if youve got less than three reviews, nothing changes.如果你得到的评价少于三条,什么都不会改变。But if youve got more than 10, everything changes. High reputation beats high similarity.但是如果你得到超过10条评价,所有事情就会发生变化。这时候,高的信誉评价就会比高相似度更可信。The right design can actually help us overcome one of our most deeply rooted biases.正确的设计可以帮助我们克扎根心底的认知偏差。Now we also learned that building the right amount of trust takes the right amount of disclosure.我们也发现要想得到多少信任,就得公开多少我们自己的信息。This is what happens when a guest first messages a host.接下来就是房客第一次发信息给房东时的情况。If you share too little, like, ;Yo,; acceptance rates go down.如果你自我介绍得太少,比如,“呦,”那么你的接受率就会下降。And if you share too much, like, ;Im having issues with my mother,; acceptance rates also go down.如果你说太多,比如,“我跟我妈闹翻了,”接受率也会走低。But theres a zone thats just right, like, ;Love the artwork in your place. Coming for vacation with my family.;不过也是有适当的表达,比如,“喜欢你房间的艺术品,打算和家人一起去度假。”So how do we design for just the right amount of disclosure?那么,要如何确定怎样才是适当的表达呢?We use the size of the box to suggest the right length, and we guide them with prompts to encourage sharing.我们通过消息盒子的大小来建议房客合适的字数,而且我们还适度地引导并鼓励他们分享。We bet our whole company on the hope that, with the right design,我们通过好的设计,把整个公司都押在这样一个希望上,people would be willing to overcome the stranger-danger bias.人们愿意克畏惧陌生人的偏见。What we didnt realize is just how many people were y and waiting to put the bias aside.但是我们并没有意识到到底有多少人已经准备好去克这种偏见了。This is a graph that shows our rate of adoption. Theres three things happening here.这是我们订单接受率的图表。这张图表说明了三件事。The first, an unbelievable amount of luck. The second is the efforts of our team.第一,运气好得难以置信。第二,这是我们团队努力的成果。And third is the existence of a previously unsatisfied need. Now, things have been going pretty well.第三,我们之前所做的还并不完全令人满意。现在,事情正在越变越好。Obviously, there are times when things dont work out.但不可否认,我们也出过一些问题。Guests have thrown unauthorized parties and trashed homes. Hosts have left guests stranded in the rain.比如客人不经主人同意举办派对,并且把家里弄得一团糟。还有,房客滞留在雨中无法入住,房东却坐视不管。In the early days, I was customer service, and those calls came right to my cell phone.在事业早期,我也承担过工作,这些电话一个接一个打到我的手机。I was at the front lines of trust breaking.我处在信任破裂的最前线。And theres nothing worse than those calls, it hurts to even think about them.实在是没什么要比这些电话更糟了,任何时候想起来都会觉得心痛。And the disappointment in the sound of someones voice was and, I would say,电话那头的声音透露出的失望,说实话,still is our single greatest motivator to keep improving.始终都是我们不停改进的最大动力。Thankfully, out of the 123 million nights weve ever hosted,感谢上帝,在我们为1.23亿个客户安排了住宿之后,less than a fraction of a percent have been problematic.解决不了的问题越来越少了。Turns out, people are justified in their trust.这也说明人们调整了他们关于信任的态度。And when trust works out right, it can be absolutely magical.而信任一旦上了正确的轨道,不可思议的事情就会发生。We had a guest stay with a host in Uruguay, and he suffered a heart attack.我们曾经有一个房客在乌拉圭住宿的时候,遭遇了突发的心脏病。The host rushed him to the hospital. They donated their own blood for his operation.房东把他送到医院急救,还为他的手术献了血。Let me you his review. ;Excellent house for sedentary travelers prone to myocardial infarctions.让我向各位读一读他的评价:“这是一间对需要久坐,容易心肌梗塞的旅行者来说极好的房子。The area is beautiful and has direct access to the best hospitals.这个区域环境优美,而且有一条直通顶级医院的道路。Javier and Alejandra instantly become guardian angels who will save your life without even knowing you.Javier和Alejandra是那种就算不认识你也会立刻救你命的守护天使。They will rush you to the hospital in their own car while youre dying当你快要不行了的时候,他们会急忙开车带你去医院急救,and stay in the waiting room while the doctors give you a bypass.在你做搭桥手术的时候他们也会在等候室等着你。They dont want you to feel lonely, they bring you books to .他们不想让你感到孤独,还会带书来给你读。And they let you stay at their house extra nights without charging you. Highly recommended!;并且之后他们还会多留你几晚并且不收一分钱。强力推荐!”Of course, not every stay is like that.当然,并不是所有人住宿时都会发生这样的事情。But this connection beyond the transaction is exactly what the sharing economy is aiming for.但是,这种超越交易的联系就是“分享经济”要达到的目标。Now, when I heard that term, I have to admit, it tripped me up.当我听到这个词的时候,我得承认,我的思路真的有点跟不上。How do sharing and transactions go together? So lets be clear; it is about commerce.如何把分享和交易绑到一起?所以让我们来理清这件事;这与商业有关。But if you just called it the rental economy, it would be incomplete.不过,如果你只是把这叫做“房租经济”,还不算是很完整的定义。The sharing economy is commerce with the promise of human connection.“分享经济”是人们交流承诺的商业行为。People share a part of themselves, and that changes everything.人们把自己的一部分分享出来,之后一切就改变了。You know how most travel today is, like, I think of it like fast food大家知道,现在的旅行就像,我想就像快餐its efficient and consistent, at the cost of local and authentic.高效而且大同小异,但却牺牲了当地的风土人情。What if travel were like a magnificent buffet of local experiences?如果旅行更像是当地风味的豪华自助餐呢?What if anywhere you visited, there was a central marketplace of locals如果你在每个游览的地方,都能在当地中心集市里offering to get you thoroughly drunk on a pub crawl in neighborhoods you didnt even know existed.一个你完全不认识社区酒吧喝到酩酊大醉。Or learning to cook from the chef of a five-star restaurant?或者是从一个五星级酒店的大厨那里学做菜?Today, homes are designed around the idea of privacy and separation.现如今,房子的设计理念都以私隐和分隔为主。What if homes were designed to be shared from the ground up?要是房子的设计从一开始就融入了分享的概念会怎么样呢?What would that look like? What if cities embraced a culture of sharing?看起来会如何呢?如果城市拥抱了分享的文化呢?I see a future of shared cities that bring us community and connection instead of isolation and separation.我可以预见到,未来这些分享的城市会为我们带来更多的共同点和联系,而不是孤独与分离。In South Korea, in the city of Seoul, theyve actually even started this.在韩国首尔这个城市,人们已经着手开始行动了。Theyve repurposed hundreds of government parking spots to be shared by residents.他们把数以百计的政府停车位改造之后分享给市民们使用。Theyre connecting students who need a place to live with empty-nesters who have extra rooms.他们将需要住宿的学生与有空房间的房东联系起来。And theyve started an incubator to help fund the next generation of sharing economy start-ups.他们还设立了孵化器,为下一代“分享经济”的初创公司提供资金持。Tonight, just on our service, 785,000 people in 191 countries今晚,仅仅通过我们的务平台,就有来自191个国家的78.5万人,will either stay in a strangers home or welcome one into theirs.要么会留宿在陌生人家里,要么是在准备欢迎陌生人来家里住。Clearly, its not as crazy as we were taught.很明显,事实并没有我们小时候被教育得那么夸张。We didnt invent anything new. Hospitality has been around forever.我们其实并没有发明什么新的东西。热情好客也是传统美德。Theres been many other websites like ours. So, why did ours eventually take off?甚至也有很多和我们差不多的网站。但是为什么我们最后会越做越大?Luck and timing aside, Ive learned that you can take the components of trust, and you can design for that.抛开运气与时机的原因,我想我们在这里学到的很重要的一点就是信任,并且通过设计来实现它。Design can overcome our most deeply rooted stranger-danger bias. And thats amazing to me.设计可以帮我们克根植于内心的陌生等于危险的偏见。这一点让我很受鼓舞。It blows my mind. I think about this every time I see a red Miata go by.也让我觉得耳目一新。每次看到红色马自达驶过,我都会想到这些。Now, we know design wont solve all the worlds problems.现在,我们知道设计不能解决世界上所有的难题。But if it can help out with this one, if it can make a dent in this,但是如果能帮助我们解决这件事,能让这件事取得初步的进展,it makes me wonder, what else can we design for next? Thank you.这不禁让我想到,接下来我们还能设计些什么呢?谢谢!201707/517161

Giant salamanders, the worlds largest amphibian, almost two metres long.大鲵——世界上最大的两栖动物,几乎能长到2米长Theyre the only large predator in these icy waters. They begin their hunt at night.它们是这些冰水中唯一的大型掠食动物。夜幕降临,它们开始捕猎These salamanders have an exceptionally slow metabolism.大鲵的新陈代谢十分缓慢Living up to 80 years, they grow into giants.它们能活80多年,因此长得十分巨大The fish they hunt are scarce and salamanders have poor eyesight.可供大鲵捕食的鱼非常稀少,而且它们的视力也很差But sensory nodes on their head and body detect the slightest changes in water pressure.可是它们头上和身上的感官突起能觉察出最轻微的水压变化Free from competition, these giants can dine alone.由于没有竞争,这些大家伙得以独自享用美食Pickings are usually thin for the salamanders,大鲵的收获通常都比较少but every year some of the worlds high rivers are crowded by millions of visitors.而世界上的高山河流每年都将迎接成千上万的来访者The salmon have arrived. This is the worlds largest freshwater fish migration.鲑鱼来了。这是世界上规模最大的淡水鱼洄游Across the northern hemisphere, salmon, returning from the ocean to their spawning grounds,鲑鱼穿越整个北半球,从海洋回到它们的产卵地battle their way for hundreds of miles upstream.奋力逆流而上数百英里Up here there are fewer predators to eat their eggs and fry.只因上游很少有捕食鱼卵和鱼苗的掠食者。201705/508272

At number 15,its a magic moment with creating fire.第15名 是我钻木取火的魔法时刻Chihuahuan Desert, Western Texas,I was setting up camp for the night.在德克萨斯州西部的奇瓦瓦沙漠里 我当时在搭晚上睡觉的帐篷Look, theres a whole cave up here.看呐 这有一个大洞窟My plan was to build a fire using an ancient survival technique,the hand drill.我计划用一种古老的方式 来生一个火堆 钻木取火No matches, no flints.Just two bits of wood.没有火柴 没有打火石 只有两条小木棍To start a fire in any environment without matches is a tough undertaking.在任何没有火柴的情况下生火 是个很艰难的过程Okay, thats the rough shape of it,and then what you want is just a tiny, little pinch of sand.好的 雏形出来了 接下来要做的就是要加一点点沙子And thats gonna add a little bit more friction.这样一来就能增加一点擦力It does take, you know,a good level of skill and craftsmanship.那的确很... 考验一个人的手艺 是技术活And what you want is a continuous plume of smoke coming from the ember pan,我们想要的效果呢 就是这个灰烬堆里 冒出缕缕青烟and then you know you got the potential to make fire.Come on.那个时候 你离生火 就不远了 给点力啊You do see it happening. You do the right techniques.真的能见到的 只要你手法正确Its - its wonderful, wonderful to watch.Super gently with this, just tip that in.就能见到那个美好而神奇的场面 一定要慢慢来 小心地把它倒进来And what you want to do is tip it like this so it stays as one ember.接下来要做的就是 这样把它堆起来 弄成一团灰尽Okay, there we go.However many times you do it,nothing beats that feeling of creating fire.好了 成功了 无论你经历过多少次 成功生火的那种愉悦是无可替代的201612/482751

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