楼主:爱常识 时间:2017年10月20日 09:28:21 点击:0 回复:0
Business.商业。Business-process outsourcing业务流程外包At the front of the back office走在后台务的前沿How the Philippines beat India in call centres菲律宾的呼叫中心是怎样打败印度的ITS midnight in Manila, and the capital is just waking up to the start of another working day. At the Worldwide Corporate Centre office block, thousands of young Filipinos are crowding into endless open-plan offices. Once seated, they quickly start answering the questions and calming the frustrations of vexed American consumers beginning their own day on the other side of the Pacific Ocean.在马尼拉(菲律宾首都)的午夜12点,这座首都城市正慢慢步入第二天工作日。此时世界管理中心的办公大楼里,数千名菲律宾年轻人涌入无数的开放式办公室。一坐下,他们就迅速开始工作,对太平洋彼岸正开始新的一天的愤怒的美国消费者提出的咨询做出回答,并安抚他们的情绪。These Filipinos are call-centre workers. To outsiders it is hardly a glamorous profession, yet despite the antisocial hours these men and women have every reason to be as well-motivated and cheerful as they seem. They are well paid and know that they work at the heart of their countrys most dynamic industry.这些菲律宾人都是呼叫中心的员工。在外人看来,这不算是一个光鲜的职业,然而,尽管他们工作时间错乱,这些男男女女也有充分的理由可以像他们看上去的那么积极乐观。因为他们有很好的收入,并且知道他们在自己国家最有活力的行业中心工作。The rise of what is known as business-process outsourcing (BPO) in the Philippines has been nothing short of phenomenal. The very first calls were taken in 1997; today the sector employs 638,000 people and enjoys revenues of billion, about 5% of the countrys GDP. Last year the Philippines even overtook India, long the biggest call-centre operator in the world, in ;voice-related services;. The country now employs about 400,000 people at call centres, India only 350,000.在菲律宾,业务流程外包的这一行业的崛起已经成为一种现象了。首次出现是在1997年;现在这个行业员工达到638,000人,营业总额达到110亿美元,约占全国GDP的5%。去年,菲律宾人在话务务上,超越了长期以来全球最大的印度呼叫运营机构。现在,菲律宾呼叫中心有400,000名雇员,而印度只有350,000名。The South-East Asian upstart (population 101m) is unlikely ever to surpass the South Asian behemoth (1.2 billion) across the entire range of outsourcing offerings, which also include all kinds of information-technology services. Yet given the extraordinary growth so far it is hard to gainsay the Philippines own projection that its BPO industry could add another 700,000 or so jobs by 2016 and generate revenues of billion. At that point, the industry would make up nearly a tenth of GDP and be bigger in value than the remittances from the 10m Filipinos working overseas.虽然,东南亚菲律宾的新贵(人数达到101,000,000)可能永远不能通过提供包括各种信息技术务在内的全方位外包务超过南亚的印度巨头(12亿)。然而,鉴于到目前为止的非凡增长,很难否认菲律宾对业务流程外包行业的规划,预计在2016年再增加700,000个工作岗位,收入达到250亿美元。到那时,整个行业的营业额将占全国GDP的十分之一,产值将超过来自1千万菲律宾海外工作者的汇款。As in the call-centre business so far, some of these new jobs will come at the expense of India. Yet Indias relationship with the Philippines in back-office work is more complex than the numbers suggest.到目前为止,呼叫中心的一些新的就业机会是和印度竞争得来的。而印度和菲律宾在后台业务工作上的关系也不仅仅只是数量上的对比这么简单。The main reason for the success of the Philippine call centres is that workers speak English with a neutral accent and are familiar with American idioms—which is exactly what their American customers want. Of these, many have taken to complaining bitterly about Indian accents (which no amount of ;voice neutralisation; coaching seems to have overcome). As a result, the Indian firms themselves have been helping to move jobs to the Philippines by setting up call centres in Manila and other parts of the country. Infosys and Wipro, as well as scores of other Indian firms, now have substantial operations there. And they arent drawn to Manila by cheap labour. Wages in the Philippines are slightly higher than in India since the Filipino accent commands a premium.菲律宾呼叫中心成功的主要原因是它的工作人员能说不带地方口音的英文还能使用类似的美国习语——这恰恰是美国客户需要的。对于这些问题,很多人曾痛苦的抱怨印度口音(无论开展多少次;去除口音;训练,都没法克印度口音)。结果,印度公司因为他们自己的不足使得他们把工作机会给了菲律宾马尼拉以及其他地区设立的呼叫中心。现在印孚瑟斯(Infosys)和威普罗(Wipro),以及其他同等级的印度公司,也有大量的业务在那。而且他们并不是被马尼拉的廉价劳动力吸引过去的。在菲律宾,因为员工的口音要求,需要付额外的费用,他们的工资比印度人还要高一些。It also helps that the country has a big pool of well-educated workers. The million or so Filipinos who graduate every year have few other options to choose from, besides emigrating. And working in a call centre is considered a middle-class job (new recruits start at 0 a month).它还为一大批受过良好教育的菲律宾工作者提供了就业机会。每年有大约一百万的菲律宾毕业生除了移民没有什么可以选择的工作。而且在呼叫中心提供的是相当于中等阶层的工作(新员工一开始每月有470美元的收入)。The big question is whether the Philippine BPO industry, having conquered the call-centre market, can now move up the value chain. To keep growing rapidly-and profitably-it needs to capture some of the more sophisticated back-office jobs, such as those processing insurance claims and conducting due diligence. In these businesses, called knowledge-process outsourcing and legal-process outsourcing, India still rules supreme.菲律宾业务流程外包行业已经征了呼叫中心市场,现在的大问题是它是否能提升企业价值链。要保持快速并且有利的增长,它需要抓住一些更复杂的后台业务,例如一些保险索赔和尽职调查。这些业务被称为知识流程外包和法律流程外包,在这方面印度仍处于领先地位。Integreon offers a glimpse of what the future may hold. The firm occupies just a few discreet, very secure offices. It employs 300 people in Manila, 40 of them lawyers who help multinational law firms with litigation. Familiarity with America helps. ;It makes it very easy for us to do legal research for American firms,; says Benjamin Romualdez, the firms country manager.让我们看看Integreon公司将会发生些什么。这个公司仅仅只占用了几个不起眼的安全的办公室。他在马尼拉有300名雇员,其中40人是律师,帮助跨国的律师事务所进行诉讼。精通美国诉讼。;它让我们能够轻松的对美国的公司进行法律研究,;该公司的区域经理Benjamin Romualdez说。This sort of operation is new in Manila, but Mr Romualdez expects that he can find the skilled workers to double his workforce over five years. Western banks have also discovered the Philippines. JPMorgan Chase now has over 25,000 workers on its own payroll in the country, many of whom do much more than answering phones. The Philippines is set to compete with India across the BPO board.这类机构在马尼拉还是新事物,但是Romualdez先生希望他能找到技术熟练的员工在未来的五年加倍努力。西方也发现了菲律宾。现在,根大通已经有25,000名这个国家的雇员,他们中的许多人不仅仅只是负责接电话的工作。菲律宾将在BPO峰会上与印度竞争。 /201209/199362Mud from the ancient riverbanks is good for building nests.古老河岸边的泥浆有利于筑巢。lt also holds more evidence that will help us to reconstruct the ice age past.很多据表明,这将帮助我们重现过去的冰河世纪。Every now and then,new clues surface, hinting at what else might lie beneath.新的线索表面有时暗示着其他可能深藏的东西。ln this dried-up pond in South Dakota, known as Hot Springs, scientists unearthed great piles of bones.在被称为温泉的南达科达州干涸的池塘边,科学家发掘了成堆的骨头。What kind of creature died here? The bones reveal it stood four metres tall and weighed more than 10 tonnes.什么生物死在这里?骨头揭示了它有四米高,重达10吨。Theres nothing fitting that description living here today.今天没有这样大小的生物存在。Heres the give-away, a pair of tusks two metres long, the trademark of a Columbian mammoth, the biggest animal to roam the ice age plains.这是赠品,一对两米长的象牙,一个哥伦比亚猛犸象的商标,冰河时代的平原上最大的动物。By comparing it to elephants in Africa today, can we shed light on how those ice age elephants lived and what they lived on?和今天的非洲象相比,我们能够解释冰河时期的大象生活和它们如何生活的吗?These are mammoth teeth, huge molars the size of bricks.这些是猛犸象的牙齿,巨大的臼齿和砖块差不多大。They have deep ridges very similar to those of modern elephants, suggesting mammoths, too, survived by grinding vast amounts of grass.它们有深深的脊,和现代大象十分相似,表明猛犸象也靠磨大量的草为生。Plant fragments trapped between the ridges can still be identified today.今天还能看见在脊骨中间的残留的植物碎片。Thousands of years after this mammoth died, we know exactly what it ate for its last meal.在猛犸象死了,几千年之后,我们很明确地知道它的最后一餐吃的是什么。Grass is a tough, abrasive food. Even with protective enamel ridges, these teeth would gradually have worn down.草是强硬和需要研磨的食物。即使是有保护釉质的脊,这些牙齿也会逐渐被磨损。But just like modern elephants, the mammoths had evolved a way to deal with this.但是如同现代象一样,猛犸象进化到可以处理这一切。As one set of teeth was eroded, another grew up to take its place.一套牙齿被侵蚀了,新的一套又出现了。The evidence suggests they had six sets in all, to last a lifetime, up to 60 years.据表明在它们60多年的人生中,有六套牙齿。The South Dakota mammoth didnt make it to old age and it was not alone.南达科他州的猛犸象没能活到晚年,它并不孤独。The site turned out to be a mammoth graveyard, hiding more than 50 skeletons, all from animals in their prime.这片遗址变成了猛犸象的墓地,有超过50具骨骼在此,都是处于它们的鼎盛时期。Theres no sign they were killed by hunters, so how did so many healthy mammoths die?没有迹象表明它们被猎人杀害,这么多健康的猛犸象是怎么死的呢?201303/232538We live amongst 200 billion stars, in the Milky Way galaxy, a vast cosmic city. The earth is located in a quiet neighborhood, in a safe neck of the woods. But what if we could take our planets on a journey through the galaxy? What wonders would be see? What displays of power? What unimaginable forces? What exquisite beauty? What if we could travel through time and space to understand how our galaxy came to be and how it would end? What if we could travel on the ultimate cosmic trip and journey through the Milky Way?我们生活在系2000亿颗恒星其中一个广阔的宇宙的城市。地球坐落在这一地区安静的街区。但是如果我们的行星来一次穿越系的旅行如何?将会看到什么奇迹吗?会有什么不可思议的事情发生?有不可思议的力量吗?如果我们能穿越时间和空间来了解我们的星系的诞生和结束会怎样呢?如果我们可以穿越系来次最终宇宙旅行如何?Many of us live in large cities, cities which dazzle with millions of lights. But at night, those bright lights conceal something truly amazing. Turn them all off and we are greeted with the spectacular sight---a city in the sky.我们许多人都住在大城市,城市有数以百万计的眩光的灯。但是在晚上,那些明亮的灯光掩饰着令人叹为观止的景象。把灯全部关掉后,我们看到了;;一个壮观的天空之城。;What is this? Well, its the Milky Way. This is our galaxy. Well, if you like, you could think of the galaxy is a, a city of stars.;;这是什么?嗯,其实是。这是我们的星系。好吧,如果你愿意的话,你可以认为星系是一个,一个星星城市。;Our galaxy, the Milky Way, contains 200 billion stars, of which our sun is just one. Its a vast cosmic city waiting for us to explore.我们的星系,系,包含2000亿颗恒星,我们的太阳仅是其中一个。这是等着我们去探索的一个广阔的宇宙城市。注:听力文本来源于普特201202/172944

Books and Arts; Book Review;The English gentry;Happy landings;文艺;书评;英国乡绅;一路顺风;The gentry: story of the English. By Adam Nicolson.《乡绅:英国的故事》,亚当·尼克森著。Adam Nicolson has written many books on history and the countryside, including two about his familys properties at opposite ends of the British Isles, Sissinghurst Castle in Kent and the Shiant Isles in the Outer Hebrides. Now he has turned his attention to the class to which his family can be said to belong. His grandmother, Vita Sackville-West, was unashamedly a member of the aristocracy but Mr Nicolson states that the gentry has always been composed of “Gentle Ungentles”, younger sons and daughters of old families who have declined into the gentry, and “Ungentle Gentles”, people of more humble origin who through their ability and achievements have advanced up the social ladder.亚当·尼克森写过很多以历史和农村为题材的著作,其中包括介绍他家位于不列颠群岛两端的两处房产:肯特州的悉心赫斯特城堡和外赫布里斯群岛的西恩特群岛。现在他已经将注意力转向他家族所在的阶层。他的祖母,维塔·萨克维尔·维斯特,是一位生活无所顾忌贵族。 但是尼克森指出乡绅阶层是由两种人组成的:“出身绅士的平民”,他们出身于已退变为乡绅阶层的旧式家族的年轻一代;“出身平民的绅士”,也就是那些出身卑微,但是凭借自己的能力和成就挤入上层社会的人。Today the term “gentry” in Britain evokes “the introductory chat at an upper-middle-class dinner party—how did you get here, who do you know, how is Aletheia?” It suggests a cosy, genteel, exclusive and somewhat smug world in which background and family are deemed more important than individual qualities. It is also often preceded by the word “landed”. The launch of “Burkes Landed Gentry”, an encyclopedic tome first published in 1826, is partly responsible for this (though the ownership of land ceased to be a requirement for a family to appear in the book as long ago as the 1920s). But the principal reason is that the story of the gentry is all “about Land”.如今在英国“乡绅”这个词让人想到的就是“在一个上流社会的晚宴上开始闲聊的前奏——你怎么过来的啊?你认识谁呢?阿莱西娅最近可好呀?”这表明在这个亲切、高雅、排外,甚至几分自鸣得意的阶层里,一个人的背景和出身比他的品性更为重要。;乡绅;的前面也经常会加上“有土地的”这个词。这个词(即 landed gentry)的普及有一部份原因归功于1826年初版的百科全书式大本书《伯克乡绅名录》。(尽管早在上世纪二十年代,拥有土地便不再是一个家庭载入史册的必要条件)。但其主要原因在于所有关于乡绅的故事都和“土地”密不可分。Mr Nicolson has taken 12 families who are scattered all over England (strictly speaking, one is in Wales), and, using letters, diaries and legal documents, told their stories at a particular date and crisis in their existence. He has produced a wonderful portrait of England and the families that were its bedrock. The tale begins 600 years ago with the Plumptons, caught up in the Wars of the Roses, and concludes with the Cliffords, who have owned and farmed the same corner of Gloucestershire for almost 1,000 years. Whereas the core values of grace, enterprise and chivalry were crucial to the gentrys idea of themselves, Mr Nicolson makes it clear that money and conflict were as important as blood and family. The gentry were a flexible class and lived a life of struggle and competition. There was no certainty. Survival was what mattered and there was much hedging of bets.尼克森从分布在英格兰各个地方(严格说,有一个在威尔士)的十二个家族着手,并利用相关的信件、日记、和法律文书,讲述他们某段时间里的故事和生活中的危机。他描绘英国壮丽的景象,而这些家庭则构成了英国的牢固基础。故事从在600年前玫瑰战争中没落的Plumpton家族说起,到在格洛斯特郡拥有同一处土地并耕作1000年之久的Clifford家族结束。虽然乡绅阶级自认一些例如优雅,进取和骑士风度这样的核心价值是他们的重要特点,尼克森明确指出钱、斗争同血缘、家庭一样重要。乡绅阶层善于适应新的环境,他们的生活中无处不乏竞争和奋斗。生活没有确定性。生存下来才是关键,他们擅于骑墙,确保自己不吃亏。At its best the gentrys idea of goodness and civilisation was attached to a particular place and an “interfolding of people, land, animals, food, housing and hospitality”. A sense of order, sociability and well-being was expressed through landscape. Everything depended on an underpinning of money and a connection with London and Westminster was generally essential to prosperity. Many of the gentry were members of the House of Commons. Survival was often contingent on being on the “right” side during the Wars of the Roses, at the time of the Reformation, through the upheavals of the 17th century. In the 1940s Sir Richard Acland, a Christian socialist, made over the bulk of his large estate in Devon to the National Trust, but he was an exception. Not everyone was as ruthless as Henry Lascelles, who in the 1700s amassed a fortune through sugar plantations in Barbados and the exploitation of African slaves; but in general the story is of “the political and economic dominance of a…cannily self-renewing class”.只有依托于某个特定的氛围中,在土地,房屋,客人,动物,食物,宴会交相辉映的背景下,才能看到绅士文明高贵的一面。绅士阶层的秩序感、社会感和幸福感也是通过对自然景观的描述来表现。一切以钱为基础,同伦敦、威斯敏斯特(伦敦议会所在地)有关的事情通常对繁荣发展都至关重要。许多乡绅都是下议院的议员。在玫瑰战争、宗教改革、以及十七世纪动荡期,生存往往取决于站对立场。上世纪四十年代,基督教社会主义党人Richard Acland将自己大部分土地转让给国民信托组织,这在当时独一无二。十八世纪,Henry Lascelles靠在巴巴多斯的蔗糖种植园和剥削非奴积累大量财富,但并不是每个人都像他一样冷酷无情。但总体来说,这是关于这样一个精明谨慎、自我革新的阶层如何影响政治和经济的故事。In tracing the rise and fall of this ruling class, Mr Nicolson has some fascinating stories to tell, and he tells them well, not least that of the Capels, who were forced by penury to live abroad and found themselves in Brussels on the eve of the battle of Waterloo. He concludes that competition, unkindness and dominance always underlay the beautiful sense of community which the gentry world embodied. But that is life: it is “a struggle and community is political”.随着统治阶层的兴亡更迭,尼克森讲述了一些引人入胜的故事,而且他说得恰到好处,尤其是说到Capel家族因为贫穷被迫流亡海外,最终在滑铁卢战争前夕到达布鲁塞尔。乡绅所象征的优雅阶级表面之下是由激烈竞争、不近人情、恃强凌弱这些特质所撑的。但这就是人生,是一次努力奋斗,人聚集在一起就是政治。 /201303/229873

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