原标题: 赣州淋病的医院网上资讯
The NHS国民健康保险制度Health reform in a cold climate遇冷的医改The governments reforms to the NHS are viewed as its biggest failure. They are better than that政府医改被指其最大败笔。“盛名”之下其实难副“WITH the Conservatives there will be no more of the tiresome, meddlesome, top-down restructures that have dominated the last decade of the NHS.” So said David Cameron in , and many were convinced. Voters made Mr Cameron prime minister in2010 inpart because the Conservative Party cut into Labours lead on health care, which it had enjoyed almost since it founded the NHS in 1948. The Tories quickly squandered their advantage. But their legacy will be better than they seem to believe.“有了保守党,NHS(National Health Service 英国国民健康保险制度)近十年主要的恼人、好事、专制的医疗结构会一扫而光”,这是英国首相卡梅伦在年说过的话,且广受信。2010年,选民把戴维·卡梅伦选为首相,有部分原因是因为保守党插手了工党主导的医疗保健项目,这个项目几乎自从1948年设立了NHS就赞誉颇多。然而保守党很快就把优势糟蹋一空。但“遗产”比他们大部分人认为的要丰厚。In spite of his promise, Mr Camerons Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition government embarked on reforms that would reshape the NHS from the top down. The immense Health and Social Care Act of 2012 increased competition, gave the service greater autonomy and put more decisions about the purchase of care in the hands of local doctors, known inBritainas general practitioners, or GPs. The changes were so big that they could be seen from space, quipped Sir David Nicholson, the departing head of the NHS.即便是承诺在前,卡梅伦领导的保守党和自由民主党联合政府着意的改革仍将自上而下的改造NHS。2012年,声势浩大的医疗社会保障法案使竞争更加激烈,给医疗务业更大的自主权,以及把决定医疗开销的权利交由本地医生掌握,这类医生在英国被称为全科医生,简称全医。NHS前主管戴维·尼克尔森爵士曾调侃,这么大的变革,在太空都能看到。The government soon came to wish they would disappear. The reforms were never popular with a bemused public. Doctors groups argued they would lead to a more fragmented and privatised system. Others worried that GPs would be incapable of commissioning care. Ed Miliband, Labours leader, dubbed the reforms Mr Camerons “poll tax”, a reference to the policy that helped fell Margaret Thatcher. In this case it was Andrew Lansley, the health secretary, who fell. Less than six months after his reforms were passed, Mr Lansley was replaced by Jeremy Hunt, who talks about them as little as possible.很快,政府就希望这些变革能尽快消失。迷惑的民众并不欢迎这些改革。医生群体称,这个权利会让他们最终导致一个更加零碎化、私有化的医疗系统。还有人担心,全科医生并没有能力被委任护理。工党领袖埃德·米利班德把这些改革戏称为卡梅伦的“人头税”,一个曾经让撒切尔夫人下台的参考政策。而现在,下台的是卫生部长安德鲁·兰斯。兰斯的改革通过不到六个月内,他就被杰里米·亨特代替了,而后者几乎对改革只字不谈。The health reforms were supposed to make the NHS more independent. Yet Mr Hunt now styles himself a patients champion—he is known to ring hospitals to ask about waiting times. This is a concession to reality: politicians will always be held accountable for the performance of the NHS. Still, the frantic smothering of the reforms conceals something useful. A policy that has caused the government so much embarrassment is quietly bearing fruit.医疗改革旨在让NHS更加独立。然而杰里米·亨特现在自比为病人的胜利,因为大家都知道他常常打电话给医院询问等待时间。这是承认现实:政客永远要为NHS的表现负责。但是,改革密不透风的大动干戈掩盖了一些有用的东西。一个让政府非常窘迫的政策正静悄悄地开花结果。Let 211 flowers bloom让211之花盛开The biggest change was the creation of 211 Clinical Commissioning Groups (CCGs), which placed about 60% of the NHS budget in the hands of local doctors and health workers. They became responsible for procuring hospital care, mental-health services and the like. Navigating a muddled system, the cannier ones have figured out ways to realign the incentives of hospitals, which are often paid per procedure, with those of GPs, who aim to keep people healthy and at home.最大的改变是211临床调试组(CCGs)这一创举,收纳了本地医生和医务人员手中60%的NHS预算。调试组负责采购医院护理、心理健康护理之类的物品。游走在混乱的医疗系统中,头脑灵活的人已经想出办法调整对医院的刺激,这些在每次采购中都会被全科医生偿付,他们旨在使病人保持健康,觉得自在。The commissioning group in Bedfordshire, for example, has bundled some 20 contracts for musculoskeletal care (treatment for things like weak knees and cracked hips) into one five-year contract that was won by Circle, a commercial health group. Far from fragmenting the system, as critics had feared, this has made Circle responsible for integrating the services of local providers. Patients will be told which are doing best. Circle and its partners must achieve an agreed set of outcomes to receive some of their pay. Paolo Pieri, Circles chief financial officer, expects the deal will not only improve care but save Bedfordshire some £30m(m).例如英格兰南部贝德福德郡的调试组,已把20余份关于肌肉骨骼保健(面向脆弱的髌骨和股骨骨折之类的治疗)的合同与一份五年期的合同相捆绑,这份合同被商业医疗集团Circle中标。批评家们曾经担心的医疗系统会分崩离析的问题使Circle必须负责,这能使Circle为本地供应商的集成务负责。病人将会被告知哪个做的最好。Circle及其合伙人必须就后果及分利达成共识。Circle的CFO(首席财政官)保罗·皮耶里希望,这笔交易不仅仅能够改善卫生保健,还能为贝德福德郡留下约3000万英镑(约合5000万美元)的结余。Not all commissioning groups are as bold. But perhaps a quarter are considering contracts like the one in Bedfordshire, reckons Mr Pieri. Diane Bell, a doctor there, says more than 40 CCGs have contacted her group. “Every CCG I look at is doing brave and innovative work,” says Shane Gordon, who heads one inEssex.并非所有调试组都能这般大胆无畏。皮耶里推测,约有四分之一的调试组正考虑像贝德福德郡那个一样签订合同。贝德福德郡的一位医生戴安娜·贝尔说,有超过40家临床调试组与她的团队签订了合同。肖恩·戈登在埃塞克斯郡领导一个调试组,他说“每个临床调试组在我看来都在从事勇敢无谓、富于创新的工作”。The Labour Party—which launched a series of NHS reforms during its 13 years in power—says this sort of innovation was on the way anyway, and may have been delayed. Thanks to the giant restructuring of the NHS “we lost two or three years”, says Andy Burnham, the shadow health secretary. He also criticises a regulatory regime that leaves many providers confused. Fair enough. But the reforms replaced bureaucrats with clinicians, which seems to have encouraged creative thinking. Dr Bell was warned by an old hand that outcomes-based contracting would stir up a fight in her group. When she suggested it, though, the other GPs quickly bought in.工党在其执政的13年间,曾颁布了一系列NHS改革,它称这类改革创新不管怎么说都已经在半路上了,还有可能推迟。影子卫生部长安迪·翰讽刺,幸亏这次NHS巨大的改革让我们“浪费两三年”。他还批评监管制度让许多供应商迷惑不解。虽有道理,但是改革用临床医生代替了官僚分子,似乎还鼓励了创造性思维。贝尔医生曾被这行老手告诫这个以结果为基础的契约签订可能引起团队内讧。尽管当她提到了这个,全科医生还是被迅速引入了。If Labour wins the next election, Mr Miliband might ground CCGs just as they are taking flight. Although he has no plans to restructure the NHS yet again, his laudable aim of integrating health and social care, which currently falls outside the NHSs remit, would probably shift responsibility to a different local body. Mr Burnham would also clip the wings of reformers by giving NHS providers a built-in advantage in the competition for contracts.下届大选如果工党获胜,米利班德可能搁置临床调试组,正如现在他们才刚刚起航。即使他没有再次重组NHS的计划,他值得赞赏的集成医疗社会保障计划目前还处于NHS的推迟项目,很可能把责任转移到一个不同的地方机构。翰也会通过给予NHS供应商先天优势的方式,限制改革者在签订合同方面的竞争。But the biggest threat to CCGs and what some of them are doing to improve services is not politics but whether they can move fast enough to keep in front of a funding squeeze, says Thomas Cawston of Reform, a think-tank. Though the NHS has been protected from the worst of austerity, it could fall short by £30 billion by 2020—the result of rising demand from a growing elderly population. Sir David warns that without more cash, the service could tip into the red next year.智囊团Thomas Cawston of Reform称,对于临床实验组最大的威胁,以及其中部分改善务所作的努力不是来自政治方面,而是他们是否可以发展的足够快是实验组一直保持在资金压力前面。尽管NHS被最糟糕的财政紧缩保护,但其资金到2020年还不到300亿英镑,这是不断增长的老龄人口日益增长的需求带来的结果。戴维·尼克尔森爵士警告道,没有更多的钱,这项务明年就会陷入危机。As money runs short, the real test will arrive. It could be an opportunity for health reformers. Or bureaucrats could panic and revert to old ways. Whatever happens, the next government will not be able to duck the issue.随着资金短缺,真正的考验即将来临。这对医改人士而言是一次机遇。那些官僚却可能会陷入恐慌,且想要回归老路。无论发生什么,下届政府都无法回避这一问题。译者 周雨晴 校对 邵夏沁译文属译生译世 /201509/401375Tescos accounting problems乐购财务危机Not so funny不那么有趣Booking revenues, like comedy, is all about timing预估收益和喜剧一样,把握时机很重要IT IS too soon to say whether the accounting misstatement at Tesco was cock-up or conspiracy. The source of the discrepancy is aly clear, however, and it is as old as book-keeping itself: the premature recognition of revenue.乐购财务造假是偶然还是蓄意目前还言之尚早。然而这种差异的来源已经很清楚了,它发生在记账阶段:过早地确认了收入。Suppliers make payments to supermarkets that meet certain sales targets for their products, run promotions or place the goods in eye-catching places, such as at the end of aisles. Tesco managers appear to have been too ambitious in forecasting these “rebates”. They may also have underreported the costs of stolen and out-of-date produce.若超市达到一定的产品销售目标,举办促销活动,或是将货物摆放在醒目之处,比如超市过道的两端,供应商会付给超市一定的费用。乐购的管理层似乎过于高估了这些“回扣”的价值,当然他们也可能是低估了被盗物品和过期物品的成本。In a study of accounting scandals at American companies by the Committee of Sponsoring Organisations, a business-ethics body, the misrecording of revenues was to blame in 60% of cases. Manipulation generally falls into one of two categories. In the first, involving “timing differences”, the revenue is genuine but, say, sales at the start of a quarter are booked as having been struck in the previous one. The flipside of this is “cookie jar” accounting: pushing todays revenue into tomorrow so it can be dipped into to shore up weak quarters.据企业伦理机构发起人委员会的研究称,美国公司60%的会计丑闻要归结于谎报收益。操纵行为一般可分为两类。第一种情况涉及到“时差”,收益是真实的,但是季度初始的销售额被列入上一个季度入账。与之相对的是“饼干罐”记账:将当前收益推至将来,以此推高疲软季度的销售额。In the second, more serious category, the sales are fake: often, a related party poses as a customer to generate phoney invoices. Examples include Gowex, a Spanish technology firm that folded earlier this year, and Satyam Computer of India, whose boss compared the escalation of the .5 billion fraud to riding a tiger that was ever harder to dismount without being eaten.更严重的是第二类情况,即销售额都是假的:通常情况下,业务关联方会装扮成顾客以产生虚假发票。西班牙科技公司Gowex今年早些时候便是因此破产,而印度萨蒂扬软件公司老板身陷15亿美元的诈骗升级案,时局愈发艰难,真真是骑虎难下,无法全身而退。Working out how much revenue to book and when can be a matter of fine judgment. It is especially tricky in long-term contracts, such as in construction, or when the sale of goods is bundled with a service agreement, as with photocopiers. In a sign of how complex an area this is, only this year—after more than a decade of talks—did European and American standard-setters agree on a common approach to revenue recognition.应记多少收益以及何时记收益都需要准确的判断力。这在长期合同中尤为棘手,比如建筑合同,或是所售商品捆绑的务合同。有一个迹象可以表明这个领域到底有多么复杂:经过十多年的讨论,直到今年,欧洲和美国的会计准则制定者方才达成一个确认收益的通用办法。The complexity of Tescos promotional deals with suppliers may also have left much room for discretion, and honest mistakes, as well as deliberate distortions. But the risks around accounting for such payments are hardly new. The auditors of several big retailers have amplified their warnings in recent years as rebates have taken up more space on balance-sheets. In its most recent report, in May, Tescos auditor, PwC, warned of the “risk of manipulation”.乐购与供应商间复杂的促销协定可能也给酌情权,无心之过,以及蓄意歪曲留下很大空间。但在财务上此类付风险已不是什么新鲜事物。由于回扣在资产负债表中占据越来越大的比重,几个大型零售商的审计机构近年来已提升警告级别。乐购的审计机构普华永道在5月份最新的报告中已警告其注意“操纵风险”。If Tescos books turn out to have been deliberately cooked, it would be the biggest fraud of its type in retailing since the scandal at US Foodservice in 2000-03. Several executives were fined or jailed for creating bogus rebates to boost profits and bonuses—complete with secret side agreements, in which suppliers agreed not to collect the exaggerated rebates. The Dutch parent company, Royal Ahold, settled with shareholders for .1 billion. Even if there was no fraudulent intent and the problems stem from a misunderstanding of the rules rather than knowing misapplication, the apparent scale of the error suggests that, at the very least, Tescos internal controls need a thorough overhaul.如果乐购被实是蓄意加工账表,这将是自2000-2003年美国餐饮业丑闻后零售业最大的欺诈骗局。数名高管已因编造虚假回扣以提高利润和奖金的行为被处以罚款或监禁—他们与秘密方签订协议,其中供应商同意不收取超额回扣。位于荷兰的皇家阿霍德总公司为其股东的诉讼花费了11亿美元。即使公司没有欺诈意图,或是由于误解准则产生问题,并非明知不可为而为之,这份过失的显著规模最起码表明乐购的内部控制需要彻底整改了。 /201409/332892

Lets start by reviewing the ways in which the surface of ourlips is different from the surface of the skin on the rest of ourbodies.首先,我们需要知道嘴唇的表皮有别于身体其他部位的。Basically, our lips are made of the same mucusmembrane that coats the inside of our mouths.基本而言,嘴唇有相同的粘液膜组成,保护我们的嘴巴。This means two things.这就说明了两件事。First, our lips dont have the same protective outer layer as theskin elsewhere on our bodies.第一,我们身体其他部位的肌肤有一层“保护层”,这是嘴唇所没有的。This layer is part of the barrier to evaporation, and its absencemeans our lip skin retains less fluid.“保护层”能有效保湿,嘴唇因为没有而不易保湿。Second, our lips dont have the same glands and pigmentsas ordinary skin.第二,嘴唇不像其他肌肤有腺体和色素。For example, lips dont have oil glands, which also help keep moisture from evaporating, and they contain less melanin, the pigment that helps protect our skin from sunburn.比如,嘴唇不能分泌油脂,不易保湿。此外,嘴唇缺少黑色素等色素保护皮肤免受太阳灼伤。Whats more, unlike much of the rest of our body, our lips are almost always on display, and rarely covered by clothing.别于身体其他部位的皮肤,嘴唇经常暴露在外面。As a result,the moisture on our lips is continually evaporating.这样一来,嘴唇的水分一直在蒸发,And thats before we take into accountexposure to sun, wind, cold, and air-conditioning.这还不算阳光、大风、天冷、空调的“摧残”。Plus, if youre sick or have allergies, and your nose is congested, your lips end up drying more quickly because you tend to breathe throughyour mouth.此外,嘴唇有此外,如果你生病了或者过敏而鼻塞,不得不用嘴巴呼吸,嘴唇会干得更快! 201409/328791U.S. Rep. Dan Kildee, D-Flint, is urging his colleagues in U.S. House to pass a resolution calling on the Canadian government and the Obama administration to halt the creation of a nuclear storage waste site. The site would be built about a mile from Lake Huron.Michigan Radios Jennifer White spoke to Rep. Kildee about what the proposed site could mean for Michigan and the possible impact of his resolution.201504/369378It took years of negotiation and diplomacy to bring about todays historic deal between Iran and world powers. Iran has agreed to curb its nuclear program in exchange for the easing of economic sanctions.Now, the White House has to sell this deal to Congress and it could wind up being one of the biggest political fights of the Obama presidency. Congress has 60 days to dissect the terms of the agreement.U.S. Rep. Bill Huizenga, R-Zeeland, says that his initial thoughts on the deal arent encouraging.First, he tells us that Irans history of breaking and ignoring agreements is troubling.Additionally, Huizenga points out that Iran is viewed as the worlds leader in state-sponsored terrorism.;Im afraid that this may very well spark a nuclear arms race within the Middle East,; he says.President Obama has said that no deal would mean no lasting nuclear restrictions on Iran, and that could encourage other nations in the region to pursue their own nuclear assets, but as far as Huizenga is concerned the deal presented by the White House doesnt pass the smell test.;I just dont buy where the president is going with this, and theres just way too many pitfalls,; he tells us. ;We need to maintain that pressure rather than just turning it over wholesale and allowing, for example, arms to be imported.;Even as the two countries tentatively approach this deal, there are still American citizens being held captive by Iran.U.S. Rep. Dan Kildee, D-Flint Township, has been fighting for the release of former Flint resident Amir Hekmati and other Americans. Hekmati has been held prisoner since 2011 when he was arrested under suspicion of being a spy.But the release of Hekmati and others was not included in the nuclear deal. Kildee endorses this decision. While he has long been working toward their release, he doesnt want it to come at the cost of the U.S. giving into Irans demands.;We dont want to trade the freedom of an innocent American for a provision that makes the world a less safe place,; Kildee says.Instead, Kildee hopes the added spotlight on Iran will put pressure on them to release the individuals as a sign of their full intentions to adhere to the negotiated terms.Kildee says the captives freedom ;doesnt require any negotiations, it doesnt require a counter-party, it doesnt really require much other than their willingness to release these individuals.;Until Hekmati and others are released, Kildee intends to continue to sp their story, saying he wont allow it to be lost in the discussion of the deal.As for how he will vote, Kildee says he will be taking a closer look at the agreement ;to determine whether, in its totality, it makes the world a safer place.;;Well find out what exact details are in there to see where we can agree,; Huizenga says. ;Im just afraid in the broad brushstrokes at this point its headed in the wrong direction.;201507/385757

Spains press西班牙报业的压力A shrinking order一个持续紧缩的制度Sacked editors are a sign more of financial than political pressures不断失业的编辑们背后意味的经济压力远大于政治压力Two of the remaining ers剩余读者中的两位。JOURNALISTS are supposed to check their facts, but when editors are sacked rumours will do. Some see dark political forces behind the ousting of editors at Spains three big dailies,El Pais, El Mundo and La Vanguardia. But the upheaval also reflects a deeper business crisis.原本应该是记者们去调查事件的真相,但是当编辑们不断被解雇,谣言开始出现了。实际上一些人已经透过西班牙三大日报—国家报(El Pais);西班牙世界报(El Mundo)和先锋报(La Vanguardia.)不断解雇编辑这一事件的表面,看到了藏在幕后操作的政治黑手。但是这种剧变更加折射出来的是一次更严重的商业危机。Until last month, Pedro Ramirez had edited El Mundo from its birth 25 years ago. Famed for investigations, sharp-tongued columnists and conspiracy theories, it ruffled many feathers. Mr Ramirez blames Mariano Rajoys ruling Popular Party (PP) for his sacking. The new editor, Casimiro Garcia-Abadillo, points to poor sales, which have halved in five years, and says Mr Ramirez alienated ers loyal to Mr Rajoy who found a feud over PP corruption too personal.到上个月为止,Pedro Ramirez 已经在世界报做了25年的主编了。这份报纸一向以深查事件真相,尖酸刻薄的专栏作家和充满阴谋论的言论而闻名于世,当然它也得罪了不少人。Ramirez谴责马里亚诺·拉霍伊为了一己私欲在毁灭人民党。新任主编CasimiroGarcia-Abadillo 则指出近五年来报纸的销量下滑了一半多,并且说Ramirez对于拉霍伊的指责太个人化,让那些原本忠于这位发现人民党贪污现象的党魁的读者们开始变得生疏。El Paiss editor, Javier Moreno, also pursued corruption. But he has overseen a fall in circulation and last year sacked almost a third of the staff, damaging morale even as he cut operating losses. El Pais aims to be “the global newspaper” in Spanish; its next editor, Antonio Cano, ran its Latin American website. Mr Cano denies that El Pais will shed its centre-left identity, though he is clearly more conservative than Mr Moreno.至于国家报的前主编,Javier Moreno,同样在追查贪污的事。但是他全然忽视了销量的暴跌,而且去年他们报社差不多解雇了三分之一的雇员,在他降低运营亏损的同时也严重地打击了员工的士气。国家报的目标直指“世界级的”西语报纸;它的下一任主编,Antonio Cano 已经开始运营它的拉丁语美国网站。Cano否认国家报要推翻自己左倾的立场,尽管他明显要比Moreno要保守。El Mundo vies with El Pais for domination of the Hispanic worlds online news audience, but turning that into money is an uphill task, admits a senior executive at El Mundo. La Vanguardias local Catalan subscription base has kept it mostly profitable. There the choice of Marius Carol as the next editor is being interpreted as a shift from the Catalan nationalist flag-waving of his predecessor, Jose Antich.世界报和国家报一直在网络上竞争西语读者的占有率,但是事实上要将这种占有率转化为盈利是一件很艰巨的任务,对此世界报的高级执行官也不得不承认。反观先锋报,它本身的西语读者订阅量就足以让它维持盈利。但是对于新任主编马吕思·卡罗尔来说却有很多选择,他解释说这对先锋报来说是从加泰罗尼亚语主义的旗帜中转型的一次机会,这将于他前任Jose Antich.大不相同。If newspapers are not bending to political pressures, might they bow to more commercial ones? Some journalists admit to self-censorship for fear of annoying big advertisers. El Mundo accused Telefanica of cutting advertising after it reported a 2002 insider-trading probe against the firms chairman, Cesar Alierta, a charge Telefanica denied. Although Telefanica accounts for only a small fraction of advertising—the biggest general advertisers are non-Spanish multinationals like Procter amp; Gamble and LOreal—other channels of influence also exist. Loss-making Prisa, the owner of El Pais, has been repairing its balance-sheet and has won a reprieve from its bankers. But after conversion of a convertible bond, Prisas banks will own 16% of the shares, more than the founding Polanco family. Telefanica will also have a stake, and hedge funds claim another 17%.如果报纸行业不对政治压力屈,他们是否会对更加商业化的因素弯腰?一些记者在自我审视时承认,他们会害怕让那些大的广告客户感到厌烦。世界报指控Telefanica在2002年报纸刊登了他与公司董事长(Cesar Alierta)的内部交易之后减少了报纸的广告刊登量。但是Telefanica否认了这一指控。尽管Telefanica解释说,只有一小部分的广告业受到了影响—传统的大额广告发布商依然是那些非西语系的跨国公司,诸如宝洁和欧莱雅。—但是对于其它的渠道的影响肯定也是存在的。而国家报的控股人—总是亏损的Prisa,已经开始修复它的收平衡并且从债主那获得了一定的延期。但是在债券转换完成之后,将持有公司16%的股份,这甚至超过了创始家族—Polanco的持股量。Telefanica同样执有一部分股票,还有17%的股权在放亏损基金会手中。The biggest challenge is more fundamental. Dailies reach just a third of Spaniards. Print-advertising income has fallen by 56% since 2008; digital advertising has not made up for this. Owners want higher paper sales, more advertising and fancy websites, all done with smaller budgets and fewer staff. Battling political pressure is the least of their worries.其实最大的挑战是来自更基层的方面。这些日报在西班牙人中只有三分之一的覆盖率。2008年之后印刷业的广告收入下降了56%;而数字广告带来盈利并不足以填补这一空缺。老板们都想要更高的报纸销量,更多的广告和完美的线上网站,少而精的预算以及更少的雇员。相比之下,与政治压力的对抗对他们来说实在不值一提。译者:曾擎禹 校对:王童 译文属译生译世 /201510/403901Dear A Moment of Science,I know why the ocean is still salty: evaporated water leaves thesalt behind.亲爱的《科学一刻》我知道为什么海洋依旧是咸的了:水分蒸发掉,留下了盐。But how did it get salty in the first place? SaltyDog.但是一开始盐是怎么进去的呢?咸味鸡尾酒。According to one hypothesis, oceans formed at least 500 million years ago when water vapor andother gasses escaping from the Earths interior gradually formed the atmosphere and cloudssurrounding the planet.有种假设,海洋在至少五亿年前形成。那时水蒸气和其他气体渐渐从地球内部逸出,形成了围绕地球的大气层和云。As the earth cooled below the boiling point of water, rain began to fall, andkept falling for centuries.当地球冷却到水沸点以下,开始下雨,下了好几个世纪。Eventually the rainfall filled the Earths hollows and formed oceans.最后,雨水填满了地球的低洼形成了海洋。In their infant state these oceans were not nearly as salty as they are today.在海洋形成初期,它们还不像今天这样咸。As the initial rainsswept over the planets surface and filtered down to the hollows, the rushing waters picked upchemicals from erosion of the Earths crust.最初的雨席卷地球表面后汇入低洼,激流带进去了地壳腐蚀处的化学成分。These chemicals included sodium, which is one of themain ingredients of salt.这些化学成分包括钠,那正是盐的主要成分。The other main ingredient, chlorine, came from the solid and gaseousfallout of land and ocean floor volcanoes.另一个主要成分,氯,来自陆上海底火山喷发产生的尘土及气体。Over hundreds of millions of years the steady flow ofchemical-rich rivers and streams and the eruption of volcanoes and undersea vents combined toincrease the oceans salt content.经过数亿年,富含化学物质的河流、陆上海底的火山喷发物,合在一起增加了海洋的盐分。This does not mean, however, that the oceans saltiness is constantly increasing.然而,这并不意味着海洋会持续变咸下去。Scientists believethat ocean salinity reached a plateau hundreds of millions of years ago, when roughly the sameamount of salt fed into the oceans was deposited as sediment on the ocean floor.科学家认为,海洋盐度在数亿年前就达到平稳,当时盐注入海洋后,在海底形成了大体等量的沉积物。 201412/350506

Private universities私立大学A degree of frustration一定程度的沮丧Higher education is embracing private suppliers—but timidly高等教育欢迎私立大学办学者—但是仍显怯懦The first batch of 60 undergraduates at the New College of the Humanities in Bloomsbury, London’s main university quarter, occupy a spacious Georgian house. Opening doors on the way up a grand staircase, your reporter eavesdropped on tutorials on ancient Greece, Romantic poets and economic theory. It feels like a dinky version of an august academic institution. Yet it is a for-profit organisation with a chief executive huddled over spsheets downstairs.在伦敦布鲁斯伯里的大学主城区,第一批进入新人文学院的60名大学生就有了宽敞的教学场所--一栋乔治时代的建筑。走入敞开的大门,扶着一个壮观的楼梯而上,本报的记者悄悄旁听了一会古代希腊、罗马诗歌、经济理论的课程。感觉就像一个极小的庄严的学术学院。然而这是一个盈利学院,一位首席执行官在楼下忙碌地处理一些数据。The college’s founder is Anthony Grayling (shown above), a philosopher who wants to introduce a bit of diversity to a largely state-funded higher education system. A new high-end entrant in the marketplace also helps fill the gap in provision for students with good qualifications who lose out by a grade or two in the brutal race for places in the Russell Group of top universities. Degrees are awarded through the University of London, but at 18,000 pounds (,550) fees are double the maximum that state-subsidized universities can charge. The syllabus is broader and more akin to an American liberal-arts college than a traditional English university.该大学的创办者名为安东尼·格雷林(Anthony Grayling)(见图),这位哲学家希望为大范围的公立为主的高等教育体系引入一些多元化元素。一些优秀学生由于在罗素大学( Russell Group )集团的残酷竞争中相差一二分而落榜,在教育市场上这位高端新入者为这些学生填补了空缺。学位书通过伦敦大学颁发,但是费用高达18000英镑(28550 美元),是国立大学补助最高费用的2倍。与传统的英国大学相比,这个教学大纲更宽广,更类似于美国自由艺术大学。This kind of disruptive innovation earns a mixed reception. The coalition government welcomes it. But Terry Eagleton, an outspoken Marxist academic, describes the venture as “odious” and divisive. Other critics have pointed out that courses at Mr Grayling’s New College closely resemble what is on offer, more cheaply, at the existing London university colleges. Two-thirds of the first intake of students come from private schools and just 22% from state schools (the rest are foreigners and mature students). Mr Grayling hopes to counter the “too posh” charge with outreach initiatives and generous bursaries for poorer students.人们对这种破坏性的创新说法不一。联合政府对此表示欢迎,但一个直言不讳的马克思主义学者Terry Eagleton认为这种风险是“令人讨厌的”,不和谐的。其他批评家指出,相比格雷林的新学院,伦敦大学目前也提供类似且更为经济的课程。第一批学生中三分之二来自私立学校,只有22%来自国立学校( 剩下的国外学生和成年学生)。面对这些‘过于冠冕堂皇’的批评,格雷林希望以积极实践创新以及面向贫困生的丰厚奖学金予以反驳。The newcomer epitomizes a broadening of higher education, aided by a rise in maximum fees to 9,000 pounds that makes students (and their parents) look around for value for money. The government has also eased rules on what qualifies as a university. The newly named University of Law, an outfit with several regional centres, is backed by a private-equity firm and offers two-year degree courses for highly motivated or cash-strapped students. Its hard sell stands out among more conventional university branding: the college’s website touts a graduate legal qualification as if it were a soap powder—“Now with Masters included”.Other institutions such as BPP University College, which bestows professional qualifications from accountancy to chiropractic, were given degree-awarding powers by the last Labour government, but now want full university status.这个新的教学是英国广泛高等教育的缩影,学费普遍上涨,最高达到9,000英镑,让学生们以及家长们考虑这个钱是不是值得。政府同样放宽了对作为合格大学的政策。新被命名的法律大学,包含几个的地区中心,是由私募股权公司赞助的,为积极性高或者资金紧张的学生提供两年的学位课程。这个强行推销学位的大学在其它更加传统的大学中引人注目:学院网站上兜售着合法的研究者书,似乎是广告中的肥皂粉一样,现在有硕士学位书了。其它譬如BPP大学的机构,上届工党政府给予学位奖金的权力,可以授予从审计到脊椎神经学的专业书,但是现在希望获得一个全日制的大学身份。And the line between private and state-funded higher education is blurring in other ways. Established institutions including Imperial College, London and University College are also thriving businesses, cross-subsidising studies and research which do not make money. Oxfordhas initiated a joint Master’s course in law and finance, crammed into nine months and costing a hefty 21,000 pounds.并且私人办学和政府资助的高等教育的界限在其它方面也很模糊。包括帝国理工大学、伦敦大学在内的老牌大学发展得如火如荼,但是交叉补贴的教育与研究却并不赚钱。牛津大学已经开始了一个法律财务的双硕士课程,课程勉勉强强只有有九个月,费用却高达21000英镑。Much has changed since the independent University of Buckingham (a non-profit operator) launched 30 years ago, teaching mainly business and economics. Today it has more British undergraduates than foreign ones and offers a range of subjects, including medicine. But the revolution is unfinished. One anomaly that makes life harder for independent providers is that students can take out government-backed student loans at a favourable rate for only the first 6,000 pounds of their fees. At subsidised top universities, they can borrow the full yearly fee of 9,000 pounds .30年前出现的独立的白金汉宫大学(一位非盈利人运行的)带来了许多改变,主要教授商业和经济。今天,该大学的英国本科生要比外国的多,教授很多学科,包括医学。但是革命还未结束。一个反常的规定让独立经营者十分困难,学生可以以优惠利率申请政府资助的学生贷款,只是他们学费的6000英镑。政府资助的顶级大学,每年可以全额借助9000英镑。The level playing field promised when the coalition came to power in 2010 remains a work in progress. David Willetts, the universities minister, failed in a bid to allow for-profit education firms equal access to state funding. Many senior academics opposed the move, citing “derisory graduation rates, crushing levels of debts and degrees of dubious value” from some for-profit American companies. The issue has been shelved until 2015 at the earliest. When it comes to changing higher education, even small innovations can provoke a noisy backlash.承诺的公平竞争自2010年联合政府上台后仍在进程中。教育大臣戴维·维利斯在允许盈利性的教育公司有平等获得政府资助的投标中失败。许多高级学者反对这个行为, 认为这是由一些以营利为主的美国公司带来的“低得可笑的毕业率,高得离谱的债务和一文不值的学位”。最早到2015年这个问题才会搁置。谈到高等教育改革,即使一些很小的创新也会产生争论不休的强烈反对。翻译:杨芸祯 译文属译生译世 /201609/468644

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