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来源:赶集指南    发布时间:2019年10月15日 06:03:19    编辑:admin         

Carbon capture捕捉碳Pipe dreams管道之梦A fresh effort to store pollutants underground.将污染物储存地下的新尝试。FOR more than 30 years Peterhead power station has churned out electricity from a windswept spot on the north-east coast of Scotland. Its chimney (pictured) is a familiar landmark for strollers on Aberdeens chilly beach. Yet soon the ageing gas-fired plant could host a crucial experiment. Engineers from Shell, an oil firm, and SSE, an energy company, plan to add technology that will capture the carbon dioxide which billows from Peterheads furnace and store it in a depleted gasfield more than a mile beneath the North Sea. That could cut its emissions by up to 90%, making Peterhead by far the cleanest gas plant in the world.Peterhead 电厂位于苏格兰东北部一处风不止歇的地方,长期输送电力超过30年。它的烟囱成为Aberdeen的冷滩散步者所熟知的地标。不过很快这座老化的燃气电厂将要面临一项关键的考验。来自壳牌石油公司和SSE能源公司的工程师们计划对这座电厂进行技术改造,这样就可以捕捉从Peterhead电厂锅炉中大量涌出的二氧化碳,并将之储存到一座废弃的油田中。而这座油田深藏在北海一英里以下。成功之后将比以前减少90%的二氧化碳排放量,Peterhead将成为迄今世界上最清洁的燃气电厂。Peterhead is one of two preferred bidders in a government contest that aims to kick-start Britains adoption of carbon capture and storage technologies. The other pet project is a proposed coal-fired plant at Drax power station in Yorkshire, which will pipe its pollutants about 50 miles to the coast before trapping them in rocks beneath the waves. Yet politicians have been soliciting similar proposals since 2007, without bringing any to fruition; abortive efforts at Peterhead go back even further. Boosters hope this latest crop will buck a sorry trend.Peterhead是政府竞标项目中两个被选中的竞标项目之一。此次竞标旨在促使不列颠上下采用碳捕捉和储存技术。另外一项受重视的项目是计划对约克郡的Drax电厂的煤电机组进行改造。这项改造目的在于将污染物输送到离海岸线有50英里的地方并将之固定在波涛之下的岩层中。不过政客们早在2007年就作出过相同的许诺,也没带来任何成果;对Peterhead改造的流产甚至退回原地。持者们希望这迟来的成效能在未来挽回惨淡的局面。The rewards could be great. CCS is one of a very few ways to clean up industries such as steelmaking or chemicals. Fossil-fuel power stations fitted with carbon-capturing kit would provide an unusually flexible source of green power.回报相当丰厚。CCS是为数不多可以清洁诸如炼钢厂或化学工厂的法子。化石燃料的电厂配备上碳捕捉装置之后,可以提供具有相当弹性供应量的清洁能源。These benefits would bring savings. Carbon capture could be lopping 30 billion off Britains annual energy bill by 2050, says the Energy Technology Institute, a government and industry research body. The International Energy Agency, an intergovernmental outfit, reckons CCS will have to deliver one-sixth of the emissions cuts required to limit the damage done by climate change, and that forgoing it would raise costs by 40%.这些好处可以节省很多开。据政府和工厂的研究机构,能源技术研究所称,到2050年,碳捕捉技术有望为不列颠每年砍去300亿英镑的能源开。而据一座跨国机构国际能源所认为,采用CCS技术将减少六分之一的碳排放,这可以减少因此造成的气候而带来的损失。而如果放弃这项技术将导致损失上升40%Britain is well placed to cash in. Its wealth of underwater engineers will need new ways to keep busy as the North Seas fields run dry. A steady supply of carbon could be useful to roughnecks, who are experimenting with techniques that use the gas to squeeze more oil from mature wells. And the countrys deep aquifers and depleted reservoirs could probably hold 100 years-worth of emissions.不列颠是实行这项技术的好地方。在北海油田日渐枯竭的时候,她数量众多的水下工程师需要新的渠道维持饭碗。稳定的碳供应对于矿工来说也是极为有用的,因为目前他们正在尝试新技术:利用二氧化碳从成熟油井中挤压出更多的石油。而这个国家深度蓄水层和废弃的储油层足够容纳英伦百年的排放的二氧化碳。That makes slow progress all the more frustrating. In May MPs on the climate-change select committee complained that government dithering had led to a “lost decade” for CCS in Britain. Money is part of the problem—boffins say energy from the first CCS plants could cost 150-200 per megawatt hour, four times the current wholesale price of power and more expensive even than offshore wind farms. European laws that oblige Britain to invest heavily in renewables are diverting resources away from CCS, says Judith Shapiro, an industry spokesperson.不过这进步来得少,挫败倒更多。在5月的时候,气候变化选择委员会的议员们抱怨道,由于政府的优柔寡断犹豫不决,导致CCS技术在不列颠停滞了10年。资金是其中的问题之一—研究者指出采用CCS技术的工厂最初每兆瓦·时要花费150镑到200镑,这是现行整体能源价格的4倍,其昂贵程度较之离岸风能电厂不逞多让。欧盟法律敦促不列颠在再生能源领域加大投资,这促使很多资金从CCS流失。一位工业发言人Judith Shapiro如是说。Yet the government is digging deep to make sure its latest efforts pay off. In 2007 it put aside 1 billion to help fund the capital costs of some CCS projects—not least the huge expense of laying new pipelines overland. Lately it has also promised ongoing subsidies of the type given to renewables. Bosses at Peterhead and at Drax say that next year they hope to make a final decision on whether or not to press ahead.虽然如此,政府仍在加大努力确保最近的努力措施能够有所斩获。在2007年,政府留出10亿英镑设立基金以付一些CCS项目的出—这也包括铺设离岸新管道的巨额花费。最近,政府也承诺在许可的范围的内逐步减少对再生能源项目的持。Peterhead和Drax的老板说下一年他们希望希望作出一项财政决议,以便于决定CCS项目是否继续进行。Pessimists say that a few pilot projects will not make an industry, even if the technology proves viable. Some fret that runners-up in the governments competition will run out of money while it mulls what subsidies to offer; others warn of bottlenecks without more efforts to identify storage sites. One big uncertainty is how the public will react when plans for carbon capture are better known. Though engineers have been cramming carbon underground for several years—notably in Norway—the idea could still spark alarm. That would not easily go back in the bottle.悲观论者认为一木不成林,少数先行的项目不足以撑出一个产业体系,哪怕实践明这项技术切实可行。一些人对政府的行径感到焦虑。他们认为这种竞争将耗完所有的资金,而它需要通盘考虑补贴谁;另外一些人则提醒,不花费更多精力去甄别存储地点是存在问题的。一个最大的不确定在于碳捕捉计划广为人知之后公共将作出何等反应。尽管工程师已经把碳压缩到地底这事已经干了很多年了——在挪威最典型——公众的反对仍能成燎原之势。这不像二氧化碳,能够轻易关进瓶子里。 /201407/310069。

His voice and his expressions and his charisma start taking these songs over. 他的嗓音,他的表达及魅力开始在这些歌曲中展现。Like, if Smokey felt like he did his song and more people like the way Michael did it than him, thats because he did that with all of his songs at that time. 就像如果斯莫奇感觉他的歌,而且更多的人喜欢迈克尔胜于自己,那是因为他当时用心于他的所有歌曲。No matter who it was, the OJays, the Dells, the Whispers or the Beatles, we wanted to be the best. 不管那是谁,欧杰斯,戴尔斯,耳语者们或者是披头士,我们想成为最好的。And thats what we were striving for. 这就是我们所追求的。Berry Gordy did not like the stuff that Bobby Taylor was recording on them. 贝瑞·戈迪不喜欢鲍比·泰勒为他们所录音的东西。I wanted to do the boys a certain way, but he wanted me to do them his way. 我想按照某种方式去做,但是他想让我照他的方式。And I says,I cant do them the way you want me to do them. 之后我说,我不会做按照你对他们要求的那样去效仿他们。I must have my own head. 我必须靠自己出人头地。So he says, ;Okay, Were going back to Detroit.; Then he took over. 所以他说,“好吧,我们先回底特律。”然后他接手。Berry Gordy, in turn, put his crew together. 贝瑞·戈迪将他们的成员整合到一起。The Corporation was established to bring fresh new material to the Jackson . Youthful material. 公司成立将新鲜血液带给杰克逊。年轻的血液。I think he probably felt that Bobby Taylor would give them more adult material and forget that they were children. 我想他可能觉得鲍比·泰勒将会给他们更多的成人元素并忘记他们是孩子。201309/255561。

Like a science fiction time traveler, an arctic plant of the late Pleistocene age, over 31 thousand years old, is growing again after a long frozen sleep.就像科幻小说中的时间旅行者一样,一株晚更新世时期的北极植物,在历经了31,000年的冰冻休眠后,现在又开始重新生长了。Narrow leafed campion (Silene stenophylla) is a small plant whose modern relatives are found in eastern Russia and northern Japan. Its a perennial species that grows on stony cliffs or sandy shores. Once a year, it produces five-petalled flowers that range in color from white to pink to lilac.窄叶剪秋萝(柳叶蝇子草)是一种小型植物,它们的近亲目前依然在俄罗斯东部和日本北部地区生长。它是一种在陡峭石崖上与沙地上生长的多年生植物。这种植物每年一次会开出五个花瓣的花朵,颜色有白色、粉红和淡紫色。Russian scientists examining an ancient arctic squirrel burrow recovered ancient campion fruits from the sediments. Curious to see if the fruits seeds might germinate, they planted them. The seeds didnt grow, but the scientists werent discouraged.俄罗斯科学家们通过仔细研究一个古北极的鼠洞,在沉积物中找到了这种植物的果实。科学家们非常好奇种子能否发芽,于是把它们种了起来。种子并未发芽,但科学家们并不气馁。They knew an ancient sacred lotus dating back 1200 years had been restored. Why not the campion? They decided to try growing a new plant from fruit tissue. It had been frozen all those years, so some cells might be viable.科学家们知道一株距今一千两百年的圣莲都可以发芽,为什么剪秋萝就不可以呢?于是他们决定尝试从果肉组织中培育一株新的植物。因为几万年来剪秋萝一直处于冷冻状态,因此就可能有一些细胞存活下来。By bathing the fruit tissue in a culture solution with growth hormones, similar to a technique commonly used to start plants from cuttings, the scientists were able to restart cell division and get several plants to grow.通过将该果实组织浸入在含有生长激素的培养液中,类似于从一株植物上分离出一部分进行培养,科学家能够重新启动细胞分裂,培育出多个新植物。The plants not only flourished, they produced flowers. The flowers went on to produce fruit and seeds that were viable and germinated into a second generation of plants. The ancient campion was given a second chance at life.实验结果是,种子不但发芽长成了一株茂盛的植物,并且还开了花。这些花凋零之后育出的果实和种子能够继续发芽生长出第二代植物。这株远古时期的剪秋萝得到了二次生命。As the earth warms and more and more arctic permafrost melts, larger numbers of ancient plants will be exposed, giving us a chance to bring plants of the ancient past back to life. And who knows, one day we might resurrect a mammoth to eat them.随着地球变暖,越来越多的北极冰冻土壤开始融化,越来越多的远古时期的植物暴露在外,使我们有机会让这些植物重新在现代生长。谁知道呢,也许有一天我们需要复活一头猛犸象,并把他们当做盘中餐呢。201305/241759。

The British Army英国军队A changing force变化的力量The British Army is taking on a radical new shape英国军队正在发生彻底的改头换面LIEUTENANT Christopher Hill is one of the last of his kind. The 25-year-old chose to join his unit, the fourth battalion of the Royal Regiment of Scotland, because he knew it was earmarked for one of the British Armys final deployments to Afghanistan. “I wanted to get an operational tour while I can,” he explains, standing by a six-wheeled Mastiff armoured vehicle.克里斯托弗赫尔中尉是他所属兵种的最后一个人。这个25岁的年轻人选择加入的部队是苏格兰皇家第四部队,因为他了解到这是英国军队最后一次为阿富汗调度的部队之一。他站在六个轮子的装甲车上解释说:“我想在可以的情况下获得一次实战的经历”。The last British outstation in southern Afghanistan, an observation post called Sterga 2 above the Helmand river, closed in May. Camp Bastion is the only base left. The army will cease combat operations in Afghanistan at the end of 2014—a timetable determined by Barack Obama, but which, as one soldier points out, happily provides a four-month buffer before the 2015 general election. As a 13-year campaign winds down, the army will change dramatically.在阿富汗南部的最后一个边哨所于五月份撤销。该哨所叫做斯特格,位于赫尔曼德河之上。堡垒军营是唯一留下的军事基地。这军队将在2014年末取消在阿富汗的军事行动——该日期是由奥巴马决定的。但是一位士兵也指出,这为2015年的大选提供了四个月的缓冲区。随着13年的军事活动落下帷幕,该部队将迅速转型。Next month Lieutenant-General Sir Nick Carter will take over as chief of the general staff. The armys new boss is also its architect: asked to find savings of 5.3 billion (.9 billion), he devised a plan to cut the number of full-time soldiers from 102,000 to 82,000 by 2018. But some are sceptical. A report by Parliaments defence committee earlier this year doubted whether the plan will meet Britains security needs.下个月,中将尼克卡特爵士将以总参谋长的身份接管。该部队的新上司也是其缔造者:为了节省53亿英镑,他修订了一个计划,在2018年将全职的士兵从10,200削减到82,000人。但是有人也存在质疑。议会的防卫委员会今年早期的一个报告质疑该计划是否满足英国的国防需要。According to a senior British officer in Afghanistan, the army at first wished to restructure the infantry by cutting two Scottish battalions. That suggestion caused a row and is no longer on the table. Instead some battalions will have fewer regular soldiers. During operations numbers will be boosted by paired reservist units providing up to one rifleman in three. Overall, across the army, reservist numbers will increase from 19,000 to 30,000.阿富汗的一位英国高级官员表明,部队首先希望能够通过削减两个苏格兰军营的人数而达到重建步兵团的目的,这一建议引起了人们的愤怒最终没有付诸实施。相反,某些军营的正规士兵少之又少。在军事行动中,加入预备役部队,士兵数量飙升,其中三个人里面就有一个是步兵。总的来说,全军的预备役军人数将从19,000 上升到 30,000。Reservists can work well. Lieutenant Colonel Graham Johnson, commanding officer of a medical regiment in Afghanistan, said part-timers make up 10% of his unit. “The military offer a lot of leadership skills and development at the lower level,” he explains. “And we benefit from their clinical competence.” But with infantry the situation is trickier. There are too few reservists, and many are unable to drop their civilian jobs at short notice. Regular commanders calling on their reservists could receive fewer than they need.预备役军人也能做得很好。阿富汗医疗团的指挥官格雷姆·约翰中尉称,他的单位兼职人员占了10%。他解释道“军队提供了大量的领导技能和低水平的发展,我们从他们完善的医疗能力中获益匪浅。”但是在预备役中,这种情况更为棘手。几乎没有预备军人,许多都无法一得到通知就停止原有的普通工作。正规军的司令认为预备军人拿到的工资可能比所需的更少。The army has advertised heavily for reservists, and increased the bounties paid to regular soldiers leaving the army who join the part-timers. But Britain lacks the legal and cultural apparatus to sustain a large reserve. In America part-time soldiers who fail to show up face serious sanctions; employers keep reservists jobs open. By contrast the British Territorial Army, recently renamed the “Army Reserve”, has been a more amateur affair, regarded by some as a drinking club. One London-based reservist, who has completed an Afghanistan tour, wryly said his bosses regard him as comparable to a maternity risk.军队强烈宣传预备役招兵,并提高了正规军退役成为兼职军人的奖金金额。但是英国缺乏法律和文化制约来维持大量的预备役。在美国,兼职军人没有按时报到会受到严厉的制裁;雇主也为现役军人大开大门。相比而言,最近被更名为“陆军预备役”的英国的地方自卫队更多的是一种业余的工作,被有些人与酒吧一类的场所相提并论。一位伦敦的预备役军人,刚刚结束了阿富汗之旅,讽刺地说他的老板们对他的重视程度不亚于妇。A recent survey showed that only 42% of regular soldiers who had worked with reservists saw them as professional. Even fewer thought they were well integrated. “The army know they have to be seen to make the arrangement with the reserves work, although privately they doubt that it will”, says Professor Michael Clarke, director-general of the Royal ed Services Institute, a defence think-tank.最近一项研究表明,与预备役军人工作过的正规军,只有42%认为他们是职业军人。几乎没有人认为自己能够融入这个团体。皇家国防联合务研究所的专家迈克尔·克拉克表示,“军队知道自己必须要做得看起来为预备役做得安排有成效,尽管私底下他们也对此很怀疑” 。The reforms could also create fissures among full-time soldiers. Under the plans, the army will be split into “reactive” and “adaptive” forces. The reactive sides job is conventional fighting, though it will have fewer tanks than formerly. The adaptive force will sit at lower iness. It will train foreign troops, something “the British military has done ever since the early days of empire”, says General Sir Peter Wall, the current chief of the general staff.该改革也可能在全职军人中引起纷争。军队按计划将被分为“作战型”和“防御型”两种。反抗性部队的工作是传统的打仗,,尽管其所拥有的坦克与之前比起来没有差别。而适应性部队的准备机能较低。它将训练外国部队,当前的总参谋长皮特·瓦尔称其有点像“英国军队自帝国早期就开始做的那样”。Because the reactive force will be first to deploy to a major crisis, the new system risks creating a two-tier army. The problem is potentially acute in the Royal Armoured Corps, operators of Britains tanks. Regiments there will be permanently streamed to the reactive or adaptive forces, with fewer opportunities to cross-post soldiers than in larger infantry outfits with feet in both camps. Adding this fuel to the existing rivalries between regiments is a risk.因为反抗性军队将会率先部署解决一个主要的危机,新体制创造一个两层的军队结构。潜伏在皇家坦克部队,即英国坦克部队的问题非常尖锐。部队自此将分为作战型部队和防御型部队,而那些夹在中间的士兵的机会就比擅长两种作战方式的少了许多。将这一计划用在军队上无疑会加剧危险。But the most obvious change to the armed forces is a straightforward one: Britain will probably not be engaged in a major foreign war in the near future. That may hamper recruiting. It will also divide those entitled to wear operational-services medals and those who are not. This is why officers are keen to get whatever residual action they can. “There were very competent guys who I went through training with who were just unfortunate, they didnt go to the right place at the right time and they didnt get an operational tour,” says Lieutenant Hill. Still, he knows his billet is more comfortable than his predecessors endured. He regrets the fact that, since he is based in Camp Bastion rather than an austere forward base, he can go to a shop and eat an ice cream.但是军队最明显的改变是非常直截了当的:英国可能在近期不会再加入大型的境外战争。这可能会影响新兵征募。这也会将那些参加过实战的军人和未参加过的分开来。这就是为什么军官非常热衷于参加剩下的战斗的原因。赫尔中尉说,“和我一起训练过的战友都是很有能力的,但是不幸的是,他们不能在合适的时间去到合适的地方,因而无法参加实战”。而且,他认为自己目前的宿舍比之前的人更为舒适。他感到遗憾的是,自从他从严峻的前线基地回到堡垒军营以后,他竟然可以去商店买冰淇淋吃了。 /201408/323654。