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天河哪里做人流手术广州白云腹腔肿瘤切除需要多少钱广州第三人民医院不孕不育怎么样好不好 Can Animals Count?动物会数数?Can animals count? People count easily, from the time we are little kids and learn our one-two-threes. But what about other species? Careful observations in the wild support the idea that some can.动物会数数吗?对于人来说,数数很简单。当我们还是小孩的时候就学会数数了。但是其它生物呢?通过在自然环境下的一些仔细观察发现有的动物能数数。The American coot is a duck-like North American bird. Sometimes a coot will try and sneak one of its eggs into a neighbors nest. Some coots recognize the deception, and roll the strangers egg out again. Others dont catch on, and raise the strangers egg as their own.美洲白骨顶是一种鸟,它们生活在北美并且长得像野鸭。有时白骨顶尝试把自己的蛋偷偷放到相邻巢穴中。有的白骨顶能识破诡计,把这个不明来路的蛋挑出来。其它白骨顶根本认不出,就把它当作自己的后代抚养长大。Researcher Bruce Lyon at the University of California, Santa Cruz, and his team observed a series of coot nests for four seasons, noting which birds could spot a strangers eggs and which couldnt. Then they compared how many eggs each kind laid.研究人员,加利福利亚大学的布里斯里昂,在圣克鲁斯和他的团队观察了很多的白骨顶巢,并且是在不同 的季节。他们记录下了哪些鸟能认出陌生的鸟蛋,哪些不能认出。然后他们比较了这些鸟各生了多少蛋。Their finding? The coots that couldnt tell when a strangers egg had been stuck into their nest laid that many fewer of their own–sneak one in, the coot lays one fewer.结果呢?发现那些不能认出陌生蛋的鸟,它们巢穴里的陌生蛋越来越多,而自己的蛋越来越少。Sneak two in, the coot lays two fewer. Coots that successfully spotted intruders knocked them out again and then laid the same number they normally would.多出两个陌生蛋,它们就会少生两个蛋。而那些认出闯入者的鸟则会将其赶走,然后生产通常相同数量的蛋。If the number of eggs laid were independent of how many the coot sees in its nest, coots that allow a strangers egg should wind up with one egg extra. But they dont.如果生产蛋的数量与巢里蛋的数量是独立的,那么白骨顶就会算上陌生蛋,不再生蛋。可是他们它们不会。Lyon argues that, along with egg recognition, the coots must therefore be doing some version of “I see I have nine eggs here–time to stop laying now.” And that means coots count.里昂认为,有识别蛋能力,所以白骨顶可能在想“已经有了九个蛋,可以停止产蛋了”。那就意味着它们能数数。Other researchers arent convinced. But though the debate goes on, the case for animal counting just got stronger…by the weight of one coot.其他研究人员并不相信这一理论。虽然争论还在继续,但动物会数数的事例越来越靠谱,因为一只白骨顶。 /201212/216540广州输卵管堵塞治疗多少钱

江门不孕不育最好的医院广州番禺盆腔炎的治疗费用 Business商业Patenting biology生物技术专利Prometheus unsound被缚的普罗米修斯Americas Supreme Court wallops the biotech industry美国最高法院沉重打击生物技术产业PATENTS are supposed to encourage innovation, not stifle it. On March 20th Americas Supreme Court threw out two medical patents for doing the latter. The ruling in Mayo v Prometheus was unequivocal. So was the horrified reaction from the biotechnology industry.专利本是用来鼓励创新,而不是扼杀。3月20日,美国最高法院撤销了两个医药专利,就是为了达到后者的目的。对梅奥医疗机构和普罗米修斯实验室的判决是毫不含糊的,而这就引发了生物技术产业的恐慌。Prometheus is the most important case to date for biotechs most important new effort. ;Personalised medicine; promises new treatments and much-needed new revenue. Different patients are predisposed to certain diseases and certain remedies. If firms understand these predispositions, they can offer diagnostic tests and targeted treatments. Not surprisingly, companies have sought patents for many tests. The Supreme Court may have made some of these patents worthless.普罗米修斯测验可以称是生物技术上最重要的新成就。;个人医疗;希望得到新的治疗和急需的新收入。不同的病人有不同的患病倾向,并有量身定制治疗方案。如果公司了解了这些患病体质,就可以提供诊断测试并进行针对性治疗。所以这些生物技术公司就费尽心思对这些测试争取了专利。而现在最高法院却要撤销那些专利。Prometheus, a subsidiary of Nestlé, had patented a test to determine the correct dose of thiopurines, drugs that have long been used to treat gastrointestinal disorders. Thiopurines effect depends on how each patient processes the drug. Prometheus patented a way to determine the best dose for a given patient: concentrations of certain chemicals in the blood should be within a range, high enough to work but low enough to be safe. It sells its test to hospitals, including the prestigious Mayo Clinic. In 2004 Mayo developed a competing test with a different recommended range. Prometheus sued.隶属于雀巢公司的普罗米修斯实验室获得了一项专利,该专利包括帮助医生测定巯基嘌呤药物剂量是否适当的血液测试,巯基嘌呤是治疗胃肠道功能紊乱的常用药物。巯基嘌呤的作用取决于每个病人对其药物吸收的程度。普罗米修斯专利就是为病人确定最适宜的药量:某些化学物质在血液中的浓度应该维持在一定范围内,既能保药性,也要足够安全。普罗米修斯实验室把这种测试方法卖给医院,包括享有声望的梅奥诊所。而在2004年,梅奥就开发了一种类似的测试,但与普罗米修斯测试提出的药剂量范围不同,于是普罗米修斯实验室起诉了。In the subsequent eight years of litigation, arguments centred on a basic proposition. American law prohibits patents of nature. Mayo said that Prometheus had claimed ownership of a natural process. Big doctors and hospitals lobbies agreed. Uphold Prometheuss patents, they argued, and companies would rush to patent natural phenomena. The inevitable legal minefield would stifle new discoveries, they insisted.在接下来的八年诉讼过程中,争论主要集中在一个基本的定论上。美国法律规定自然现象不能被授予专利。梅奥称普罗米修斯实验室就是拥有这种自然的过程的所有权。私人医生和医院的大型游说团也同意这一说法。他们称,如果拥护普罗米修斯专利,大公司们就会争着抢着去申请自然现象的专利。这种无法避免的法律雷池将会扼杀新发明新发现,他们坚持到。The Biotechnology Industry Organisation (BIO), a lobby, retorted that patents have long covered clever applications of natural laws. For example, a genetic mutation can identify patients who are susceptible to a given disease or treatment. The mutation is a natural occurrence, as is the reaction to the drug. But the invention comes in connecting the dots between these elements. Mayo itself, BIO pointed out, has licensed a test for a genetic mutation that predicts side-effects for a certain colon-cancer drug. If the court overturned Prometheuss patents, hundreds of others would capsize too, the industry warned.游说团生物科技产业组织反驳道,专利一直都是涉及了对自然法则的灵活运用。比如,基因突变可以识别易患某种疾病和易接受某种治疗的病人。这种突变是自然发生的,就像身体对于药物的反应一样。而普罗米修斯测试就是把这些因素结合到一起了。生物技术产业组织指出,梅奥诊所自身也申请到了一种测试的专利,用于预测一种治疗结肠癌药物副作用的基因突变。如果法院撤回普罗米修斯专利,那么上百个类似的专利也将被推翻,该组织警告道。Yet the Supreme Court sided unanimously with Mayo. Stephen Breyer, writing the courts opinion, affirmed that Prometheuss patents claimed a natural law and would restrict further innovation. Administering thiopurines, observing the bodys reaction and offering dosing advice did not add up to a patentable process. ;Einstein could not patent his celebrated law that Emc2;, wrote Mr Breyer. Nor could Einstein have patented the observation by ;simply telling linear accelerator operators to refer to the law to determine how much energy an amount of mass has produced.;然而,最高法院站到了梅奥诊所一边。法官斯蒂芬·布雷尔称,普罗米修斯专利涉及到自然法则,而且会限制进一步的创新。监管用巯基嘌呤,观察身体的反应,并提供定量的建议并不能算整个审核专利的过程。;爱因斯坦并不能为他的著名的公式Emc2申请专利;,布雷尔先生写到。而且爱因斯坦也不能就因为;告诉直线加速器运营商参考公式就能决定一定质量的东西能产生多少能量;就申请专利。The biotechnology industry did not expect the ruling. It is now in a minor panic. Personalised medicine inevitably includes the application of natural laws. It is unclear which applications may be patented. The patent office and lower courts must now try to make sense of the ruling. BIOs annual conference usually features a crowded session on patent law. This years meeting may need a bigger room.生物技术产业没有想到最高法院会来这一手,所以现在稍微有些恐慌。个人医疗肯定包括自然法则的应用,但该产业还并不清楚哪种应用应该申请专利。专利局和地方法院现在必须试着搞清楚最高法院的意思。生物技术产业组织的年度会议经常被看成是一堆人讨论专利法的大会,今年的会议室可能会换个大点的地方。 /201210/204674广州长安不育医院结扎疏通

天河做人流哪个地方好Hawaii has some of the most spectacular shield volcanoes that are very similar to volcanoes we see on Venus.夏威夷有着最令人叹为观止的火山,和我们在金星上看到的类似。The huge gently sloped volcanoes of Hawaii maybe impressive, On Venus there are at least 150 ranging from this size to ten times larger.夏威夷巨大的呈倾斜度的火山也许令人印象深刻,而在金星上至少有150倍大小。But the observed visitors may noticed that Venus is missing something.但是,观察者们可能注意到金星少了什么东西。The whole impact craters situation on Venus is really very puzzling.整个金星上的陨石坑情况真的很让人迷惑。With Magellan images we see really small number impact craters and such a small numbers about a thousand, because we know the radar which impact craters can actually date to surface too. 我们看到麦哲伦图像真的很小数量的陨石坑,因为我们知道雷达表面的陨石坑实际上已经追溯到表面。Some are between 300 million and 1 billion years old. 表面有些已经有3亿年间或者 10亿年的历史了。Some time in the recent geological past it seems the entire surface of Venus was remodeled.在最近一段时间似乎金星的地质过去曾经整个表面被改建过。注:听力文本来源于普特201203/175231 Business Alternative law firms Bargain briefs商业 律师事务所可他选 概说律所议价Technology offers 50 ways to leave your lawyer网络给你50种选择来挑律师CONVENTIONAL law firms charge vast hourly fees and then hand the work to underlings while the partners play golf at clubs their clients are too poor to join. At least, that is how it seems to many clients, whose irritation at being overcharged turned to fury during the recession.传统的律师事务所每小时的收费很多,但之后老板就把工作丢给手下去办,以至于当律所合伙人在俱乐部里打高尔夫的时候,他们的客户却只能望门兴叹。至少,对很多的客户来说就是这么一回事,律所的过度收费使得在经济危机期间这些客户的怨气重重恶化成了恼羞成怒。Some clients are switching to unconventional law firms, which claim to offer equally good lawyering for much less money. Take Clearspire. The firms 20 or so lawyers work mostly from home, collaborating on a multi-million-dollar technology platform that mimics a virtual office. A lawyer checking in on a colleague automatically sees a picture of her on the phone when she is, in fact, on the phone. Clients use the platform too, commenting on and even changing their own documents as they are being drawn up. Conventional lawyers are far less open.因此很多客户转向非传统的律师事务所,这些公司宣称提供同样的律师务,但收费低廉。拿Clearspire来说。这家律师事务所里的约20名律师中,大部分都在家里工作,他们在一个价值百万美元的技术平台所模拟构建的虚拟办公室中互相合作。一个律师要找另一个同事,而他的同事在打电话,他就会看到自动显示的这位同事在打电话的画面。客户们也使用这个虚拟平台,为自己的文件材料作批注,甚至想起草文件一样修改文件的内容。传统的律师们可就没这么灵活了。From the start, Clearspire offers cost estimates for each phase of a legal job. Employees who underestimate how long it will take cannot simply jack up the bill—they must take the hit themselves. But if a lawyer finishes his work faster than promised, he gets a third of the savings. The client also gets a third, as does Clearspire. This gives everyone a stake in making the process more efficient and predictable.从一开始,Clearspire就提供了一项法律务每个阶段的收费金额。那些低估业务需要时间的律师们可不能随便地加费——他们必须自己承受损失。但如果一个律师在承诺的时间期限之前完成了工作,他还能得到保留金的1/3。客户和Clearspire也都能分别拿到保留金的1/3,这一政策就是给那些做事有效率且有预见性的律师一个奖励。Bryce Arrowood, the founder, notes that law firms reward partners who bring in business, and not necessarily the most brilliant lawyers. Yet clients priorities are exactly the reverse. So Clearspire has an unusual dual structure. American law firms cannot have non-lawyers sharing fees with lawyers. (Britain used to be the same, but will ditch this pointless rule this year.) So Clearspire must be two entities: a law firm, with salaried employee-lawyers rather than partners, and a second company that focuses on bringing in business and supporting the lawyers.布赖斯. 艾尔伍德,这位Clearspire的创建者指出,律师事务所奖励那些招揽生意的合伙人,而这些人不一定就是最出色的律师,但是客户们的首选可不是这些人。所以Clearspire有一个双重的运作结构,因为美国的律所不能分享律师们的非律师业务的收费,(英国从前与美国一样, 不过今年英国要废除这一毫无意义的规定。)因此Clearspire必须为两个公司:一个为律师事务所,与领工资的雇佣律师们而不是合伙人打交道,另一个工资则旨在招揽生意并给律师工资。The discount for clients is sweet. George Kappaz is a private-equity boss who recently gave a complex job to Clearspire (structuring an equity package for Astrata, one his funds firms). He estimates that it cost a quarter of what he would have paid the big firms he used before, and Clearspires work was just as good. (Many of its lawyers come from top-notch law firms.) Mr Kappaz predicts that the Clearspire model, or something like it, will revolutionise the legal business.非传统的律所给客户带来了甜头。乔治.卡帕兹是一个私有股份公司的老板,它最近委托Clearspire一个复杂的业务。(为他的一个基金公司Astrata建构一个股份组合)他估计这个业务的花费,可能只为以往他用的那个大律所的花费的1/4.并且 Clearspire干的一样的好。(很多Clearspire 的律师来自高级律所。)卡帕兹预测说Clearspire的这种模式,或是类似它的运营模式,会在律师界引起大革命。Perhaps so, but for Clearspire it is early days. Can it make money? A company like 11-year-old Axiom proves that clients have an appetite for alternative models. Axiom either seconds some of its hundreds of lawyers to a company, takes on a whole chunk of a client firms legal work (such as commercial contracts), or performs ;discovery; (reviewing documents for litigation). Rather than charging by the hour for each lawyer, it asks for a single flat fee, or charges for a team by the week or the month. Expenses are kept low by having headquarters in SoHo, a chic bohemian bit of New York, and by stashing many lawyers in even cheaper places such as Houston and Hyderabad.也许是这样的,但是对于Clearspire 来说此言尚早。Clearspire会盈利么?Axion这一运营了11年的公司明了客户喜欢不同的律所模式。Axion要么从几百名律师中调派一些去客户公司,处理大量的客户公司的法律业务,(例如商务合同)要么做;据开示(程序);(复审诉讼文件)。 比起按律师按小时收费,公司简单地收取统一价。或者按周/月收取一组律师的费用。通过把总部设在索霍区/休南区——这个雅致又富有波西米亚风格的纽约一角,还有通过把律师们储备在像休斯顿和海德拉巴这样消费更低的地方,律所的开销就能保持低廉了。The recession was good to Axiom. After it sent its consultants, recruited from the likes of McKinsey and Accenture, to clients to help them trim their legal spending, the clients gave Axiom more work. Revenue grew from m in 2008 to m in 2010. This year the firm expects to rake in 0m. Companies were always under pressure to cut their legal bills, says Mark Harris, Axioms boss. But ;fake pressure; before became ;real pressure; during the downturn.对于Axiom,经济危机是件好事。Axiom将从Mckinsey和Accenture那里挖来的咨询师派到客户那里之后,他们帮忙客户们削减了法律开,这些客户则为Axiom带来了更多的客户。公司的利润从08年的5500万美元增长到了10年的8000万美元。今年Axiom预计能将12000万美元敛入囊中。公司总在削减法律账单的压力下,Axiom的老板马克.哈里斯如是说,但以前的;伪压力;在经济危机中变成了;真压力;。Axiom and Clearspire serve some of Americas biggest companies. Other entrepreneurs are aiming at small-business clients. These would normally take a chance on finding the right sole practitioner or small firm. But on LawPivot, a year-old social-networking website for lawyers and those who need them, potential clients post questions (up to three a month), and lawyers provide free, brief answers. The lawyers make nothing, but use the service to drum up custom. Clients can test a lawyers skill before opening their wallets.Axiom和Clearspirewei 为美国的一些大公司务。其他的律所则瞄准了小型企业客户上,他们一般会试着找个体户或是小公司。但是在Lawpivot,这个为律师和需要律师的人运营了一年的社交网站上,潜在客户们提出问题(每月限制3个),之后律师们提供免费的简洁的回答。律师没在做别的,不过是用这一务去争取顾客。这样客户们在掏腰包之前就可以测试律师的水平了。LawPivot is a social-networking site, not a law firm—it will make its money initially by charging lawyers to upgrade their profiles (similar to the networking profiles on LinkedIn). Google Ventures is a backer, and Apples former top lawyer for mergers and acquisitions is a co-founder. This kind of heft will bring it up against LegalZoom, the biggest seller of online forms and easy, repeatable legal services for small businesses and individuals. LegalZoom now wants to put more of its contract lawyers to work directly for clients at a flat rate.LawPivotshiyige 是一个社交网站,并不是律师事务所——它靠起始阶段向律师们收取信息更新费赚钱。(这与Linkedln的网络信息相似)不过有谷歌风投作为赞助商,还有苹果公司的前任合并收购高级律师做为共同创建人。这种强强组合将会使LawPivot能与LegalZoom一较高下。LegalZoom是最大的以在线形式为小型企业和个人提供简易并可重复的法律务公司。如今,Legalzoom想要使其更多的签约律师去按统一收费率直接为客户务。It is more than a decade since the internet made book-buying cheaper and more convenient. If technology now helps cut gargantuan legal bills in America and elsewhere, it will be better late than never.互联网使得买书更便宜,方便已经有10多年了。对于法律,互联网如果能在这时候,在美国还有其他地方,帮忙削减大笔的法律开的话,就会是亡羊补牢了。 /201301/222700广州白云不孕症中心广州天河长安医院妇科检查怎么样好不好



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