明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年09月22日 02:21:28
The recent killing of a popular lion named Cecil by an American dentist in Zimbabwe sparked considerable outrage on social media and elsewhere against safari hunting. The event has also brought to light the role that airlines play in transporting trophy kills as cargo, and may have contributed to changing airline policy.近期,美国牙医猎杀明星狮子塞西尔(Cecil)一事在社交媒体和世界各地激发了人们对狩猎的愤怒。此事也暴露了航空公司把遭到猎杀的动物作为货物运送的事实,或将有助于转变现有的航空政策。On Monday, Delta Air Lines became the latest carrier to change its rules about transporting hunting trophies. Its announcement came as a group of airlines including Air France, KLM, Iberia, I Cargo, Singapore Airlines and Qantas signaled last week they would ban the transport of trophy-hunting kills, according to Paul Ferris, the campaign director at SumOfUs.org, a consumer-based petition agency in Brooklyn, which has pressed for changing cargo policies.周一,达美航空(Delta Air Lines)成为最新一家针对运送猎物的运输规定作出修改的航空公司。总部位于布鲁克林的消费者请愿机构SumOfUs.org的活动总监保罗·费瑞斯(Paul Ferris)表示,除达美外,法国航空(Air France)、荷兰皇家航空(KLM)、西班牙国家航空(Iberia)、国际航空集团(I Cargo)、新加坡航空(Singapore Airlines)和澳洲航空(Qantas)在上周均表示将禁止运送猎物。SumOfUs.org致力于推动货运政策的修改。“Airlines and other large travel corporations would be foolish to ignore the public reaction to the killing of Cecil the lion, and growing concern about the plight of endangered species,” Mr. Ferris said.“如果无视公众对塞西尔被杀的反应和对濒危物种面临的困境与日剧增的担忧,航空公司和其他大型旅行公司无疑是愚蠢的,” 费瑞斯说。Such a ban was initiated by South African Airways in April, and Emirates, Lufthansa and British Airways later joined. These airlines pledged not to carry big game trophies, including elephants, rhinos, lions and tigers as cargo.这样的禁令最初是由南非航空(South African Airways)在今年4月发起的,随后阿联酋航空(Emirates)、汉莎航空(Lufthansa)和英国航空(British Airways)也加入其中。这些公司承诺不会再运输大型猎物,包括大象、犀牛、狮子和老虎。One major holdout had been Delta, which has direct service between the ed States and countries in Africa. But bowing to pressure from some travelers and activists, and an online petition on Change.org, Delta changed its position too.之前,其中一个拒不让步的公司就是达美。这家公司拥有美国和多个非洲国家之间的直飞航线。不过,面对来自旅客和活动人士的压力,还有在Change.org网站上的请愿行动,达美也让步了。“Effective immediately, Delta will officially ban shipment of all lion, leopard, elephant, rhinoceros and buffalo trophies worldwide as freight,” according to a statement by Morgan Durrant, a Delta spokesman. “Prior to this ban, Delta’s strict acceptance policy called for absolute compliance with all government regulations regarding protected species. Delta will also review acceptance policies of other hunting trophies with appropriate government agencies and other organizations supporting legal shipments.”“达美航空将正式在全球范围内禁止以货物形式运输任何狮子、豹、大象、犀牛和水牛,立即生效,”达美航空发言人根·达兰特(Morgan Durrant)说。“在此项禁令之前,达美严格的货物收寄政策完全遵守了各国政府对保护物种的全部规定。达美也将与相关政府机构和其他组织一起审核其他猎物的收寄政策,以持合法运输。”Still resistance to change can run deep. South African Airways initially banned trophy cargo after a shipment of elephant tusks marked as machine parts bound for Kuala Lumpur was discovered during a stop in Australia. But since July there have been reports that SAA lifted the ban and has resumed shipping trophy kills.当然,对于变革的顽强抵抗还是存在的。南非航空起初发起对猎物运输的禁令,是因为运往吉隆坡的一单货物标记为机械部件,但在澳大利亚经停时被发现是象牙。不过,从7月开始就有报道称,南非航空已经取消禁令,又开始重新运输被杀的猎物。Americans make up the bulk of non-African hunters. About 15,000 American tourists visit Africa on hunting safaris every year, according to Conservation Force, a nonprofit group that advocates responsible hunting. Currently, 11 African countries issue lion-hunting permits, including Zimbabwe, South Africa, Namibia and Tanzania.在来自非洲之外的猎人中,美国人占了很大一部分。根据倡导良心狩猎的非营利组织“保护力量”(Conservation Force)提供的数据,每年有1.5万名美国游客前往非洲进行狩猎游。目前,有11个非洲国家颁发猎狮许可,其中包括津巴布韦、南非、纳米比亚和坦桑尼亚。Of those, South Africa’s hunting industry is the biggest, estimated to be worth around 5 million, according to the Professional Hunters Association. And just as important, it is woven into the luxury sector of the travel industry, with fees that can reach ,000 to hunt lions, for example.按照职业猎人协会(Professional Hunters Association)公布的数据,在这些国家中,南非的狩猎行业规模最大,估计产值在6.75亿美元左右。同样重要的是,狩猎还与豪华旅游业结合了起来。比方说,猎狮的收费可达5.5万美元。Many of the ranches in Africa where big game is hunted have their own luxury accommodations. Such is the case with Bushman Safaris, the outfitters used by Walter Palmer, the Minnesota dentist.非洲的不少大型动物猎场配有豪华住宿务。猎杀塞西尔的明尼苏达牙医瓦尔特帕尔默(Walter Palmer)采用的装备供应商布须曼游猎公司(Bushman Safaris)即为一例。Luxury hotel chains do not condemn trophy hunting or ban hotel guests from big-game hunting, even though it does little for the local economy. Less than 3 percent of the revenue from trophy hunting goes to local guides, business owners or people living in communities near the animals, according to a report by the think tank Economists at Large.连锁豪华酒店并不会谴责为了获得纪念品而进行的狩猎活动,也不会禁止宾客猎杀大型动物,尽管此类活动对当地经济贡献寥寥。根据智库“自由经济学人”(Economists at Large)发布的一份报告,狩猎活动的收入中,不到3%流向了当地导游、企业主或是居住在临近动物领地的社区里的民众。Many conservationists are concerned that the laws regulating trophy hunting can be ambiguous and often lead to poaching.许多动物保护人士感到忧心忡忡,他们认为规范狩猎活动的法规措辞模糊,而且往往会导致偷猎。African lion population numbers vary, but many estimate there were about 100,000 a century ago. Today, there are around 35,000. Lion populations had been stable, but because they dropped noticeably in the last three years, the ed States Fish and Wildlife Service has proposed listing the lion as a threatened species.各方对非洲狮种群规模的估算不一,不过许多说法认为一个世纪前约为10万头。目前的数据则为3.5万头左右。狮子的种群规模曾经较为稳定,但在过去三年里显著缩小,因此美国鱼类和野生动物(ed States Fish and Wildlife Service)提议将之列为受威胁物种。While this would not eliminate trophy hunting, it would regulate it through a permit system for importing sport-hunted trophies into the ed States. Opponents to the listing are concerned that the agency’s proposal would hamper conservation funds raised by the fees collected for trophy hunting. A decision is expected by January 2016.尽管进入名录并不会消灭狩猎行为,但会使其接受监管,方式是推出将猎取的动物运入美国的进口许可制度。反对把狮子列入名录的人士担心,的这项提议会阻碍通过狩猎来筹集保护基金。有关这项建议的决定将于2016年1月做出。But while the pace of federal regulation moves slowly, conservationists said airlines like Delta and other travel corporations are in a much better position to press for change.不过,尽管联邦监管方面步伐缓慢,动物保护人士表示,在推动变革上,达美等航空公司和其他类别的旅游企业所处的位置要有利得多。 /201508/390844

Tens of thousands of people marched through Moscow yesterday in memory of Boris Nemtsov, the slain liberal politician, in the largest opposition demonstration the city has seen in three years.数万人昨日走上莫斯科街头游行,悼念被杀的自由派政治人物鲍里斯#8226;涅姆佐夫(Boris Nemtsov),这是三年来该市爆发的最大规模反对派示威。People carrying portraits of the charismatic opposition leader and waving Russian flags moved in a sombre procession towards the spot where he was murdered on Friday while walking home from a restaurant a stone’s throw from the Kremlin.人们举着这位富有政治魅力的反对派领袖的画像,并挥舞着俄罗斯国旗。游行者在肃穆的气氛中走向他在上周五被谋杀的现场,当时他在离开一家餐厅后,正步行回家,案发地点距离克里姆林宫很近。Gennady Gudkov, a former member of parliament and opposition activist, said: “[Nemtsov’s] death has shocked people both inside and outside the Kremlin. People realise it’s a watershed moment.”前杜马成员、反对派活动家根纳季#8226;古德科夫(Gennady Gudkov)表示:“(涅姆佐夫的)离世令克里姆林宫内外的人们感到震惊。人们意识到这是一个分水岭时刻。”President Vladimir Putin has vowed to pursue those responsible for Nemtsov’s killing, which he called a “provocation”. But government critics have blamed the Kremlin for the politician’s murder.总统弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)誓言追缉那些要对涅姆佐夫被杀负责的人,称这起事件是“挑衅”。但批评政府的人士将这起谋杀归咎于克里姆林宫。Nemtsov’s death has demoralised an anti-Kremlin opposition aly weakened by Moscow’s crackdown on dissent and the big jump in Mr Putin’s approval ratings following Russia’s annexation of Crimea last year.涅姆佐夫的离世挫伤了反对克里姆林宫的势力的士气。反对派势力本已被削弱,原因既包括莫斯科方面打压异见,也包括俄罗斯去年吞并克里米亚后普京的持率大幅跃升。Yesterday’s march came with Moscow awash with conspiracy theories about who could have killed Nemtsov, a former deputy prime minister who came to prominence in the mid-1990s as one of the so-called young reformers and had once been touted as a potential successor to Russia’s first democratically elected president, Boris Yeltsin.昨日举行游行的同时,莫斯科充斥着有关谁可能杀害涅姆佐夫的阴谋论。涅姆佐夫曾是俄罗斯副总理,他在上世纪90年代中期作为所谓的年轻改革者之一声名鹊起,一度被吹捧为俄罗斯首任民选总统鲍里斯#8226;叶利钦(Boris Yeltsin)的一名潜在继任者。While Putin critics blamed the authorities, state media, government officials and pro-Kremlin politicians portrayed the killing as an attempt to destabilise Russia and floated the idea that the west was behind it.尽管普京的批评者指责当局,但官方媒体、政府官员和亲克里姆林宫的政界人士将这起谋杀说成是企图破坏俄罗斯稳定的举动,并提出了西方是幕后黑手的构想。Organisers estimated the number of marchers yesterday had reached 50,000 — although police put it at 21,000. Florists in Moscow city centre sold out of their stock, as people bought tributes to lay on the spot on Great Moskvoretsky Bridge, close to the Kremlin, where Nemtsov was shot dead while walking with his girlfriend.组织者估计昨日游行人数达到5万,尽管警方估计有2.1万人。莫斯科市中心的花店售出了全部存货,因为人们纷纷购买花束,然后向克里姆林宫附近的莫斯科河大桥上涅姆佐夫被杀的现场献花。击发生时,涅姆佐夫正与女友一起步行。Marchers held black-framed placards with the words: “Boris, I’m not afraid,” and “They killed you, they are killing freedom.”游行者举着黑框标语牌,上面写着:“鲍里斯,我不害怕,”以及“他们杀了你,他们杀了自由。”The marchers appeared to be a broad cross section of Russian society. “I am proud that I’m here today,” said Pyotr, a 60-year-old man who would only give his first name. “I have never been to a demonstration before, except for those marches we had to attend in the Soviet Union.”游行者似乎代表着俄罗斯社会各界。“我很自豪我今天在这里,”一个只愿意说自己名叫“彼得”的60岁男子表示。“我以前从来没有参加过示威——除了我们在苏联时代不得不参加的那些游行外。”But the atmosphere differed markedly from past opposition demonstrations. There was no stage, no music and no speeches. Most people simply chatted quietly under an icy drizzle.但是,现场气氛与过去的反对派示威活动明显不同。没有舞台,没有音乐,也没有演讲。大多数人只是在冰冷的细雨中悄悄地聊着。Occasional shouts of “Russia will be free” and “Russia without Putin” rose from the crowd — slogans that had been popular during the mass anti-Putin rallies of 2011-12. But the chanting quickly died down.偶尔,人群中爆发出“俄罗斯将会自由”和“俄罗斯没有普京”的高喊——这些口号在2011-12年的大规模反普京集会中曾经流行。但这些高呼很快就沉寂下来。“I’m glad that so many people came, but I don’t think this changes anything,” said Vera Matveyeva, a 34-year-old civil rights activist.“我很高兴有这么多人来了,但我不认为这会改变任何情况,”34岁的民权活动家维拉#8226;马特维耶娃(Vera Matveyeva)说道。 /201503/361986

  In the last days of the Soviet Union, one of Mikhail Gorbachev’s lieutenants came to him with a plea: ditch the Soviet planned economy and open up to #173;market reforms as China had.在前苏联最后的日子里,米哈伊尔#8226;戈尔巴乔夫(Mikhail Gorbachev)的一位副手曾这样请求他:放弃苏联的计划经济,像中国那样推行市场改革。“I said, ‘At the end of the day, if you don’t have any strategy, look at what China has done’,” recalled Nursultan Nazarbayev, now the president of #173;Kazakhstan, in a recent speech.现任哈萨克斯坦总统的努尔苏丹#8226;纳扎尔巴耶夫(Nursultan Nazarbayev)在最近一次演讲中回忆道:“我当时说,‘如果您到最后还拿不出战略的话,就看看中国所做的吧’。”Mr Gorbachev rejected the suggestion. But 25 years later Mr Nazarbayev is pinning his own hopes on an ambitious programme of privatisation and market reform to stave off an economic crisis.戈尔巴乔夫拒绝了他的建议。25年后,纳扎尔巴耶夫自己把希望寄托在了一项大规模的私有化和市场改革计划上,以求防范经济危机。A strong economy has underpinned Mr Nazarbayev’s popularity since he took office in 1991. But buffeted by the slowdown in China, the effect of the Ukraine crisis on the Russian economy and plunging oil prices, the International Monetary Fund has forecast growth will slow this year to 4.6 per cent from 6 per cent in 2013.自1991年上台以来,哈萨克斯坦经济昌盛,这巩固了纳扎尔巴耶夫的民望。但受中国经济放缓、乌克兰危机拖累俄罗斯经济以及油价下挫等因素影响,国际货币基金组织(IMF)预测,哈萨克斯坦今年的经济增速将从2013年的6%降至4.6%。“Kazakhstan, as a part of the global economy and a country close to the epicentre of geopolitical tension, is feeling the negative effects,” said Mr Nazarbayev in an address to the nation last week.纳扎尔巴耶夫上周向全国发表讲话时表示:“作为全球经济的一部分以及一个靠近地缘政治紧张局势中心的国家,哈萨克斯坦正感受到负面影响。”He also announced a bn stimulus for the economy from the national oil fund to encourage investment in Kazakh infrastructure.他还宣布了一项90亿美元的经济刺激计划,以鼓励对哈萨克斯坦基础设施的投资,资金将来自国家石油基金。Meanwhile, bankers and executives in the country say the economic slowdown is having a big effect on business confidence. “We see less demand for loans – people are really being careful about expanding their businesses,” says Magzhan Auezov, managing director of Kazkommertsbank, the country’s largest lender.与此同时,该国界人士和企业高管表示,经济放缓正对企业信心造成巨大影响。全国最大的——哈萨克商业(Kazkommertsbank)董事总经理马格詹#8226;奥耶佐夫(Magzhan Auezov)表示:“我们看到贷款需求下滑,人们确实对扩大业务态度谨慎。”Kazakhstan’s government, which relies on oil for more than half its #173;revenues, is revising down budget projections for next year on the basis of an oil price of a barrel.哈萨克斯坦政府正以每桶80美元的油价为基础,下调明年的预算估测。该国政府逾一半的收入依赖石油。“We knew that oil prices would fall one day – that’s the reason all this package of reforms started,” says Yerlan Sagadiyev, vice-minister of investment and development. “We now have to move a lot faster.”“我们知道油价总有一天会下跌,这就是我们推出改革计划的原因,”负责投资和发展的副部长叶尔兰#8226;萨加季耶夫(Yerlan Sagadiyev)表示,“我们现在必须更快行动。”But people familiar with the government’s thinking say that the urgency behind the programme of privatisations and regulatory reforms is more than just an attempt to stimulate Kazakhstan’s economy. It is also an attempt to secure western investment in Kazakhstan’s future at a time when Russia is showing little respect for post-Soviet borders.但了解哈萨克斯坦政府想法的人士称,该国迫切推行私有化和监管改革计划不仅仅是为了刺激经济。还有一个目的是,在俄罗斯对苏联解体以后的国界几乎没有表现出任何尊重之际,争取西方对哈萨克斯坦未来的投资。When asked a question at a carefully choreographed public meeting in Russia in August about whether Kazakhstan, which has a large ethnic Russian population, could face a “Ukraine scenario”, Vladimir Putin caused alarm in Astana by saying that the Kazakh people had never had a state before Mr Nazarbayev was president.在今年8月在俄罗斯召开的一次经过精心设计的公开会议上,有人问了弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)这样一个问题:拥有大量俄罗斯族裔的哈萨克斯坦是否会面临“乌克兰情景”?普京的回答在阿斯塔纳引起恐慌,他表示,在纳扎尔巴耶夫担任总统以前,哈萨克人从未建立过国家。Dosym Satpayev, head of Risk Assessment Group, a think-tank in Almaty, says the country is at a critical juncture. “It’s like the Titanic. There was a very beautiful opening, but now we can see a lot of icebergs,” he said.阿拉木图智库——风险评估集团(Risk Assessment Group)负责人多瑟姆#8226;萨帕耶夫(Dosym Satpayev)表示,哈萨克斯坦正处于紧要关头。他表示:“它就像是那艘泰坦尼克号(Titanic)。开头非常美好,但现在我们能看到很多冰山。”In response, the Kazakh government has worked at a frantic pace to push through reforms to reinvigorate the economy by wooing western investors. Last month, the country signed a “partnership and co-operation pact” with the EU, and it is hoping to become a member of the World Trade Organisation in the next few months. It has relaxed visa requirements, cut back bureaucracy, and is offering subsidies for big foreign investors.针对当前形势,哈萨克斯坦政府以紧锣密鼓的节奏,大力推动改革,以期通过吸引西方投资者,为经济重新注入活力。该国上月与欧盟(EU)签署“伙伴关系与合作协议”,并希望在未来几个月内加入世界贸易组织(WTO)。该国放宽了签要求,削减了官僚程序,并向外国大型投资者提供补贴。Central to the reforms is Samruk-Kazyna, the sprawling sovereign wealth fund for the state’s interests in the country, which employs 350,000 people and accounts for a quarter of all investment in the Kazakh economy.在这些改革中,规模庞大、代表国家利益的主权财富基金Samruk-Kazyna处于核心地位。该基金拥有多达35万员工,占哈萨克斯坦经济投资总额的四分之一。Samruk, a focus for critics of the bureaucracy and corruption in Kazakhstan’s economy, plans to sell off half of the 600 companies it owns within three years.Samruk计划在3年内将旗下600家公司出售一半。对哈萨克斯坦经济中存在的官僚主义和腐败持批评态度的人士密切关注着这家基金。It has aly sold many of the sanatoria, kindergartens, and holiday camps that it owned as a legacy of the Soviet era. Next month, it plans to list the state electricity company, Kegoc, on the Kazakh stock exchange.目前该基金已出售了其在前苏联时代就拥有的很多疗养院、幼儿园和度假营地。下个月,该基金计划将国家电力公司Kegoc在哈萨克斯坦股票交易所上市。In parallel, the sovereign fund is putting emphasis on co-operation with international companies. “We believe that the presence of private investors in our capital is essential,” said Umirzak Shukeyev, chief executive of the fund, in an interview with the Financial Times. “We are telling our companies that new projects should include a private #173;company as a strategic investor.”同时,该主权基金还将重点放在了与跨国企业的合作上面。“我们认为,私人投资者在我们首都出现至关重要,”该基金首席执行官乌米尔扎克#8226;舒克耶夫(Umirzak Shukeyev)在接受英国《金融时报》采访时表示,“我们正告诉我们的企业,新的项目应引入私营企业作为战略投资者。”Some observers are #173;sceptical that the Kazakh government can do much to woo investors fearful of the fallout from the Ukraine crisis.关于哈萨克斯坦政府能否采取大量措施,吸引那些对乌克兰危机影响感到担忧的投资者,一些观察人士持怀疑态度。However, Janet Heckman, head of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development in Almaty, says that companies that had previously planned investments in Russia are now turning to Kazakhstan. “We’re starting to see some real investors .#8201;.#8201;. people looking at Kazakhstan as an alternative to Russia,” said Ms Heckman不过,欧洲复兴开发(European Bank for Reconstruction and Development)在阿拉木图的负责人珍尼特#8226;埃克曼(Janet Heckman)表示,一些之前计划在俄罗斯投资的企业现在将目光转向了哈萨克斯坦。她表示:“我们开始看到一些真正的投资者……人们将哈萨克斯坦视为俄罗斯的替代选择。”Kairat Kelimbetov, governor of the Kazakh central bank, says the fall in oil prices, is “kind of good news for people who want to change something”.哈萨克斯坦央行行长卡伊拉特#8226;克里姆别托夫(Kairat Kelimbetov)表示,油价下跌“对于那些希望发生一些变化的人们来说是个好消息”。 /201411/343594

  In a prelude to protests planned for the McDonald#39;s annual shareholders meeting Thursday morning, police arrested 139 protesters on Wednesday afternoon outside McDonald#39;s world headquarters in Oak Brook, Ill.据《今日美国报》网站报道,周三(5月21日)下午在伊利诺伊州橡树溪麦当劳全球总部大楼外,警方逮捕了139名示威者,他们原定计划周四上午在麦当劳股东年会再次举行抗议活动。Oak Brook police said protesters arrested for criminal trespass were from a group of 101 McDonald#39;s workers and 38 clergy and union activists who chose to cross a police barricade.橡树溪警方称,包括101麦当劳员工、38名神职人员以及工会激进分子在内的示威人群穿过警戒路障,涉嫌非法入侵而被捕。Workers chanted ;Hey McDonald#39;s You Can#39;t Hide, We Can See Your Greedy Side,; and ;No Big Macs, No Fries, Make our Wage Supersize,; as the arrests were made.员工们被捕时高喊:“嘿,麦当劳你不要隐藏,我们能看到你贪婪的一面,”以及“不要巨无霸汉堡!不要炸薯条!给我们加工资!”The Oak Brook Police Department was assisted by several surrounding-area departments, said Officer George Peterson, a department spokesman.警方发言人乔治·皮特森警官称:橡树溪警方是在周围地区几个部门的协助下开展工作。Some of those arrested were uniform-wearing McDonald#39;s employees who had come for the protest from 33 U.S. cities. Also arrested was Mary Kay Henry, president of the Service Employees International Union, according to the union. Police could not immediately confirm that. The union is the financial and logistical backer for Fast Food Forward, the group organizing the protests.被逮捕的部分示威者是来自美国33个城市身穿统一制的麦当劳员工。据务职工国际联盟称,该联盟主席玛丽·凯·亨利也被捕了。警方无法立即确认。该联盟向组织抗议的快餐前进(Fast Food Forward)运动提供财政和物资援助。Workers and activists — who demand -per-hour pay and the right for fast-food workers to try to unionize without retaliation — say they have focused on McDonald#39;s because of its size and influence. ;Workers are taking on the biggest, baddest, richest in the 0 billion fast-food industry,; says Kendall Fells, leader of Fast Food Forward. ;If we can bring McDonald#39;s to the table, the road ahead will be a lot easier.;无报复之意只是为尝试组建快餐业工会,要求给快餐员工增至时薪15美元的麦当劳员工和激进分子说:由于麦当劳规模以及影响力,所以他们主要针对的是麦当劳。快餐前进(Fast Food Forward)领导人肯德尔说:“员工在拥有资产2000亿美元而且最大规模、最糟糕也最有钱的快餐业上班。如果我们能够让麦当劳公司出面解决问题,前面的路会容易很多。”The Rev. Dr. William Barber II, head of the NAACP#39;s North Carolina chapter, led the march onto the sprawling McDonald#39;s campus. ;We can#39;t treat corporations like people, and people like things,; he said. ;A living wage is a moral mandate, and it#39;s time for McDonald#39;s to pay fast-food workers their just due now.;(美国)全国有色人种协会(简称NAACP)北卡协会主席Rev. Dr. William Barber II带领游行队伍进入了麦当劳公司大院。他说:“我们既不能把企业当成人看,也不能把人当物看。最低生活保障金只是一种道德准则,现在该是麦当劳按时给员工付工资的时候。”Fast Food Forward officials said more than 2,000 gathered for Wednesday#39;s protest. McDonald#39;s officials estimated the crowd at 600, and Oak Brook Police estimated the crowd at 1,000 to 1,500. Department spokeswoman Erica Huff said they arrived in 32 buses.快餐前进(Fast Food Forward)官员称周三的抗议者多达2000人。麦当劳官员估计600人,而橡树溪警方估计1000至1500人。美国国务院发言人艾瑞卡说,示威者来时乘坐32辆大巴。Wednesday started out as a day of cat-and-mouse among the group, police and McDonald#39;s. The protest was planned for McDonald#39;s U.S. headquarters building, but police closed a key road, and McDonald#39;s had advised workers at that building to work from home.周三开始了示威者、警方以及麦当劳三方之间猫捉老鼠的一天。抗议活动原定计划在麦当劳美国总部大楼举行,但是警方关闭了主干道,而且麦当劳也曾规劝大楼里的员工在家工作。When protesters arrived to a mostly empty parking lot, they opted to move to the other side of the campus to the company#39;s world headquarters.在示威者抵达空荡荡的停车场时,他们选择从另一个入口进入公司全球总部的大院。McDonald#39;s said it has no plans to make any changes for Thursday#39;s annual meeting. ;Folks have a right to protest peacefully and express their views,; says spokeswoman Heidi Barker Sa Shekhem. ;We#39;re gearing up for our annual business meeting tomorrow and welcoming our shareholders to campus.;据麦当劳说,周四的年度股东大会不打算更改。发言人Heidi Barker Sa Shekhem说:“人们有权进行和平示威游行以及表达他们的观点。我们正在筹备明天的年度业务会议,而且欢迎我们的股东到公司全球总部的大院来。” /201405/302470。


  US conglomerate General Electric said on Thursday that Mark Hutchinson, who has been running its Chinese business, will be tasked with integrating Alstom#39;s power and grid business.通用电气(General Electric)周四表示,一直负责该公司中国业务的夏智诚(Mark Hutchinson),将负责整合新近收购的阿尔斯通(Alstom)电力和电网业务。GE last month agreed to buy the businesses from Alstom for .9bn after weeks of negotiations with a French government battling to revive a sluggish economy.通用电气上月同意以169亿美元从阿尔斯通手中收购这块业务。此前,通用电气为了达成这笔交易,与法国政府进行了数周谈判。As part of the acquisition - the biggest industrial one that GE has made - France took a 20 per cent stake in Alstom and the US company pledged to create jobs in the country.作为并购的一部分,法国政府将获得阿尔斯通20%的股权,通用电气承诺将在法国创造就业。此次并购是通用电气历史上规模最大的一次工业收购。John Rice, the vice chairman of GE, said of Mr Hutchinson#39;s appointment that: His deep knowledge of GE and experience in global markets, make him the right person for this important role.通用电气副董事长庄睿思(John Rice)在谈到对夏智诚的任命时表示:“他对通用电气有着深入的了解,而且具备丰富的全球市场经验,这让他成为这一重要职位的合适人选。” /201407/309856Crash investigators are examining what may be the most significant development yet in the 17-month search for Malaysia Airlines flight MH370 after debris potentially related to the crash was found on the Indian Ocean island of La Réunion.长达17个月的马航(Malaysia Airlines)MH370搜寻过程可能出现迄今最为重大的一项进展,空难调查人员正对此展开调查。此前警方在印度洋法属留尼汪岛发现了一片可能与这架失踪飞机相关的残骸。A French aviation expert pointed on Twitter to apparently strong similarities between the part — apparently a flaperon, a control surface from a wing — and the same part on a Boeing 777, the type of aircraft lost. Associated Press, the wire service, ed an anonymous “US official” as saying “with a high degree of confidence” that the part came from a 777.一名法国航空专家在Twitter上指出这片残骸(看上去是机翼的一个控制面襟副翼)看上去与波音(Boeing)777非常相似,MH370正是这种机型。新闻通讯社美联社(Associated Press)援引一位匿名的“美国官员”的话称“高度怀疑”该零件来自一架波音777。Daniel O’Malley, a spokesman with the Australian Transport Safety Bureau, said on Thursday the agency was working with French officials and experts from Boeing to try and confirm the type of aircraft the debris was from and whether it was from MH370.澳大利亚交通安全局(Australian Transport Safety Bureau)发言人丹尼尔攠汙利(Daniel O’Malley)周四表示,该局正与法国官员和来自波音的专家合作,将努力实这片残骸来自哪个型号的飞机以及是否来自MH370。“The location where the debris was found is not inconsistent with the current search location,” he said.他表示:“碎片被发现的地理位置与目前的搜索范围并无不符。”If the part is from the missing flight, it could provide critical clues to the fate of the aircraft, which disappeared on March 8, 2014 with 239 people on board during a flight from Kuala Lumpur to Beijing. Radar tracking showed that the aircraft changed course suddenly part way through the flight and later analysis suggested the aircraft had headed out over the Indian Ocean.如果这片碎片来自失踪飞机,那么这可能会为MH370的命运带来关键线索,2014年3月8日,从吉隆坡飞往北京的MH370航班失踪,机上共有239人。雷达跟踪数据显示,这架飞机在飞行过程中突然改变路线,后来的分析显示,飞机飞向印度洋上空。Based on the earlier analysis, the Australian Air Force and Navy have been searching for a remote area off Australia’s west coast for signs of the aircraft, with no success. While Réunion, a French territory east of Madagascar, is more than 1,000 miles from the area of the Australian search, it is possible the part was carried by ocean currents to the small island.根据早先的分析,澳大利亚空军和海军一直在远离该国西海岸的海上搜寻失踪飞机的迹象,但没有取得任何进展。位于马达加斯加东部的法属留尼汪岛距离澳大利亚军队搜索区域有1000多英里之遥,但洋流有可能将飞机碎片带到这个小岛。 /201507/389616

  This week some British charities have an unexpected reason to smile. On Wednesday, European and American regulators imposed fines of .3bn on six large banks for rigging foreign exchange markets. In the past, the British government has directed some of the money raised from so-called “misdemeanour fines” to worthy causes such as a physical rehabilitation programme for soldiers; it will probably do the same this time. As George Osborne, the UK chancellor, put it: “We’re using the money raised from fines on those who demonstrated the very worst of values in our society to support those who demonstrate the very best.”一些英国慈善机构有了一个惊喜的理由。上周三,欧洲和美国监管当局以操纵外汇市场为由,向6家大开出43亿美元的罚单。在过去,英国政府曾把这类来自所谓“不端行为罚款”的收入部分投入到高尚的事业中,比如士兵身体康复计划。这次英国政府很可能也将这么做。正如英国财相乔治#8226;奥斯本(George Osborne)所说:“我们把对于那些在我们的社会里展示出最糟糕价值观的人的罚款所得,用来资助那些展示出最美好价值观的人。”Yet this type of initiative is the exception, not the rule. The fines now being imposed by western regulators are dramatically higher than anything seen before, but much of the money is not being used in a transparent way. That flies in the face of politicians’ demands for finance to become more open. It also risks undermining the search for a sense of justice – and closure.不过,这种做法属于例外,而不是通行规则。西方监管机构如今开出的罚款金额比以往高很多,但部分罚款的使用并不透明。这与政治家们关于提高财政透明度的要求背道而驰,也可能破坏社会对正义感——以及有始有终的感觉——的追求。“It’s very hard to see what is really going on,” observes Roger McCormick, a London-based economist who has been tracking the recent bank penalties. Charles Calomiris, a finance professor at Columbia Business School agrees: “The situation is strange – its incredibly hard to get much data at all.”“很难看清罚款到底怎么使用的,”伦敦的经济学家罗杰#8226;麦考密克(Roger McCormick)说。他一直在关注近来受处罚的事情。哥伦比亚商学院(Columbia Business School)的金融学教授查尔斯#8226;卡洛米里什(Charles Calomiris)表示认同:“眼下的情形很奇怪——想要获得数据真是太难了。”What public numbers do exist are thought-provoking. According to Professor McCormick’s research, between 2009 and 2013 the 12 global banks paid out #163;105.4bn worth of fines to European and US regulators, for crimes ranging from the mis-selling of mortgages to rigging the Libor index of interbank lending rates. They also made #163;61.23bn provisions for future fines.能找到的公开数字发人深思。麦考密克教授的研究显示,2009年至2013年,12家全球性共向欧美监管机构缴纳了1054亿英镑的罚款,因为它们犯下了从不当销售抵押贷款到操纵伦敦间同业拆借利率(Libor)等各种罪名。它们还为未来罚款做了612.3亿英镑的拨备。Data from the Financial Conduct Authority, the British regulator, suggests that it has collected about #163;2.5bn since 2012, including this week’s fines. Traditionally, regulators used to keep the money they collected in penalties. But since 2012, the FCA has handed this money to the Treasury (after deducting #163;40m of annual staff costs) and Mr Osborne has said that he will hand over about #163;300m of this to charity.英国金融市场行为监管局(FCA)的数据表明,包括上周的罚款,自2012年以来其收到了约25亿英镑的罚款。传统上,监管机构通常会保留它们所收的罚款。但自2012年以来,FCA已把这笔收入上缴至英国财政部(事先已扣除了每年4000万英镑的人员费用),奥斯本表示,他将把其中约3亿英镑资金投入到慈善事业中。What will happen to the rest is unclear; it is currently placed in a general government pot. But the situation in the US is lamentably more opaque, since fines are being imposed by numerous different entities.但其余罚款如何处置,目前不得而知;这笔钱存放在一个一般政府资金池中。但美国的情况更为不透明,因为罚单是由形形色色的机构开出的。The large federal agencies, such as the Office of the Comptroller of the Currency or the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (both of which fined the banks for forex abuses) hand money from penalties over to the Treasury. There it vanishes into a general budget pot. When state regulators and other bodies collect fines they tend to shower the money on plaintiffs, community groups and lawyers, as well as state attorneys-general, usually in private settlements that entail minimal public disclosure.大型联邦机构会把罚款上交美国财政部,比如美国货币监理署(OCC)和商品期货交易委员会(CFTC),这两家机构都曾以操纵外汇市场为由对开过罚单。于是罚款会进入一个一般预算资金池。当州监管当局和其他机构收到罚款时,它们往往把罚款用于原告、社区团体和律师,也会用于州总检察长——在公开披露程度极低的私下和解时通常如此。Take the .7bn “comprehensive settlement” that Bank of America unveiled in August with the Department of Justice, a collection of federal agencies and six state attorneys-general. When BofA announced this, it said it would pay out .95bn for “civil monetary penalties” and so-called “compensatory remediation payments”, but it did not reveal who would receive those sums.以美国(BoA)为例,该行8月公布,跟美国司法部(DoJ)、多家联邦机构和6位州总检察长达成了167亿美元的“全面和解”。在宣布这一消息时,美银表示将缴纳99.5亿美元“民事罚款”和所谓“赔偿补救款”,但没有透露罚款接受方是谁。And though local academics, such as Prof Calomiris, have been trying to research the issue, they have found it hard to get any information, since once the money flows into the budget of state officials the local attorneys-general have huge discretion about how they use these large windfalls. “It is a real subversion of the fiscal process,” Prof Calomiris observes.此外,尽管卡洛米里什教授等本国学者一直在研究此问题,但他们发现很难获取任何信息,因为罚款进入州官员的预算之后,州总检察长对这笔巨大的意外收入有着很大的自由处置权。“这实际上破坏了财政流程,”卡洛米里什教授表示。This opacity is undesirable. There is good reason to impose hefty fines on the banks, given the scale of the scandals of recent years; unless they are punished it will be hard for the public to ever feel that justice has been done. But at the very least, there needs to be more public debate about how this punishment pot will actually be used; after all, one lesson from the financial crisis is that opacity has a nasty habit of breeding abuse.这种不透明状况非常不可取。鉴于近些年来的丑闻范围波及之广,监管当局有充足的理由对处以高额罚款;若不处罚这些,将很难让公众产生正义得到伸张的感觉。但最起码,需要对罚款资金池的未来用途进行更公开的讨论;毕竟,金融危机的教训之一,就是不透明很可能滋生不端行为。Or to put it another way, the British government deserves one cheer for trying to find a way of using the misdemeanour fines for greater public good; indeed, it is a move that politicians in America should consider copying.换个角度来说,英国政府设法将不端行为罚款用于增进公共利益,是值得称赞之举;事实上,美国的政治家们应当考虑效仿这一做法。The UK Treasury would deserve a second cheer if it published audited accounts of how this money is used (a move it is now considering). But what is really needed is a public database of what is happening in the whole of Europe – and, above all, in the US.如果英国财政部能够公布关于罚款使用情况的审计账目(其正在考虑这一举措),将是另一值得称赞之举。但是,当前真正需要做的是针对整个欧洲——更重要的还有美国——的罚款使用情况,建立一个公共数据库。Particularly since that eye-popping #163;167bn tally is unlikely to be the final hit.何况目前已高得令人瞠目的1670亿英镑罚款不太可能是最终的罚款总额。 /201411/343560PARIS — When France won its second Nobel Prize in less than a week on Monday, this time for economics, Prime Minister Manuel Valls quickly took to Twitter, insisting with no shortage of pride that the accomplishment was a loud rebuke for those who say that France is a nation in decline.巴黎——本周二,法国在不到一周的时间里获得了本年度的第二个诺贝尔奖,这次是经济学奖。法国总理曼纽尔·瓦尔斯(Manuel Valls)很快登上Twitter,非常自豪地声称,对于那些说法国正在衰落的人,这是一次响亮的回击。“After Patrick Modiano, another Frenchman in the firmament: Congratulations to Jean Tirole!” Mr. Valls wrote. “What a way to thumb one’s nose at French bashing! #ProudofFrance.”“继帕特里克·莫迪亚诺(Patrick Modiano)之后,又一个法国人登上巅峰:恭喜让·梯若尔(Jean Tirole)!”瓦尔斯写道。“这是对法国衰落论的冷眼蔑视!#ProudofFrance。”Some in the country were aly giddy after Mr. Modiano, a beloved author, whose concise and moody novels are often set in France during the Nazi occupation, won the Nobel Prize for literature last week. The award helped to raise the global stature of Mr. Modiano, whose three books published in the ed States — two novels and a children’s book — before the Nobel had collectively sold fewer than 8,000 copies.莫迪亚诺上周获得诺贝尔文学奖,已经让一些法国人沾沾自喜。莫迪亚诺是一名受人爱戴的作家,其小说文字简练、情绪多变,往往以纳粹占领时期的法国为故事背景。该奖项有助于提高莫迪亚诺的全球地位;在获奖之前,他在美国出版了三本书——两本小说和一本儿童读物——总共销量不足8000本。Joining in the chorus, Le Monde suggested in an editorial that at a time of rampant French-bashing, Mr. Modiano’s achievement was something of a vindication for a country where Nobel Prizes in literature flow more liberally than oil. Mr. Modiano was the 15th French writer, including Sartre and Camus, to win the award.法国的《世界报》(Le Monde)也秉持这一观点。它在一篇社论中指出,在法国衰落论甚嚣尘上之时,莫迪亚诺的获奖是对一个国家的认可。在这个国家,诺贝尔文学奖涌现得比石油还多。莫迪亚诺是赢得该奖项的第15名法国作家,加入了萨特和加缪的行列。Yet this being France, a country where dissatisfaction can be worn like an accessory, some intellectuals, economists and critics greeted the awards with little more than a shrug at a time when the economy has been faltering, Paris has lost influence to Berlin and Brussels, the far-right National Front has been surging, and Fran#231;ois Hollande has become one of the most unpopular French presidents in recent history. Others sniffed haughtily that while France was great at culture, it remained economically and politically prostrate.然而这是法国,不满情绪就像穿戴配饰一样平常。经济步履蹒跚,巴黎失去了对柏林和布鲁塞尔的影响力,极右翼政党国民阵线(National Front)的势力急剧扩张,总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德(Fran#231;oisHollande)沦为法国近代史上最不受欢迎的总统之一。在这样的光景下,一些知识分子、经济学家和人士对诺贝尔奖的反应无非就是耸了耸肩。其他一些人则傲慢地表示不屑,虽然法国在文化上很伟大,但在经济和政治领域,它依旧不怎么样。Even Mr. Modiano may have unintentionally captured the national mood when, informed of his prize by his editor, he said he found it “strange” and wanted to know why the Nobel committee had selected him.就连莫迪亚诺本人也在无意中捕捉到了这种国民情绪。当他的编辑告知他获奖一事时,他说自己觉得“奇怪”,很好奇为什么诺贝尔委员会选中了他。Alain Finkielkraut, a professor of philosophy at the elite #201;cole Polytechnique, who recently published a book criticizing what he characterized as France’s descent into conformity and multiculturalism, said that rather than showing that France was on the ascent, the fetishizing of the Nobel Prizes by the French political elite revealed the country’s desperation.阿兰·芬基尔克罗(Alain Finkielkraut)是一名哲学教授,在菁英汇集的巴黎综合理工学院(#201;cole Polytechnique)担任教职。在最近出版的一本书中,他称法国陷入了同质化和多元文化,并对此加以批评。芬基尔克罗说,法国政治上层对诺贝尔奖的盲目迷恋,显示的不是法国正欣欣向荣,而是它身陷绝望。“I find the idea that the Nobels are being used as a riposte to French-bashing idiotic,” he said. “Our education system is totally broken, and the Nobel Prize doesn’t change anything. I have a lot of affection for Mr. Modiano, but I think Philip Roth deserved it much more. To talk that all in France is going well and that the pessimism is gone is absurd. France is doing extremely badly. There is an economic crisis. There is a crisis of integration. I am not going to be consoled by these medals made of chocolate.”“我觉得,用诺贝尔奖来还击法国衰落论的做法很愚蠢,”他说。“我们的教育体系完全失灵,诺贝尔奖不会改变任何东西。我很喜欢莫迪亚诺,但我认为菲利普·罗斯(Philip Roth)远远更该获奖。说法国一切运行良好、悲观已经消失,这种说法很荒谬。法国目前的状况极为糟糕。有经济危机,也有融合危机。这些巧克力奖牌不会令我感到安慰。”Robert Frank, a history professor emeritus at the University of Paris 1 — Sorbonne, and the author of “The Fear of Decline, France From 1914 to 2014,” echoed that the self-aggrandizement that had greeted the prizes among the French establishment reflected a country lacking in self-confidence. In earlier centuries, he noted, the prize had been greeted as something obvious.罗伯特·弗兰克(Robert Frank)是巴黎第一大学(University of Paris 1 — Sorbonne)的历史学荣休教授,著有《对衰落的恐惧,从1914年到2014年的法国》(The Fear of Decline, France From 1914 to 2014)一书。他也认为,法国掌权者对奖项的欢迎姿态,反映了这个国家缺乏自信。他指出,早前几个世纪,人们把法国获奖视为理所当然的事情。When French writers or intellectuals won Nobels in the mid-20th century, “there was no jolt at that time, because France still saw itself as important, so there wasn’t much to add to that,” he said. “Today, it may help some people to show that France still counts in certain places in the world. This doesn’t fix the crisis of unemployment, however, that is sapping this society.”在20世纪中期,当法国作家或知识分子荣获诺贝尔奖时,“不会带来震撼,因为法国人仍然认为自己是个大国,锦上添花作用不大,”他说。“而今天,它可以帮一些人展示:在世界上的某些地方,法国还是很重要的。这不能解决失业的危机,然而,那才是会侵蚀这个社会的东西。”In academic economic circles, Mr. Tirole’s winning the 2014 Nobel in economic science for his work on the best way to regulate large, powerful firms, was greeted as a fitting tribute to a man whose work had exerted profound influence. It added to an aly prominent year for French economists, as seen from Thomas Piketty’s book, “Capital in the Twenty-First Century,” which became an immediate best-seller when translated into English six months ago.梯若尔因其在“对实力雄厚的大型企业进行监管的最佳方式”上所做的研究,荣获了2014年诺贝尔经济学。学术经济圈认为他的成果产生了深远影响,这个奖项实归名至。法国经济学家今年已经风头很劲:托马·皮克提(Thomas Piketty)的作品《二十一世纪资本论》(Capital in the Twenty-First Century)六个月前翻译成了英文后,立即成为了畅销书。Mr. Tirole’s work gained particular attention after the 2008 financial crisis, which revealed problems in the regulation of financial firms in the ed States and Europe.2008年发生金融危机之后,梯若尔的研究吸引了特别多的关注,因为它揭示了美国和欧洲在监管金融机构的方式中存在的问题。But some noted the paradox of the award going to an economist from a nation where the economy was less than shimmering, and where many businesses and critics bemoan a culture of excessive red tape.但有人指出,这个奖项有其矛盾之处:它被颁给了来自法国的经济学家,而那里的经济状况相当糟糕,许多企业和批评人士都抱怨该国文化充满了官僚作风。Others like Sean Safford, an associate professor of economic sociology at Institut d’#201;tudes Politiques de Paris, the elite institute for political studies known as Sciences Po, said Mr. Tirole, a professor of economics at the University of Toulouse in France, was notable for coming at a time of economic malaise and brain drain, when so many of the country’s brightest are emigrating elsewhere in Europe or to the ed States. “The average French person, who is struggling to pay the bills, is not going to rejoice,” he said.著名政治研究机构巴黎政治学院(Institut d#39;#201;tudes Politiques de Paris,也称Sciences Po)的经济社会学副教授肖恩·萨福德(Sean Safford)等人表示,值得注意的是,图卢兹大学(University of Toulouse)的经济学教授梯若尔出现在经济困难和人才外流的时代,法国最优秀的人才中有许多正在移居欧洲其他地方或者美国。他说,“正在为付账单发愁的普通法国人不会为此感到高兴。”At a time when France is trying to overhaul its social model amid withering resistance to change, others said the award had laid bare the country’s abiding stratification between a small, hyper-educated elite and the rest of the country.此时此刻,法国正试图在抵制变革的强大力量下全面调整社会模式。有人说,诺贝尔奖暴露了法国受教育程度极高的精英小群体和其他人群之间长期存在的隔阂。Peter Gumbel, a British journalist living in France who most recently wrote a book on French elitism, said that while the prize would provide some sense of national validation, the two men did not reflect the country as a whole.在法国生活的英国记者彼得·冈贝尔(Peter Gumbel)最近写了一本关于法国精英主义的书。他说,虽然诺贝尔奖能在某种程度上让人觉得国家得到了认可,但两个人并不能反映国家全貌。“Undoubtedly the French ecosystem produces incredibly smart people at the very top end, who are capable of winning prizes, and who fall into a grand tradition, and that is what the French school system is geared to produce,” he said.“毫无疑问,法国的生态系统在社会顶层造就了一群极度聪明的人。这些人拥有获奖的能力,遵循大传统,而这就是法国的学校系统应该生产出来的东西,”他说。As for the prizes countering French-bashing, he added, “The French are the biggest bashers of France themselves.”在提到这些奖项能否反击法国衰落论时,他还说,“法国人自己才是最唱衰法国的人。” /201410/335703

  Over the coming weeks, a few Volvo cars will begin a historic journey from southwestern China to the US. The Swedish company’s S60L sedans will be transported by truck to Shanghai’s port, loaded on to car carriers for shipment across the Pacific, and finally rolled off in Los Angeles.在接下来的几周时间,一批沃尔沃(Volvo)汽车将从中国西南部运往美国,展开一段历史性旅程。这家瑞典公司的S60L轿车将先用卡车运到上海港口,再装载到汽车运输船上横跨太平洋,最终在洛杉矶卸载。Manufactured at Volvo’s new plant in Chengdu, the first made-in-China passenger cars purpose-built for export to the US are a reminder of how far the country — like Japan and South Korea — has come in global manufacturing.这批汽车产自沃尔沃的成都新工厂,是首批中国制造的专为出口美国订制的乘用车,它们提醒了我们中国(就像日本和韩国)在全球制造业已走出了多远。China has evolved from a supplier of low-cost, labour-intensive products to an exporter of what Ralf Speth, chief executive of Jaguar Land Rover, calls “the most complex consumer product on earth”.中国已经从低成本、劳动密集型产品供应国,发展成施韦德(Ralf Speth)所称的“地球上最复杂消费产品”的出口国。施韦德是捷豹路虎(Jaguar Land Rover)首席执行官。“China will probably follow the path we have seen with Japan and Korea but will do it faster,” H#229;kan Samuelsson, Volvo’s chief executive, said at this week’s Auto Shanghai, one of China’s two annual premier car shows. “I would say 2020 is realistic to see Chinese cars on the global market.”沃尔沃首席执行官霍坎#8226;萨穆埃尔松(H#229;kan Samuelsson)在本周开幕的上海国际车展上表示:“中国很可能将踏上我们见过的日本和韩国的发展道路,但是会发展得更快。我想2020年中国汽车出现在全球市场上是现实的。”上海国际车展是中国两大年度车展之一。Unlike Volvo, a unit of Chinese carmaker Geely, most multinational car executives are reluctant to talk about China as a possible future export platform for their companies.与隶属中国车企吉利(Geely)的沃尔沃不同,多数跨国车企高管都不愿谈论以中国作为其公司可能的未来出口平台。That is in part because they do not want to compete against sister units overseas and would also have to share their export earnings with their Chinese joint venture partners. Chinese government rules cap foreign ownership of automotive factories at 50 per cent.有部分是因为他们不想与海外兄弟公司竞争,另外他们还得与中方合资伙伴分享出口收入。中国政府规定汽车企业外资持股上限为50%。But with huge capacity investments in China coming on line just as annual economic growth falls to a “new normal” of below 7 per cent, the question about whether that capacity should be used for exports is not going away.但中国经济年增长正滑向低于7%的“新常态”,即将在中国投资的巨大产能就产生了一个挥之不去的问题:这一产能是否应该用于出口?Jacques Daniel, head of Renault’s China business, says his overseas colleagues raise the export issue frequently. “The question is often asked by our colleagues at Renault because they are afraid we are going to export,” Mr Daniel says. “But with such a big market here, all our energy should be focused on China.”雷诺汽车(Renault)中国业务负责人达业(Jacques Daniel)表示,他的海外同僚常常提到出口问题,他说:“雷诺的同事之所以会经常问这一问题,是因为他们担心我们要出口。但这儿有这么大市场,我们所有的精力都该集中在中国。”Renault is a late-comer to China, the world’s largest car market with more than 20m units sold last year. The French company will not open its first factory in the country until early 2016. The joint venture with Dongfeng Motor in Wuhan will have an initial capacity of just 150,000 units.中国去年汽车销量超过2000万辆,是全球最大汽车市场。雷诺在中国市场是个后来者,这家法国公司到2016年初才会在中国开第一家工厂。雷诺与东风汽车(Dongfeng Motor)在武汉的合资公司初始产能将仅为15万辆。GM and Volkswagen, the top two automakers in China, will have a combined manufacturing capacity of almost 10m units in their most important market by 2018. GM is in the midst of a five-year bn China investment drive that will increase capacity 25 per cent this year alone. Both companies believe that even such huge capacity increases can be absorbed by China alone.通用汽车(GM)和大众汽车(Volkswagen)在中国是最大的两家汽车制造商,到2018年,在中国这个最重要的市场上,两家公司的总产能将达到近1000万辆。通用汽车对华投资140亿美元的5年计划正在进行中,仅今年其产能就将提高25%。这两家公司都认为即使产能增加如此巨大,单靠中国市场就能吸收。“We want to build where we sell,” Mary Barra, GM’s chief executive, said at an Auto Shanghai briefing. “It’s still important to make sure we have the capacity for the domestic market.”通用汽车首席执行官玛丽#8226;巴拉(Mary Barra)在上海国际车展的发布会上表示:“我们希望在哪儿销售,就在哪儿建造产能。确保我们的产能满足中国市场仍然重要。” /201504/372022

  London’s West End has regained its status as the world’s most expensive office market, according to research.市场研究显示,伦敦西区(West End)现已再次成为全球最贵的写字楼市场。The cost of high-end office space in the West End has risen nearly 15 per cent over the past year, driven by the UK economic recovery and demand from resurgent financial services companies, according to the study by real estate services group CBRE.房地产务咨询公司世邦魏理仕(CBRE)的一项研究显示,受英国经济复苏以及重获活力的金融务公司对办公空间的需求驱动,伦敦西区高端写字楼的价格水平在过去一年中上涨了近15%。On average, prime West End office space now costs #163;100 per square foot for rent alone, not including service charges and business taxes.平均而言,目前伦敦西区高端写字楼仅租金费用一项就达到了每平方英尺100英镑,还不包括务费以及商业税费。The London market overtook Hong Kong, which has been the most costly market since the financial crisis.伦敦写字楼市场的价格水平现已超过了香港,后者自金融危机以来一直是全球最贵的写字楼市场。Beijing’s central business and finance districts were the third-priciest locations in the world, followed by Moscow, New Delhi, Tokyo, the City of London and Paris.北京的中央商务区以及金融区是全球价格水平第三高的办公区域,排在其后的是莫斯科、新德里、东京、伦敦金融城以及巴黎。Two main groups of companies are pushing West End prices upwards, according to Kevin McCauley, CBRE’s head of central London research: small financial businesses, such as hedge funds and private equity groups, and oil and gas companies.世邦魏理仕的伦敦中心区研究主管凯文#8226;麦考利(Kevin McCauley)表示,推高伦敦西区写字楼价格的主要是两类公司:一类是小型金融公司(例如对冲基金以及私募股权公司),另一类是石油和天然气企业。“Twelve months ago, these types of firms weren’t willing to be seen taking on this type of expensive space at a time when the financial services industry’s reputation was not strong,” he said.他说:“一年前,这类公司不太愿意进驻此类高端写字楼,因为当时金融务业的名声不太好。”“For this segment of the financial services market it’s a sign that things are getting back to normal and they are feeling positive again.”“对金融务市场的这一领域来说,上述迹象表明形势正在重回正轨,人们对未来的预期重新变得乐观。”The key factor behind rising prices in most markets was a lack of high-quality office space in the best locations, CBRE said.世邦魏理仕表示,对绝大多数写字楼市场而言,价格上涨的关键原因在于,处于最佳地带的高质量写字楼资源稀缺。The West End has strict planning rules that limit new construction, and a large number of old, period buildings that can attract particularly high rents.伦敦西区严格的区划规则限制了新楼建设,而现存的大量古老大楼还能够吸引到愿意付极高租金的租户。Typical West End occupiers take on up to 10,000 sq ft to house fewer than 50 employees and are very geographically focused, Mr McCauley said: “These rents are achieved in the absolute core West End areas such as Mayfair and St James, and apply to a very limited and specific range of addresses.”通常而言,伦敦西区的典型租户会租用1万平方英尺以内的办公场所,容纳的员工不超过50名,并且它们非常在意地段。麦考利称:“只有梅费尔(Mayfair)、圣詹姆斯(St James)等伦敦西区的绝对中心区域能够达到这种租金水平,而且仅限于非常有限的几个特定地段。”CBRE’s research also found that economic recovery was leading to higher rents around the world, with those in North America growing fastest.世邦魏理仕的研究还发现,经济复苏带动了全球范围内的租金水平上升,其中,北美地区写字楼的租金上涨速度最快。By contrast, rents in some Spanish and Italian markets fell year on year; high-end office costs in Milan dropped more than 7 per cent.相比之下,西班牙与意大利的部分写字楼市场租金水平较上年有所下降,米兰的高端写字楼价格水平较上年下降了逾7%。 /201312/269471。

  Where#39;s the hottest luxury real estate market in the world? Try Jakarta -- for the second year in a row.全球最热门的豪宅市场在哪儿?看看雅加达吧,它已连续第二年摘得桂冠。According to Knight Frank#39;s Prime Global Cities Index, which tracks luxury real estate markets in 30 cities around the world, prices for top homes in the Indonesian capital rose more than in any other city, up 37.7% at the end of 2013 from the year before.根据莱坊公司(Knight Frank)追踪全球30个城市豪华房地产市场的全球城市豪宅指数(Prime Global Cities Index)显示,截至2013年底雅加达豪宅价格较上年上涨了37.7%,超过全球其他城市的涨幅。Liam Bailey, Knight Frank#39;s global head of residential research, cited #39;very limited supply#39; and #39;very strong#39; demand as factors driving Jakarta#39;s high luxury property prices, #39;even if the Indonesian economy isn#39;t as strong as it was maybe two years ago.#39;莱坊公司全球住宅研究部门负责人贝利(Liam Bailey)表示,推高雅加达豪宅价格的主要因素是供应非常紧俏且需求极为强劲,尽管印尼经济不如两年前看起来那么强劲。It#39;s the second year in a row Jakarta has topped the list. In 2012, the city saw its upper echelon of homes jump 38% in price from 2011.这是雅加达连续第二年荣登榜首。2012年雅加达豪宅价格较2011年飙升了38%。The increase in Jakarta was more than double the price rise in second-ranked Dublin (17.5%) and Beijing (17.1%). Ranking No. 4 and 5, respectively, were Dubai (17%) and Los Angeles (14%). The brokerage firm, which released its quarterly update on Tuesday, defines #39;prime real estate#39; as homes that were sold in the top five percentile in terms of value.雅加达豪宅价格涨幅比分列第二和第三位的都柏林(涨幅为17.5%)和北京(涨幅为17.1%)高出一倍多。迪拜(涨幅为17%)和洛杉矶(涨幅为14%)分居第四和第五名。莱坊公司周二发布了这份最新季度报告。该公司对“豪宅”的定义为售价排在前5%的住宅。Meanwhile, Singapore and Hong Kong, which were once hot real estate markets in Asia just three years ago, have cooled thanks to government measures, such as higher stamp duties, intended to restrict speculation and foreign buying. Specifically, these measures have #39;impacted the flow of Chinese money coming into those markets,#39; Mr. Bailey said.与此同时,就在三年前还是亚洲热门房地产市场的新加坡和香港的房市已经降温,主要因为政府推出了上调印花税等旨在限制投机和海外资金购房的举措。贝利称,具体来说,这些举措已经影响了中国资金流入这些市场。Those two markets saw slight decreases in 2013 -- Singapore was down 0.8% and Hong Kong declined 2.2%.2013年这两个市场房价小幅下跌:新加坡房价下跌0.8%,香港房价下跌2.2%。Among the global financial centers, New York ranked No. 9 (10.4%) and London ranked No. 12 (7.5%)全球金融中心城市中,纽约排名第九(涨幅为10.4%),伦敦排名第十二位(涨幅为7.5%)。Which way is the global real estate market heading in 2014? Look to London, Mr. Bailey said. #39;It#39;s the bellwether. Price growth is strong but it#39;s going down. We#39;re seeing the effect of the fear of rising interest rates,#39; he said.今年全球房地产市场前景如何?贝利说,看看伦敦就知道了。他表示,伦敦是风向标,房价上涨强劲,但涨幅正在放缓,人们对利率上升的担忧已经对房价造成了影响。See the full list of the 30 cities in the Knight Frank Prime Global Cities Index, ranked by price increases in last quarter of 2013 compared to the same year-earlier period.以下是莱坊公司全球城市豪宅指数30个城市的完整名单,排名依据2013年第四季度较上年同期的价格涨幅。Knight Frank Prime Global Cities Index莱坊公司全球城市豪宅指数1. Jakarta 37.7%1. 雅加达 37.7%2. Dublin 17.5%2. 都柏林 17.5%3. Beijing 17.1%3. 北京 17.1%4. Dubai 17.0%4. 迪拜 17.0%5. Los Angeles 14.0%5. 洛杉矶 14.0%6. Tel Aviv 12.7%6. 特拉维夫 12.7%7. Bangkok 12.3%7. 曼谷 12.3%8. San Francisco 10.4%8. 旧金山 10.4%9. New York 10.4%9. 纽约 10.4%10. Sydney 9.3%10. 悉尼 9.3%11. Tokyo 7.9%11. 东京 7.9%12. London 7.5%12. 伦敦 7.5%13. Shanghai 7.3%13. 上海 7.3%14. Monaco 6.0%14. 纳哥 6.0%15. Vienna 5.5%15. 维也纳 5.5%16. Kuala Lumpur 5.5%16. 吉隆坡 5.5%17. Vancouver 5.3%17. 温哥华 5.3%18. Madrid 5.0%18. 马德里 5.0%19. Nairobi 4.9%19. 内罗比 4.9%20. Miami 4.3%20. 迈阿密 4.3%21. Mumbai 3.0%21. 孟买 3.0%22. Moscow 2.1%22. 莫斯科 2.1%23. St Petersburg 0.6%23. 圣彼得堡 0.6%24. Cape Town 0.2%24. 开普敦 0.2%25. Rome 0.0%25. 罗马 0.0%26. Singapore -0.8%26. 新加坡 -0.8%27. Zurich -2.0%27. 苏黎世 -2.0%28. Hong Kong -2.2%28. 香港 -2.2%29. Paris -4.0%29. 巴黎 -4.0%30. Geneva -8.0%30. 日内瓦 -8.0% /201402/275801


  While the debate about legalisation of cannabis is endlessly fascinating, it obscures the vital question of how to design a system of legal availability.虽然关于大麻合法化的辩论总能激起人们的兴趣,但它遮盖了一个重要问题:如何设计出一套合法供应的体系?Prohibition produces some very bad results. It deprives millions of people of the liberty to pursue what would be, for them, a harmless pleasure. It creates an illicit market that delivers tens of billions of dollars a year to criminals. It leads to large numbers of arrests (mostly for possession for personal use) and a smaller but substantial number of incarcerations (mostly for growing or dealing). The black market fuels corruption and violence worldwide.禁令带来一些很糟糕的后果。它剥夺了数以百万计的人无害享乐的自由。它滋生了非法市场,每年几百亿美元落入犯罪分子手中。有许多人被捕(多数是因为持有大麻自用),还有数目较少但仍相当可观的人入狱(多数是因为种植或交易大麻)。黑市在全球各地助燃着腐败和暴力。On the other hand, prohibition maintains high prices, discouraging heavy use and use by minors. The problem is how to shed the harms of prohibition while minimising the harms of legalisation. The desirable outcomes are cannabis available to adults who want to use it in moderation and abolition of the illicit trade but without significant increases in habitual heavy use or in more-than-occasional use by minors. Alas, current legalisation efforts in the US, replacing prohibition with commercial production and sale after the fashion of alcohol, have little prospect of getting us there.另一方面,禁令的好处是,它维持了大麻的高价,从而减少了大量使用大麻和未成年人使用大麻的现象。问题是怎样既能消除禁令的弊端,又能尽量减少合法化的危害。理想的结果是,让想要适度吸食的成年人能够获得大麻,从而取缔非法交易,同时又不导致习惯性滥大麻或是未成年人频繁吸食大麻的情况显著增加。可惜的是,美国当前的合法化努力方向是用商业生产和销售取代禁令,就像对待酒类那样,这意味着实现上述目标的机会渺茫。Some rise in problem use is inevitable if cannabis becomes cheaper and more available. But a move to commercialisation multiplies the risks. A licit industry would be financially dependent on the minority of consumers who become chemically dependent, just as the alcohol industry derives most of its revenue from periodic binge drinkers and chronic alcoholics. Alcohol and cannabis follow the 80-20 law: 20 per cent of the user population accounts for 80 per cent of sales, and most of those heavy users suffer from substance abuse. The commercial interests of the cannabis industry would therefore be in direct conflict with the public interest, and the industry would have both means and motive to use its muscle to resist measures to limit drug abuse.如果大麻价格降低、供应增加,滥用的现象难免会上升。但商业化之后,风险会成倍增加。合法化的行业将在经济上依赖一小部分上瘾的顾客,正如酒业的营收大多来自经常豪饮者和长期酗酒者一样。酒类和大麻均适用“80-20定律”:20%的顾客群贡献80%的销售额,大部分“重度消费者”有物质滥用问题。因此,大麻行业的商业利益将与公共利益直接冲突。该行业将有动机和手段来阻挠限制滥用的措施。Cannabis is naturally cheap; only prohibition makes it expensive. The Rand Corporation’s Drug Policy Research Center in the US has estimated the free-market price at no more than 10 per cent of the current illicit-market price. Since an hour stoned aly costs less than an hour drunk, casual users would gain little from lower prices – even now the cost barely registers in their personal budgets. But for cash-strapped teens and heavy users, a cost of pennies per cannabis cigarette would be an invitation to dive in; and a for-profit industry would reinforce that invitation with relentless promotion.大麻本来很便宜,只是禁令才让它值钱。美国兰德公司(Rand Corporation)毒品政策研究中心(Drug Policy Research Center)估计,自由市场的价格不会超过目前非法市场价格的10%。既然沉迷于一小时大麻影响的成本已经比买一小时的醉便宜,偶尔享用的消费者很难从降价中获得什么好处——即使是现在,抽大麻在他们的预算里也占不了多大份量。但对于大量吸食的消费者和囊中羞涩的青少年而言,几分钱一根的大麻烟将非常诱人。而谋求利润的行业将用不断的促销加强这种诱惑。High taxes and tight marketing restrictions might, in principle, curb the damage. But why should we expect such measures to surmount industry opposition? Here, again, the case of alcohol provides fair warning.征收重税和严格限制营销在理论上可能会控制住危害。但凭什么认为这些措施能战胜行业的反对?在这方面,酒类的案例再次提供了合理的警告。A large increase in problem use might be a price worth paying to rid ourselves of the many ills attendant on prohibition. But it is not a price we have to pay. Smarter policies could lead to better outcomes.为摆脱禁令带来的诸多弊病,滥用大麻现象的大幅增加或许是值得付出的代价,但这并不是非得付出的代价。更明智的政策有望产生更好的效果。Legal production and sale could be restricted to consumer co-operatives; to not-for-profit enterprises with trustees charged with preventing abuse; or to a state monopoly run as a branch of the health service rather than the revenue agency. Non-commercial vendors would be less likely to offer cannabis-infused sweets in packaging that mimics children’s sweets or infuse cannabis into fruit-flavoured drinks, as now offered by the “medical marijuana” industry in the US.合法产销的范围可以限定于:消费者合作社,有受托人负责防止滥用的非盈利企业,或者一个国有垄断机构,作为医疗务(而非税务部门)的某个分来运行。非商业的供应商不太可能会像目前美国的“医用大麻”行业那样,售卖富含大麻成分、包装模仿儿童糖果的甜食,或是将大麻成分加入果味饮料。One measure to limit abuse – consistent with either commercial or non-commercial distribution – would be user-set personal periodic limits on consumption: an instance of the “libertarian paternalist” strategy of “nudges” toward sensible behaviour.有一项限制滥用的措施既适合商业经销,又适合非商业经销:让消费者自己设定在一个周期内的消费量。这是“自由意志家长主义”将人们向理智行为“轻推”的体现。Almost no one plans to become a heavy daily user. Abuse is the accretion of countless undramatic decisions, each taken under the lure of current amusement, pleasure or relief, and neglecting the future. If each user, on starting to purchase cannabis, were required to choose a personal monthly a, to be enforced by retailers, users’ long-term interests might have a fighting chance of competing with short-term impulses. Persuading people to set such limits would require persuading them that they are at risk of falling prey to cannabis abuse. Users could increase their limit but only with, say, two weeks’ notice; in the meantime, retailers would be required to dishonour purchase requests above the limit.几乎没有人希望每天吸食很多大麻。滥用是无数个小决定的累积,每个小决定则来自及时行乐(不管是消遣、追求快感还是放松)、忘记未来的诱惑。如果每位消费者在开始购买大麻时被要求选择每月的消费量,并由零售商执行,那么消费者的长期利益或许有机会与短期冲动较量一番。既然要说人们为自己设限,就需要说他们认识到陷入大麻滥用的风险。消费者可以提高自己的限额,但必须事先通知(如提前两周)。与此同时,零售商将必须拒绝超限的购买请求。User-set limits would impinge on no one’s liberty; a consumer who did not want such protection could simply set a high limit to start with. Of course, some would do so, and some would progress to dependency by repeatedly raising their personal as. But others, made mindful of the fact that their consumption was exceeding their original intentions, might leave the limits in place, using them as props to moderation.让消费者自己设定限额,不会妨碍任何人的自由:不希望得到保护的消费者只需一开始将限额设高即可。当然,有人确实会这样做,也有人会一再提高个人限额,慢慢上瘾。但其他人在意识到自己的消费量正在超过最初指标之后,可能不去修改限额,而是把它当作促进节制的机制。Perhaps continued prohibition is the worst option. But turning the business over to a money-hungry industry might well be the second worst. Why not choose better?继续禁止大麻或许是最糟糕的选择。但将生意完全交给唯利是图的行业,恐怕是第二糟糕的选择。为何不选择更好的方案? /201402/275098

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