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Yael: Hey Don, what was your favorite subject in grade school? Science, right?雅艾尔:嘿,唐,你在小学时最喜欢的课程是哪一门?科学课,是吗?Don: I loved science, but my favorite part of school was definitely recess.唐:我爱科学课,但我在学校最喜欢的当然还是休息。Yael: Really? I always thought of you as being a kind of studious kid.雅艾尔:真的吗?我一直认为你是那种刻苦的孩子。Don: Oh, I was. I loved learning. But recess was the best. I dont really remember exactly what I learned in third grade, but I vividly remember running around outside during playtimes. And the thing is, recess is important for learning. Many studies have shown that taking breaks helps improve memory and brain function. Whether its kids playing during recess or adults taking a coffee break at work, learning happens best when its broken up into chunks instead of happening over one long, continuous period. Another way to put it is that during learning, the brain needs periodic rests to replenish chemicals important for forming long-term memories.唐:啊,我很刻苦。我爱学习。但休息还是最棒的。我不太记得我在三年级时学了什么,但是我真切地记得在课间时分到处乱跑的情形。事实是这样,休息对于学习很重要。许多研究都明课间休息会帮助记忆和改善大脑功。不论是对有课间休息的孩子们,还是对在工作期间能抽空喝杯咖啡的成人,间断地学习才最有效率,反之,长时间连续学习效率则不高。还有一种说法是,在学习中大脑需要周期性的休息以补充对形成长期记忆很重要的化学物质。Yael: OK, but if taking breaks is so important, then why have so many elementary schools shortened recess or gotten rid of it completely over the past decade?雅艾尔:好吧,但如果休息如此重要的话,那么在过去十年里为什么有那么多的小学缩短休息时间,甚至取消休息时间。Don: Well, its not because recess isnt valuable for learning. Many schools are under pressure to reach certain performance standards in math and ing. So administrators often cut recess in order to cram in more instruction and class work. But that goes against the bulk of the scientific data that suggest recess helps improve learning. Plus, not surprisingly, free play and physical activity have been shown to be good for kids mental, social, and physical health.唐:嗯,这并不是因为休息对学习不重要。许多学校都面临着较大的教学压力,要求学生的数学和阅读水平达到一定的标准。所以老师们经常拖课,以便让学生死记硬背更多的课本知识。然而这却违背了科学,大多数的数据明休息有助于学习。而且,自由玩耍和体育活动更有助于提高学生的身心健康。Yael: So schools should probably increase recess time, not cut it.雅艾尔:这么说学校应该增加而不是缩短休息时间。Don: Thats true, according to science.唐:对,科学来讲是这样。原文译文属!201208/194041This is Elvin, silent electric power truck. Its making a noise for itself. Designed at the university of Warwick in England, while researchers are trying to design what noise silent vehicle should make if they are forced to by law. Something professor Paul Jenning says its now inevitable.这是Elvin,无噪音电力车。而它现在正在制造噪音。它是由英格兰的沃里克大学研究室制造的,现在研究人员根据法律规定正试图设计出这种车应该发出的声音。Paul Jenning教授表示这一举动是在所难免的。Its definitely coming, I think its been prompted by the fact that there are now real statistics that sadly possibly showing an increasing accident rates for silent hybrid vehicles at the moment. I think its only at low speed, I think, the interest is really at low speed while the quietness is most evident.这绝对是未来发展的方向,我认为这是由目前无噪音混合动力汽车造成了多起事故的事实引起的。我认为无噪音汽车的速度很慢,真的很慢,真正的问题出在它运行中完全没有声音。The Warwick manufacturing groups have spent years working with industry to make cars quieter. Now, they are in reverse gear.沃里克公司在汽车产业中努力多年以减小汽车噪音。现在他们却在向反方向努力。So, what we want to do is to try to investigate sounds that are gonna be safe, a minimum effect in the enviroment and are gonna give some creativities for manufacturers.因此,我们的目的是设计出一种能带来安全驾驶的,对环境污染小的声音,对制造业有创造意义的产品。The team want to know what kind of noise is most effective, and theyve adapted Elvin to make different noises on different days. It is driven around the campus by one of the team to Sam Jo.研究团队想要知道哪种声音能够最有效,他们让Elvin没几天就换一种不同的声音,每天都由小组中的Sam在公司内到处驾驶。If you ask the general public what they think, I mean, an electric vehicle should sound like, youre more likely to get an answer that relates back to science fiction movies. So, we have had also some suggestions from the Jackson to Star war, Star Treck.如果你想大众询问他们理想中的汽车噪音,我是说,大家所认为的电力车应该发出的声音,你很有可能得到一个科幻电影中的。因此,我们也从杰克逊的《星际大战》中采集样本。The sounds have been designed by Novelson, a consultancy that develops tools to help car manufacturers predict future behavior, including how our towns and cities might sound in 20 years, if we all got an electric.这种声音由Novelson设计,Novelson是一家专门辅助汽车制造业的咨询公司,它为客户预计未来汽车行业发展前景,如果我们未来都开电力车,Novelson还将为我们的小镇以至于城市设计未来20年的城市声音。Its all very well to investigate what one car sounds like because it drives around in todays enviroment. But what happens when you have hundreds of them, thousands of them.为一辆车设计声音很简单,因为它只是今天在周围转一圈。但如果是上百辆,甚至是上千辆情况就不同了。Researchers say modern cars are now so quiet that any future legislation could apply to all vehicles, not just the electric ones.现在,汽车的噪音都很小,将来可能会立法规定汽车要发出一定的声音,而这不仅仅是电力车一种车型的事情。Stuart McDill, Reuters, Coventry路透社消息,Stuart McDill考文垂报道。注:本篇文章英文来自普特论坛,译文属原创,,。201209/201719Aerobic Exercise and Mental Performance有氧运动和精神表现Stretching and toning are certainly important, but their benefits are different from that of aerobic exercise. Surprisingly, aerobic exercise isnt just beneficial to your heart, it also sharpens your mind. You dont have to be a jock to enjoy the brain benefits of aerobic exercise.伸展和拉伸显然很重要,但是,对身体的益处有别于有氧运动。意想不到的是有氧运动不仅仅有益身心,还能灵活大脑。享受有氧运动对于大脑健康的福利,并不一定要向运动员般剧烈运动。Moderateaerobic exercise is plenty. Several studies involving older adults demonstrated that simply walking a mile or so three times a week increases blood flow in the brain and strengthens connections between neurons, resulting in improved mental performance on tasks requiring attention.适度有氧运动就获益颇多了。一些有关老年人的研究实,只需每周三次散步一英里左右就能促进大脑血液循环;增强神经元间的“互动”,提高注意力,从而提升智力。One of the studies divided a group of seniors into two different six-month exercise courses—one course consisting of aerobic exercise, the other consisting of stretching and toning. Again, were not talking about marathon-training here.一项研究将老人们分为两组:一组做有氧运动;另一组做伸展和无氧拉伸半年的时间。但是,运动量都是适度的而非马拉松式。The aerobic-training course gradually built its participants up to walking 45 minutes at a moderate pace three times a week. At the end of the course, the people who completed the aerobic training showed significant improvements in attention-related mental tasks. The stretching and toning group showed little improvement.有氧运动组让老人们养成了每周三次45分钟正常步伐走路。有氧运动训练完后,参加者在注意力相关的智能测试有显著提升。而后一组受训前后并无明显差异。 /201209/198946Books and Arts; London fiction文艺;伦敦小说The best of cities, the worst of cities这是最好的城市,也是最坏的城市The capital as inspiration for novelists首都伦敦,小说家灵感之源London is a “great cesspool” into which the loungers and idlers of life irresistibly drain, wrote Arthur Conan Doyle in one of his Sherlock Holmes stories. But it has proved to be a fertile dumping ground, an inspiration for each generation of novelist and every genre of fiction. 亚瑟·柯南道尔在一集福尔斯故事中写道,伦敦是个“污水坑”,不可避免地集聚了游手好闲,无所事事的懒汉。但伦敦也是块相当肥沃的垃圾场,每一代小说家,每一种小说体裁都从中汲取着灵感。The capitals most famous and still unparalleled chronicler is Charles Dickens. His template for the London novel has never dated, flinging together characters from every walk of life into dazzling, swarming, state-of-the city narratives. In his London the rich cannot escape the poor, and the do-gooders and swindlers quaff ale elbow-to-elbow. The inanimate actors are as vivid as the living: the miserable workhouse that harboured Oliver Twist is no less legendary than the poor, begging boy himself or his criminal chum, the Artful Dodger; the “sooty spectre” of fog coloured the capitals image long after the industrial pea-soupers had disappeared.这座城市最著名且仍罕有匹敌的记录者当属查尔斯·狄更斯。他为伦敦小说定下的模板至今仍未过时,各行各业的角色在其叙述中粉墨登场,眼花缭乱,纷纷攘攘,世态万象。在他笔下的伦敦,富贵阶级与贫苦人家低头不见抬头见,大善人和诈骗犯并肩痛饮麦芽酒。无生命的角色也同有生命的一样栩栩如生:奥利弗·特弗斯特待过的那家阴暗凄凉的车间,与这个可怜的小乞儿本身或是他邪恶的朋友亚瑟·道奇比起来,同是一段传奇;即使工业时期的浓雾早已散去,那“幽灵般灰蒙蒙”的雾霾仍笼罩在伦敦的形象周围,挥之不去。Few novelists have so successfully managed such vast and varied casts. In contrast, Sherlock Holmes rattled “through the silent streets”; his cases invariably depend on a few players. Yet Conan Doyle did almost as much as Dickens to establish another enduring theme of London-lit: that every character conceals a secret. No wonder the capital is such a popular setting for crime fiction, from Margery Allingham to Ruth Rendell.少有几个小说家像狄更斯这样,笔下的人物鱼龙混杂,截然迥异,处理起来却依旧得心应手。相反,歇洛克·福尔斯的车轮辘辘“驶过寂静的街道”;他的故事里一贯只牵涉寥寥几个人物。但柯南道尔同样确立了伦敦小说另一个经久不衰的主题:人人皆有秘密,就这一点其几可与狄更斯比肩。难怪从马杰里·艾林翰到露丝·蓝戴尔的作品,犯罪小说常常以伦敦为背景。In the early 20th century the city was the backdrop for despair. Virginia Woolfs London in “Mrs Dalloway” (1925) is mournful, offering little succour after the first world war. J.B. Priestleys “Angel Pavement” (1930) offers a latter-day Dickensian tale of cheats, bankruptcy and failed firms. By the 1960s Muriel Spark guided ers through a new metropolis, where women gushed at the thought of sex and film stars, and penned unanswered letters to famous writers. Yet the delights of works such as “The Girls of Slender Means” are overshadowed by the threat of nuclear war.20世纪初,这座城市的舞台上演着绝望。维吉尼亚·伍尔芙《达洛维夫人》(1925)中的伦敦死气沉沉,不给一战结束后的人们半分慰藉。J.B.普里斯特利的《天使街》(1930)则是近代的狄更斯翻版,讲述欺骗,破产和倒闭的公司。20世纪60年代,穆里尔·斯帕克引领读者在这座焕然一新的大都市中穿梭,女人一想到性和电影明星便兴奋得大呼小叫,还热衷于给著名作家寄去一封封石沉大海的信件。但在核战威胁的阴影面前,《窈窕淑女》这类轻快俏皮的小说顿时黯然失色。Across the decades the capital has inspired potboilers and sizzling romances, but it was not until the 1980s, when London was booming again, that the city itself returned to centre stage. Martin Amiss “London Fields” (1989) was a triumph, a black comedy about lust and low-lifes that fizzed with a rare energy.数十年内,围绕伦敦编就的蹩脚小说层出不穷,风流传奇泛滥成灾,但伦敦本身真正重回到镁光灯下,还是在20世纪80年代这座城市重振旗鼓之后。马丁·艾米斯的《伦敦场地》(1989)大获成功,这部黑色幽默叙述着欲望,以及暗潮汹涌的底层生活。As London has grown in all dimensions, authors have chosen to present a segment of it rather than a Dickensian sweep. The most pioneering modern London novel was Hanif Kureishis “The Buddha of Suburbia” (1990), set amid one of the many ethnic and immigrant communities that fiction—and many Britons—had ignored for decades. It introduced ers to the citys southern outskirts, and threw in sex, drugs and rocknroll.随着伦敦全面发展,作家不再像狄更斯一样力求面面俱到,而是择其一二展开阐述。最先锋的现代小说当属汉尼夫·库雷什的《郊区佛陀》(1990),书中的主角是伦敦众多种族移民群体中的一,多年来一直为小说界和许多英国人忽略。这部小说引领读者深入伦敦南郊,其间穿插着性,毒品与摇滚乐。A new genre was born. The multicultural and dysfunctional families of Zadie Smiths “White Teeth” (2000) brought celebrity to Londons lesser-known boroughs. Like Dickenss characters, Ms Smiths are preoccupied with roots—yet class and identity had come to mean something quite different.一种新的体裁应运而生。扎迪·史密斯的《白牙》(2000)中分崩离析的多文化家庭使伦敦不为人熟知的街区出了名。与狄更斯笔下的人物一样,史密斯女士刻画的角色也一心牵挂着根系所在——但阶级与身份的内涵已大相径庭。Monica Alis “Brick Lane” (2003) brilliantly evokes the Bangladeshi community. When her heroine walks down the famous East End street one step behind her husband, she sets the novels tone in a single scene. A year later Londons gay community was given a new voice with Alan Hollinghursts “The Line of Beauty”, which won the Man Booker prize.莫妮卡·阿里的《砖巷》(2003)则触动着孟加拉裔群体的心弦。著名的东区大街上,女主人公落在丈夫后面一步,单这一幕便已奠定了这本小说的基调。一年后,阿兰·霍灵赫斯特的《美丽线条》赋予了伦敦的同志群体新的声音,荣获曼布克奖。The novels of London are now coming full circle, bringing a fuller cast into focus through two modern preoccupations: economic crisis and terrorism. Two recent examples, John Lanchesters “Capital” and Sebastian Faulkss “A Week in December”, fail to define their age as Dickens or Conan Doyle did. But they also point to a new cosmopolitan cesspool, where a similar set of worries beset every strata of society, uniting and dividing it along new lines.如今,伦敦小说又再次回到原点,借由当代两大忧患——经济危机与恐怖主义,拓宽视角,聚焦于方方面面。以最近的两本小说为例,约翰·兰彻斯特的《首都》和塞巴斯蒂安·福克斯的《十二月的一周》未能像狄更斯或柯南道尔的作品那样,成为一个时代的印记。但它们也展现了一个新的大都市版“污水坑”,同样有无尽烦恼纠缠着各个社会阶层,令他们在新的战线上分分合合。201208/195358

Science and Technolgy科技AIDS艾滋病(获得性免疫缺乏综合症)Get your act together, guys伙计们,请一起行动Two UN reports on AIDS are coming out this month. That is one too many本月联合国将发布了两份关于艾滋病的报告,其中一份实在多余SOMETHING odd is going on in the international AIDS establishment. December 1st has been designated (as it is every year) to be ;World AIDS Day;. That is a signal for the ed Nations to put out a report on the state of the epidemic. This year, though, there are to be two reports.国际艾滋病机构发生了件奇怪的事情:每年12月1日被认定为;国际艾滋病日;。联合国也会在每年这个时候发布一份有关艾滋病状况的报告。然而今年会有两份这样的报告。On November 21st UNAIDS, an agency created in 1996 to deal specifically with the then-newish disease, published its assessment of the situation. This reaffirmed what has become clear recently: that the epidemic is being beaten back by the widesp deployment of drugs, in combination with changes in the behaviour of those most at risk. The annual number of deaths has fallen to 1.8m, from its peak of 2.2m in 2005. New infections have also fallen, from a peak of 3.2m in 1997 to 2.7m last year. The report went on to outline what it calls an investment framework, designed to deal with the epidemic in the most cost-effective way. This builds on an analysis published in the Lancet in June by Bernhard Schwartl?nder, UNAIDSs director of evidence, strategy and results. It attempts to prescribe, for each part of the world, the mixture of drug treatment, condom-promotion, prophylactic circumcision and so on that will bring most benefit to the fight.UNAIDS,是一家1996年建立的特别处理这种在当时还是非常罕见的疾病(艾滋病)的机构,今年11月21日,其发布了一份关于艾滋病现状的评估。这份评估再次重申了近期发生的一些明显的变化:那就是通过药物的配置普遍广泛,以及在那些具有较高危险的行为上所做出的改变,使得艾滋病正在一步步被击退。其中。每年该病的死亡人数已经从在2005年最高峰时的220万下降到现在的180万。同时,新感染的人数也从1997年最高峰时段的320万回落到去年的270万。该篇报道也勾画了一份所谓的投资构架,目的是以最经济的方法解决艾滋病问题。该投资构架是以 Bernhard Schwartl?nder,这位在UNAIDS搜集据,制定策略以及结果分析部门的主管在今年六月的Lancet杂志所发表的分析文章为基础所提出的。这项构想尝试为世界各个地区提供一种混合的方案,包括药物治疗,加强避套的宣传,倡导具有预防效果的环切手术等一些措施,争取掌握这场疾病战斗的主动权。On November 30th, however, a joint report by the World Health Organisation (WHO), the ed Nations Childrens Fund (UNICEF) and-youve guessed it-UNAIDS comes out. What it will say is still under wraps. But WHO and UNICEF are also sponsors of UNAIDS, so the duplication of effort looks odd.然而,就在晚些时候,国际健康组织(WHO)、联合国儿童基金会(UNICEF)和,也许你已经猜到了,UNAIDS在11月30日联手发布了一份联合报告。报告的内容尚未对外公布。但是,由于国际健康组织和联合国儿童基金会同时也是UNAIDS的赞助商,所以这样的重复工作确实有点奇怪。Both sides seem miffed by the others actions. Michel Sidibé, the head of UNAIDS, described the production of separate reports as ;costly and inefficient;. Gottfried Hirnschall, the WHOs director of HIV/AIDS, says it had been agreed that in 2011 the three organisations would work together and jointly release a single report.双方都对对方的行为表示不满。 UNAIDS主席 Michel Sidibé认为这样的两份独立却又类似的报告既浪费又达不到效果。WHO负责HIV/AIDS项目的主管 Gottfried Hirnschall称三家组织早已达成一致在2011将一起发表一份报告。Though the AIDS epidemic has been knocked back by the huge sums of money now being thrown at it (about billion a year at the moment, in poor and middle-income countries), continued success requires an uninterrupted supply of drugs-and therefore of the cash to pay for them. The state of the worlds economy means politicians are looking for any excuse to save money. Not a good moment to be squabbling.尽管依靠巨额的投资(大约每年有150亿美元的专款基金投入到中低收入地区)已经遏制住艾滋病的蔓延,进一步的成功需要持续不断的药物供应,还有因此而带来的资金持。而就目前的全球经济情况看,政客们都在寻找合适的借口缩减投资,所以现在可不是一个争吵的时候。 /201210/203039

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