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2019年12月06日 11:14:33 | 作者:乐视口碑 | 来源:新华社
WASHINGTON No one knows if the Obama administration will manage in the next five weeks to strike what many in the White House consider the most important foreign policy deal of his presidency: an accord with Iran that would forestall its ability to make a nuclear weapon. But the White House has made one significant decision: If agreement is reached, President Obama will do everything in his power to avoid letting Congress vote on it.华盛顿——没有人知道,在接下来的五周内,奥巴马政府是否能与伊朗达成一个协议,限制其制造核武器的潜在能力;白宫很多人都认为,这会是奥巴马担任总统期间最重要的一个外交政策协议。但白宫已经做出了一个重大决定:如果协议达成,奥巴马总统将会尽一切所能,避免让国会对其进行表决。Even while negotiators argue over the number of centrifuges Iran would be allowed to spin and where inspectors could roam, the Iranians have signaled that they would accept, at least temporarily, a ;suspension; of the stringent sanctions that have drastically cut their oil revenues and terminated their banking relationships with the West, according to American and Iranian officials. The Treasury Department, in a detailed study it declined to make public, has concluded Mr. Obama has the authority to suspend the vast majority of those sanctions without seeking a vote by Congress, officials say.伊朗将被允许使用多少台离心机?检查员可以到哪些地方检查?即使在这些问题上,谈判代表还在进行争论,但美国和伊朗官员称,伊朗已经表示,他们可以接受制裁的“暂停”,至少是暂时性地接受它;这些严厉制裁已经大幅削减了伊朗的石油收入,并切断了他们与西方之间的关系。美国财政部(Treasury Department)进行了一项它拒绝公开的详细研究,官员们说,该研究得出结论:奥巴马无需经过国会投票,就有权暂停这些制裁中的绝大多数。But Mr. Obama cannot permanently terminate those sanctions. Only Congress can take that step. And even if Democrats held on to the Senate next month, Mr. Obamas advisers have concluded they would probably lose such a vote.不过,奥巴马不能永久性地终止这些制裁。只有国会能这么做。奥巴马的顾问们得出结论,即使民主党下个月能在参议院继续保持多数席位,他们还是可能会在这样的表决中失利;We wouldnt seek congressional legislation in any comprehensive agreement for years,; one senior official said.“多年来,对于任何全面性的协议,我们都不愿寻求国会立法,”一位高级官员说。White House officials say Congress should not be surprised by this plan. They point to testimony earlier this year when top negotiators argued that the best way to assure that Iran complies with its obligations is a step-by-step suspension of sanctions with the implicit understanding that the president could turn them back on as fast as he turned them off.白宫官员说,国会不应对这个计划感到惊讶。因为在今年年初的词中,高级谈判代表表示,确保伊朗遵循其义务的最好方式,就是逐步中止制裁——双方有一种默契,就是知道美国总统随时可以暂停制裁,也随时可以恢复它们;We have been clear that initially there would be suspension of any of the U.S. and international sanctions regime, and that the lifting of sanctions will only come when the I.A.E.A. verifies that Iran has met serious and substantive benchmarks,; Bernadette Meehan, the spokeswoman for the National Security Council, said Friday, referring to the International Atomic Energy Agency. ;We must be confident that Irans compliance is real and sustainable over a period of time.;“我们已经明确表示,美国和国际制裁一开始将是被暂停,而只有当国际原子能机International Atomic Energy Agency)实,伊朗已达到了重大的、实质性的标准,我们才会解除制裁。”国家安全委员会(National Security Council)的女发言人贝尔纳黛特·米汉(Bernadette Meehan)上周五表示。“必须让我们有信心,相信伊朗是真的在遵守协议,而且可持续一段时间才行。”But many members of Congress see the plan as an effort by the administration to freeze them out, a view shared by some Israeli officials who see a congressional vote as the best way to constrain the kind of deal that Mr. Obama might strike.不过,在很多国会议员眼中,政府制定这个计划是为了把他们晾在一边;一些以色列官员也有同样的看法,他们觉得,要限制奥巴马可能会达成的协议的类型,国会表决是最好的方法。Ms. Meehan says there ;is a role for Congress in our Iran policy,; but members of Congress want a role larger than consultation and advice. An agreement between Iran and the countries it is negotiating with the ed States, Britain, France, Germany, Russia and China would not be a formal treaty, and thus would not require a two-thirds vote of the Senate.米汉说,“在我们的伊朗政策中,有需要国会去做的事,”但国会议员不想只是做咨询和建议。伊朗与谈判国——美、英、法、德、俄罗斯和中国——之间达成的协议,不会成为一个正式条约,不需要获得参议院三分之二的票数。The chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Senator Robert Menendez, the New Jersey Democrat, said over the weekend that, ;If a potential deal does not substantially and effectively dismantle Irans illicit nuclear weapons program, I expect Congress will respond. An agreement cannot allow Iran to be a threshold nuclear state.; He has sponsored legislation to tighten sanctions if no agreement is reached by Nov. 24.参议院外交委员会(Senate Foreign Relations Committee)主席、新泽西州民主党参议员罗伯特·梅嫩德斯(Robert Menendez)上周末说,“如果所达成的协议,没有在实质上有效地摧毁伊朗的非法核武器计划,那么我希望国会做出反应。不能让一纸协议来纵容伊朗跨过核国家门槛。”他持了一项立法,如果114日没有达成协议,就加紧对伊朗的制裁。A leading Republican critic of the negotiations, Senator Mark S. Kirk of Illinois, added, ;Congress will not permit the president to unilaterally unravel Iran sanctions that passed the Senate in a 99 to 0 vote,; a reference to the vote in 2010 that imposed what have become the toughest set of sanctions.在批评这个谈判的人中,伊利诺伊州共和党参议员马克·S·柯克(Mark S. Kirk)很出名,他说:“参议院9的表决结果通过了一些对伊朗的制裁,国会是不会允许总统单方面解除这些制裁的,”他指的010年国会就一些最严厉制裁进行的表决。Such declarations have the Obama administration concerned. And they are a reminder that for a deal to be struck with Iran, Mr. Obama must navigate not one negotiation, but three.这样的声明引起了奥巴马政府的担心。而且它们提醒人们,要与伊朗达成一项协议,奥巴马必须进行的谈判不是一个,而是三个。The first is between Mr. Obamas negotiators and the team led by Mohammad Javad Zarif, the savvy Iranian foreign minister. The second is between Mr. Zarif and forces in Tehran that see no advantage in striking a deal, led by many in the Iranian Revolutionary Guard Corps and many of the mullahs. The critical player in that effort is Ayatollah Ali Khamenei, who has reissued specific benchmarks for an accord, including Irans eventual expansion of its uranium enrichment program by nearly tenfold. And the third is between Mr. Obama and Congress.第一个谈判,发生在奥巴马的谈判代表和精明的伊朗外长穆罕默德·贾瓦德·扎里Mohammad Javad Zarif)带领的谈判代表之间。第二个谈判,发生在扎里夫和德黑兰的一些势力之间;后者由伊斯兰革命卫Islamic Revolutionary Guards Corps)的很多人和很多毛拉率领,认为达成协议没有好处。这项任务中的关键人物是阿亚图拉·阿里·哈梅内伊(Ayatollah Ali Khamenei),他再次发布了协议的具体标准,其中包括伊朗最终把其铀浓缩计划扩大近十倍。第三个,是奥巴马和国会之间的谈判。Mr. Zarif, in an interview last summer, said that Mr. Obama ;has a harder job; convincing Congress than he will have selling a deal in Tehran. That may be bluster, but it may not be entirely wrong.去年夏天,扎里夫在一次采访中说,相较于他说德黑兰那些势力接受协议,奥巴马说美国国会“更难一些”。这可能有些夸张,但也未必完全不对。Many of the details of the negotiations remain cloaked. The lead negotiator, Wendy Sherman, the under secretary of state for political affairs and a leading candidate to become the State Departments No. 2 official next month, struck a deal with congressional leaders that enables her to avoid public testimony when the negotiations are underway. Instead, she conducts classified briefings for the key congressional committees.谈判的很多细节仍未曝光。美国首席谈判代表是负责政治事务的副国务卿温迪·R·舍曼(Wendy R. Sherman),她也是最有希望在下月成为国务院第二号官员的候选人。舍曼与国会领导人达成协议,双方同意,在谈判进行的过程中,她可以不用公开作,而是为重要的国会委员会提供机密报告。But it is clear that along with the fate of Irans biggest nuclear sites Natanz and Fordow, where uranium fuel is enriched, and a heavy-water reactor at Arak that many fear will be able to produce weapons-grade plutonium the negotiations have focused intently on how sanctions would be suspended. To the Americans, the sanctions are their greatest leverage. For many ordinary Iranians, they are what this negotiation is all about: a chance to boost the economy, reconnect with the world and end Irans status as a pariah state.但很显然,这个谈判除了关系到伊朗最大核设施的命运——进行铀燃料浓缩的纳坦兹和福尔道,还有阿拉克,很多人担心那里的一个重水反应堆将能制造出武器级钚——而且还着重聚焦在暂停制裁的方式上。对美国人来说,制裁是他们最大的筹码。而对于很多普通的伊朗人,这就是这次谈判的目的:获得一个刺激经济、重新与世界相连,结束伊朗遗世独立状态的机会。For that reason, many think Mr. Obamas best option is to keep the negotiations going if a deal is not reached by the deadline, a possibility both Iranian and Russian officials have floated.出于这个原因,很多人认为,如果像伊朗和俄罗斯官员提到的那样,到了截止日期,协议可能还是没能达成,那么奥巴马的最佳选项就是继续谈判;Between now and 2017 Obamas goal is to avert an Iranian bomb and avert bombing Iran,; said Karim Sadjadpour of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. ;If Congress feels obliged to pass additional sanctions, the best way to do it would be to create a deterrent basically to say if you recommence activities Iran has halted, here are new sanctions.;“从现在017年,奥巴马的目标是阻止伊朗制造原子弹,而且避免对伊朗进行轰炸,”卡内基国际和平研究Carnegie Endowment)的伊朗问题专家卡里姆·萨德杰普Karim Sadjadpour)说,“如果国会觉得有必要实施更多制裁,做到这一点的最好方式就是形成威慑——基本上说,如果伊朗重新开启已经停止的活动,美国就会施加新的制裁。”来 /201410/336945Edward Snowden says he has offered to return to the ed States and go to jail for leaking details of National Security Agency programs to intercept electronic communications data on a vast scale.爱德华·斯诺登称愿意回美国坐牢,此前美国国家安全局开展大规模电子通讯监控活动,他泄露了这些项目的细节内容。Snowden told the B that hed ;volunteered to go to prison with the government many times,; but had not received a formal plea-deal offer.斯诺登告诉B称:“他已经主动向美国政府提出回国坐牢,但还没有收到正式的认罪协议。”He said that ;so far theyve said they wont torture me, which is a start, I think. But we havent gotten much further than that.;他说:“目前为止,他们承诺不会对我施加酷刑,我认为这只是个开端,但我们还没有达到那种地步。”In an interview broadcast Monday on the Bs ;Panorama; program, Snowden said he and his lawyers were waiting for US officials ;to call us back.;周一,出现在B一档名为《全景》的访谈节目中时,斯诺登表示他和他的律师正等候美国政府的“召回”。Earlier this year, former US Attorney General Eric Holder said a plea deal with Snowden was a possibility.今年早些时候,美国前司法部部长埃里克·霍尔德表示,斯诺登有可能会面临一份认罪协议。Snowdens revelations about the NSA, Britains GCHQ and other intelligence agencies set off an international debate about spies powers to monitor personal communications, and about the balance between security and privacy.斯诺登对美国安全局、英国通讯总部和其他一些情报机构的泄密,在全球引发了间谍监控私人通信的权力,以及平衡安全和隐私之间关系的热议。Critics say his disclosures harmed the ability of the ed States and its allies to fight terrorism. FBI deputy director Mark Giuliano told the B that Snowden was a traitor.者指出,斯诺登的泄密损害了美国及其盟友打击恐怖主义的力量。美国联邦调查局副局长马克·朱利亚诺对B称斯诺登是叛徒;The question is, if I was a traitor, who did I betray?; Snowden said. ;I gave all of my information to American journalists and free society generally.;“问题是,如果我是叛徒,那我背叛了谁?”斯诺登说:“我毫无保留地将所有信息公布给美国的记者和自由的社会。;I have paid a price but I feel comfortable with the decisions Ive made,; he added. ;If Im gone tomorrow, Im happy with what I had. I feel blessed.;“做出这样的决定,我为此付出了代价,但我感到很满意。”他还说:“如果明天我死了,我会对自己做出的事情感到开心,也很庆幸。”American whistleblower Edward Snowden delivers remarks via link from Moscow to attendees at a discussion regarding an International Treaty on the Right to Privacy, Protection Against Improper Surveillance and Protection of Whistleblowers in Manhattan, New York September 24, 2015.20154日,斯诺登通过视频连线参与在纽约曼哈顿举行的一场讨论并发表讲话,讨论有关个人隐私权的国际条约、不恰当监视对个人隐私权利侵犯、以及对泄密者的保护等。The event, hosted by global advocacy group Avaaz, was held to coincide with the ed Nations General Assembly.该活动由全球倡导组织阿瓦兹举办,而此时恰逢联合国大会召开之际。来 /201510/402555China is going to be the third-largest contributor to UN regular budget 2016-2018, with its assessed contribution accounting for 7.9 percent, said a senior Chinese diplomat here Wednesday.据中国高级外交官周三表示,中国即将成为联合国2016年至2018年常规预算的第三大分摊国,分摊比例为7.9%。The Chinese contribution to the total UN membership dues ranks the third among 193 member states of the world body, just next to the ed States and Japan, said Wang Min, Chinas deputy permanent representative to the ed Nations.中国常驻联合国代表王民说,中国缴纳联合国会费比额93个成员国中排名第三,仅次于美国和日本。Chinas assessed contribution to peacekeeping budget will be 10.2 percent in the next three years, said Wang, noting that China will become the second-largest contributor to UN peacekeeping budget, only next to the ed States. With the new assessment, Chinas contribution to UN peacekeeping budget will overtake Japan for the first time, he noted.王民表示,中国在接下来三年中的联合国维和预算分摊将达0.2%,这意味着中国将成为维和预算的第二大分摊国,仅次于美国。他强调,在这样的比例下,中国的维和预算分摊额将首次超过日本。Chinas membership dues and its assessed contribution to peacekeeping budget have been increased substantially, said Wang, adding that the increase has reflected Chinas steady economic growth over the past 30 years.王民说,中国缴纳的会费和维和预算分摊额一直在持续增长,而这样的增长也对中国经济过去三十年的持续增长有影响。This increase is an objective reflection of Chinas national strength in the international system, Wang said, adding that China, as the second-largest economy in the world, is required to share more of the UN regular budget and peacekeeping budget. This also symbolizes a big increase of Chinas international influence同时他也表示,这样的增长是对中国在国际体系中的国力的客观体现。中国作为世界第二大经济体,必须要分担更多的联合国日常预算和维和预算。这也象征着中国国际影响力的大大提升。Wang also said the new assessment has also taken into account that China is still a developing country. Although Chinas economic aggregate is large, its per capita level is low, and therefore China, without any doubt, is a developing country, which is an important basis for assessing Chinas capability to pay, he said.此外,王民补充道,新的比例分配也考虑到了中国依然是发展中国家的事实。他说,虽然中国的经济总量很大,人均水平却很低,因此中国毋庸置疑是一个发展中国家,这也是决定中国分摊能力的重要基础。Wang reiterated that as long as the calculation method for membership dues is fair, just and reasonable, China is willing to fulfill its budgetary obligation, and to shoulder its special responsibility in the respect of peacekeeping budget as a permanent member of the UN Security Council.王民重申,只要会费计算方法是公平,公正,合理的,中国就愿意履行缴纳预算的义务,并承担作为联合国安理会常任理事国的特殊使命来缴纳维和预算。来 /201512/418243

With Hong Kong riven by political deadlock, politicians and investors have repeatedly warned in recent years that the financial centre risks sliding into irrelevance as its Chinese rivals Shanghai and Shenzhen go from strength to strength.随着香港社会因政治僵局而陷于分裂,政治人士和投资者近些年来已多次警告称,这个金融中心有可能慢慢被边缘化,因为其中国内地竞争对手上海和深圳正变得越来越强大。But some argue that China’s latest bout of stock market turmoil and Beijing’s panicked response has provided an unexpected boon to Hong Kong, highlighting the open nature of its financial markets and its more robust regulatory system.但有些人辩称,中国最新一轮股市动荡——以及北京方面惊慌失措的应对——对香港构成了一项意想不到的利好,让人们注意到了香港金融市场的开放性和它更强健的监管体系。“China is involuntarily sending a signal that it’s not yet y to open its financial markets and that’s good for Hong Kong,said the chief financial officer of one leading Hong Kong-listed company.“中国在无意识中向外界发出了一个信号,告诉大家它还没准备好开放其金融市场。这对香港是个利好,”一家知名香港上市公司的首席财务官说。This attitude underlines the strange duality of Hong Kong’s economic position. On the one hand, the semi-autonomous Chinese territory’s prospects are deeply intertwined with the mainland and it sells itself as a gateway to China. On the other, government officials and investors promote Hong Kong’s stark contrasts with China, with an independent legal system, free speech and currency pegged to the US dollar, not the renminbi.这一态度突显出了香港经济地位的奇特二重性。一方面,这块半自治中国领土的前景已与中国内地深深交织在一起,而且香港也在宣扬自己是通向中国内地的门户。另一方面,政府官员和投资者又在兜售香港明显不同于中国内地的地方:相对独立的法律体系,言论自由,以及与美元而非人民币挂钩的港元。Last week Beijing rushed to implement a package of measures designed to arrest the slump in Chinese stock markets, halting new share issues, banning large investors from selling stakes and pushing state-owned stock brokers and companies to buy equities.上周,北京方面仓促实施了一系列旨在止住中国股市跌势的措施,比如暂停新股发行,禁止大股东减持,以及推动国有券商和企业买入股票。The Hong Kong government, by contrast, sat on the sidelines, even as the sell-off on the Shanghai and Shenzhen stock exchanges prompted large falls in Hong Kong-listed shares.与此形成对照的是,就在沪深股市的抛售行为导致香港上市公司股价大跌之际,香港政府却并未插手干预。Although Hong Kong pulled off the textbook government rescue of a collapsing stock market in 1997, the government’s top financial official said on Friday he had no intention of intervening this time.尽管1997年香港政府成功实施了教科书般的救市、止住了股市的狂泻,但香港政府最高财政长官上周五却表示,这一次他不打算出手干预。“Whatever happens in other markets will have an impact on Hong Kong, which is a very externally oriented market,said John Tsang, financial secretary. “But we conduct our regulatory practices in a mature and sophisticated way.”“香港是一个非常外向型的市场,所以无论其他市场发生什么,都会对香港造成影响,”香港财政司司长曾俊John Tsang)说,“但我们开展监管实践的方式成熟而老练。”Francis Cheung, head of China and Hong Kong strategy at CLSA, a stock broker, said Hong Kong enjoyed a short-term benefit “any time China screws upbecause investors were reminded of the former British colony’s far stronger regulatory framework.里昂券(CLSA)中国与香港策略主管郑名凯(Francis Cheung)表示,“每当中国玩砸了的时候”,都会在短期内利好香港,因为那会让投资者重新意识到这块前英国殖民地有着强健得多的监管框架。However, he added that in the long term Hong Kong’s fortunes as a financial centre would inevitably be tied up with mainland China, not least because the city is in the process of integrating its stock exchange with the Chinese bourses in Shanghai and Shenzhen.但他补充道,长远来看,香港作为金融中心的命运将不可避免地与中国内地捆绑在一起,一个重要原因在于,香港的券交易所正在与上海和深圳的券交易所进行融合。Vincent Chan, head of China research for Credit Suisse in Hong Kong, also argued that any benefits for Hong Kong from China’s woes would be short-lived.瑞信(Credit Suisse)驻香港的中国研究主管陈昌Vincent Chan)也辩称,香港从中国内地困境中获得的任何好处都将是暂时的。He said the wide-ranging Chinese intervention in the stock market made investors nervous about the direction of Beijing’s policy, coming in spite of repeated statements from Chinese officials that they wanted to accelerate the opening-up of the economy and financial services.他表示,尽管中国官员反复宣称希望加快经济和金融务业的开放,但他们还是对股市展开了广泛干预,这令投资者对北京方面的政策方向感到担心。Such concerns were likely to be negative for Hong Kong, he said, given that most foreign investors buy Chinese stocks listed in Hong Kong, known as H shares, rather than those listed in Shanghai and Shenzhen, known as A shares.他说,考虑到投资在港上市的中国股票(即H股)的外国投资者为数众多,上面这种担心很可能会给香港带来负面影响。But although the Chinese and Hong Kong governments are pursuing a long-term goal of economic and financial integration, investors will continue to assess the risks of doing business in the mainland and in Hong Kong differently.不过,尽管中国政府与香港政府正在追求经济与金融一体化的长期目标,投资者仍将对中国内地和香港的营商风险给出不同的评价。“There’s still a difference in governance and the mechanisms in Shenzhen and Shanghai compared with Hong Kong, and investors understand the risks,said Edward Au, an auditor at Deloitte who advises Chinese companies on overseas listings.“在治理和机制上,沪深与香港仍然存在差别,投资者明白这种风险,”德Deloitte)负责为中国企业海外上市提供咨询的审计师Edward Au表示。来 /201507/385716

MALACCA, Malaysia —When Zheng He, the seafaring eunuch explorer of the Chinese Ming dynastic court, guided boats packed with porcelain to Africa and the Arabian Peninsula, he brought giraffes back to China and founded stockades along the shipping lanes of Southeast Asia.马来西亚马六甲——郑和是中国明朝的宦官,也是一位航海探险家,他率领着满载瓷器的船队抵达了非洲和阿拉伯半岛,把长颈鹿带回了中国,同时也在东南亚航道的沿岸修建了城寨。One of those tropical bases was here in Malacca, now a modest town of preserved pink Portuguese colonial buildings, Chinese merchant homes and Hindu and Buddhist temples on the west coast of Malaysia.其中一个热带基地就位于马六甲,现在它是马来西亚西海岸边上一座规模不大的城市,保留着粉红色的葡萄牙殖民时期建筑、中国商人的宅邸,以及印度教和佛教寺庙。In the 15th century, this was the midway point on the maritime crossing between China and the lands along the western rim of the Indian Ocean. Here, sailors from Zheng He’s fleets built homes and storehouses on the Straits of Malacca. Only one-tenth of the crew members who set out from China returned to their homeland.15世纪时,它是贯穿中国与印度洋西部沿岸的海上通路的中间点。郑和船队的水手在马六甲海峡修建了房屋和仓库。从中国出发的船员,只有十分之一回到了中囀?Some scholars and business people in Malaysia and neighboring Singapore, which have significant ethnic Chinese populations, now want to ensure that Zheng He’s name is as synonymous with Malacca as it is with China. At least two guesthouses in Malacca bear his name, rendered as Cheng Ho in Malaysia. A large replica of a junk, or Chinese ship, covered with billboards rises from a crossroads in the old town.目前,在马来西亚及其有着很多华裔人口的邻国新加坡,一些学者和企业界人士,努力要让郑和的名字成为马六甲的代名词,正如他的名字一直与中国紧密连系一样。马六甲至少有两家宾馆以他的名字命名。在老城区的一个十字路口,矗立着一艘中式帆船的巨大复制品,上面覆盖着广告牌。But the real centerpiece of the Zheng He revival is a sprawling two-story red building called the Cheng Ho Cultural Museum built on the grounds of eight former shop houses. It aims to give visitors the definitive narrative of the life and times of Zheng He, including his sojourns in Malaysia. The museum’s appeal and reputation extend to Zheng He’s motherland: Last year, Jia Qinglin, a top Chinese Communist Party official, visited.但是,郑和文化馆才是郑和热再次兴起的真正体现。它是一处不规则的红色二层建筑物,前面有八个门面。其目的是向游客明确介绍郑和的生平和那个时代,其中包括他在马来西亚停留期间。这个文化馆的魅力和声誉传回了郑和的祖国:去年,中国共产党最高层官员贾庆林参观了这家文化馆。“Cheng Ho’s voyages contributed a lot to the Malacca Empire,said the museum’s founder, Tan Ta Sen, a scholar and entrepreneur in Singapore who is president of the International Zheng He Society. “Without the support of the Ming, Malacca’s history would have been rewritten.”“郑和对马六甲帝国贡献良多,”文化馆创办人陈达生说。他是新加坡学者和企业家,也是国际郑和学会会长。“如果没有明朝的持,马六甲的历史就会改写。”A Chinese historian, Zheng Yijun, at the Institute of Oceanology under the Chinese Academy of Sciences, said that Zheng He brought the lifestyle of the Chinese to the area. “It is evident in the local history of Malacca,he said. “Around that time, people started wearing Chinese style clothing. The Chinese also married local people. The two cultures merged and the Chinese became part of the local society.”中国科学院海洋研究所的历史学家郑一钧说,郑和给这片区域带来了中国的生活方式。“在马六甲当地的历史,这种影响很明显,”他说。“在这段时间里,人们开始穿中式装。中国人也和当地人通婚。两种文化发生融合,中国人成为了当地社会的组成部分。”The museum was founded on the site of the old government depot, which had warehouses and granaries on the west bank of the river. An account by Ma Huan, an Arabic-language translator who accompanied Zheng He on three expeditions, said an inner wall protected the warehouses, while an outer wall with four watchtowers surrounded the entire compound. Guards with bells did night patrols.郑和文化馆是在官厂旧址上修建的,它在河的西岸设有库房和粮仓。曾陪同郑和三次下西洋的马欢是名阿拉伯语翻译,根据他的记录,有一道内墙保护着库房,外墙则围绕整个建筑,带有四个瞭望塔。带着铃铛的卫士在夜间巡逻。Ma Huan also wrote, according to a translation by J. V. G. Mills, that the town had “tigers which turn into men; they enter the markets and walk about mixing with people; after they have been recognized, they are captured and killed.”根据J·V·G·米尔J. V. G. Mills)的翻译,马欢还写道,镇上有“老虎变成的男人;他们进入集市,混迹于人群中;他们被认出后,遭到了捕杀。”The museum officially opened in 2005, timed to the 600th anniversary of the start of Zheng He’s seven voyages to the Indian Ocean, which took place from 1405 to 1433. Zheng He died at age 62 as he returned home on the last of those. Shipmates wrapped his body in a white shroud and flung it into the ocean.郑和文化馆正式开放是005年,郑和首次下西洋的600周年。从1405433年间,郑和七次下西洋。在最后一次回国途中2岁的郑和与世长辞。同船船员用白布将尸体包裹好,抛入海中。As the museum was being built, workers found five ancient wells on the site. Two had Ming artifacts, including shards of porcelain. One of the wells sits by the lobby cafe. The interior of the wells were lined with granite blocks. “This type of practice can be found throughout places visited by the admiral,Mr. Tan said.郑和文化馆兴建的时候,工人在工地发现了五口古井。其中两口中有明代文物,包括瓷器碎片。其中一口井位于文化馆大堂的咖啡厅。井的内壁以花岗石块衬垫。“在郑和去过的各个地方,都发现有这样的做法,”陈达生说。Mention of Zheng He can evoke strong reactions. Many Chinese speak of him with reverence, citing him as a pioneer who temporarily established China as a sea power. In the West, his legacy has been the subject of debate, largely fueled by a best-selling book by Gavin Menzies, 421: The Year China Discovered the World.Many historians have criticized the book, published in 2002, for asserting with scant evidence that Zheng He traveled well beyond East Africa and reached the Americas decades ahead of Christopher Columbus.提到郑和,可以引起人们的强烈反应。很多中国人对他心怀崇敬,称他是一位先驱者,让中国暂时性地成了海上强国。在西方,郑和的功业一直是人们争论的话题,这在很大程度上是拜加文·孟席斯(Gavin Menzies)的畅销书所赐。这002年出版的421:中国发现世界1421: The Year China Discovered the World)遭到了很多历史学家的批评,因为它在据很不充分的情况下,就断言郑和的海上行程远远超出了东非,到达了美洲,比克里斯托弗·哥伦布(Christopher Columbus)还早数十年。But no one doubts his presence in Malacca, which he visited at least five times. “He stayed in this building here,said David Khor, a museum guide. “He built up Malacca. Before, it was small and backward.”但没有人会怀疑郑和到过马六甲,他至少五次抵达这里。“郑和在这里的时候,就住在这栋建筑里,”文化馆导游戴维·霍尔(David Khor)说。“他建起了马六甲。之前它是个又小又落后的地方。”More than 95 percent of the mosques in Malacca have a strong Chinese architectural influence, Mr. Tan said. More important, Zheng He and the Yongle Emperor, the ruler of China at the time, helped the native people of Malacca stand up to the kingdom of Thailand.陈达生说,在马六甲,95%以上的清真寺都深受中国建筑的影响。更重要的是,郑和与当时的中国统治者明成祖协助了马六甲当地人抗击暹罗王囀?“The tribal chief was recognized by the Yongle Emperor as the ruler of his kingdom,said Mr. Zheng, the Chinese historian. “With that recognition, the Thai didn’t dare invade Malacca anymore. Zheng He is remembered by the people of Malacca as the one who helped them gain independence.”“明成祖承认当地的部落首领是王国的统治者,”中国历史学者郑一钧说。“在此之后,暹罗就不敢再侵犯马六甲了。马六甲人认为是郑和帮助他们获得了独立,将他铭记在心。”Zheng He bestowed on the chief two silver seals, a hat, a girdle and a robe, Ma Huan wrote. Then he placed a stone tablet on the site before building the stockade.马欢写道,郑和赠给部落首领“双台银印、冠带袍”。然后,在当地“建碑封域”。Artifacts in the museum recount other aspects of the Zheng He story. A bell, presented by Zheng He to a temple in Fujian Province of China in 1431, before his final trip to Africa, was a supplication for a safe journey. A glass case houses the tools used during that era to turn a boy into a eunuch: a dagger, a rope, a candle and an urn (to store the private parts). There was “no anesthetic, no pain killers,Mr. Khor said. “Very painful.”文化馆里的展品呈现了郑和故事的其他层面431年,在最后一次前往非洲之前,郑和向福建的一座寺庙赠送了一口钟,以祈求一路平安。一个玻璃柜里陈列着那个时代把男孩变成宦官的工具:一把匕首、一根绳子、一蜡烛和一个缸子(用来盛放割下的私处)。“没有麻醉剂,没有止痛药,”霍尔说。“非常痛苦。”Zheng He was born into a prominent Muslim family in southwest China and was made into a eunuch after being captured at age 13 by an invading army of the Ming court. Zheng He then served Zhu Di, who later became the Yongle Emperor.郑和出生于中国西南部一个显赫的穆斯林家族3岁时,他被来犯的明军俘获,成了一名宦官。之后,郑和侍奉朱棣,也就是后来的明成祖。For the Chinese, the reputation of Zheng He rests on his role as a peaceful envoy of the Ming who sought to build diplomatic relations with far-flung kingdoms. As modern-day China’s rise leads to friction with other Asian nations, some scholars cite Zheng He as evidence of China’s historical goal of global peace.对中国人而言,郑和的声誉在于其充当了明朝的和平使者,寻求与遥远的王国建立邦交。随着当今中国的崛起引发与其他一些亚洲国家的擦,一些学者以郑和为例,明中国在历史上向来以世界和平为目标。“The Europeans started a storm of blood with their long voyages, robbing and pillaging along the way,said Zhuang Guotu, a history professor at Xiamen University in southeast China. “Zheng He was fundamentally different from them.”“欧洲人通过长途航行掀起了腥风血雨,一路强取豪夺,”厦门大学历史学教授庄国土说。“郑和跟他们有着本质的差别。”Other scholars have argued that Zheng He’s voyages were military expeditions carried out by soldiers representing an expansionist Ming Empire. “They were military missions with strategic aims,wrote Geoffrey Wade, a scholar at the National University of Singapore, in a 2004 paper published by the university’s Asia Research Institute.不过,另有一些学者认为,郑和的航海实际上是由士兵进行的军事远征,代表的是明王朝奉行的扩张主义。“它们是带有战略目标的军事任务,”新加坡国立大学(National University of Singapore)的学者韦杰夫(Geoff Wade)在该校亚洲研究所(Asia Research Institute)004年发表的一篇论文中写道。Mr. Wade wrote that the stockade built by Zheng He in Malacca was proof of the military nature of the expeditions. “To enable these great fleets to maintain the Pax Ming in the immediate region and sail through the Indian Ocean to Africa, it was necessary to create staging posts in what is today Southeast Asia,he wrote.韦杰夫说,郑和在马六甲筑造的城寨实了探险行动的军事本质。“要用这些庞大的舰队维持周边地区的‘大明’统治,打开通过印度洋前往非洲的通道,在今天的东南亚一带修建中途集结地是有必要的,”他写道。But Mr. Tan said it is today’s global order that is militarized, “chaoticand obsessed with what the West calls “zero-sum games.These days, he said, “one must conquer your opposition instead of finding all-win solutions in the Cheng Ho spirit.”但陈达生说,这种军事化的、“混乱的”、痴迷于西方所说的“零和弈”的全球秩序,是今天才有的。他说如今“你必须征你的对手,而不是本着郑和精神去寻找一种共同受益的解决方案。”来 /201501/352913

Israeli authorities reported a Palestinian stabbing attack Monday near a market in central Jerusalem, a day after a series of incidents in the Israeli-occupied West Bank.以色列当局说,星期一在耶路撒冷中部的一个集市发生巴勒斯坦人持刀行凶事件。一天前,约旦河西岸以色列控制区发生了一系列袭击事件。Police said Mondays attack involved two women with scissors stabbing a man before they were shot by a police officer.警方说,在周一的袭击中,两名妇女用剪刀袭击一名男子后被警察击毙。On Sunday, the military said a Palestinian stabbed a 21-year-old woman multiple times in the head and chest before nearby soldiers shot him dead.军方说,星期天,一名巴勒斯坦人持刀多次捅向一1岁女子的头部和胸部,后来被附近的士兵开击毙。In an earlier attack, the military said a woman pulled out a knife at a military base entrance and began approaching civilians. A local West Bank settler said he veered his vehicle off the road and struck the woman. A soldier then fired at her and killed her.以色列军方说,在先前发生的一起袭击事件中,一名妇女在一个军事基地的入口处拔出匕首刺向平民。约旦河西岸的一位定居者说,他把车开离道路撞向这位妇女。之后,一个士兵开将这名妇女击毙。The eight week surge in street violence has challenged Israels security system and alarmed the ed States, whose Secretary of State John Kerry is due to visit the region this week.连续八周街头暴力的不断升级,不仅给以色列的安全系统构成挑战,同时也引发美国关注。克里国务卿定于本周访问这个地区。来 /201511/411634

The ed Nations human rights agency says the death toll from the conflict in eastern Ukraine has passed 5,000.联合国人权事务高级专员办事处说,乌克兰东部冲突的死亡人数已超过五千。Spokesman Rupert Colville told reporters Friday that the death toll could be far higher than the official estimate of 5,086 deaths, based on data collected by U.N. human rights monitors since the beginning of hostilities in April.办事处发言人鲁帕特#8226;科尔维尔星期五对记者说,死亡人数可能大大超出官方估计的5086人。这个数字是根据联合国人权监察员去年4月冲突爆发以来统计的数据。Meanwhile, Russian President Vladimir Putin has accused the Ukrainian government of starting a surge in violence in eastern Ukraine, where pro-Russian separatists are battling Ukrainian troops to gain territory. Mr. Putin made the claim Friday in a meeting with senior officials.与此同时,俄罗斯总统普京星期五与高层官员会晤时指责乌克兰政府在乌克兰东部造成暴力升级当地的亲俄分离分子正与乌克兰政府军争夺地盘。The ed Nations says it has counted 262 deaths in the fighting in the past nine days.联合国说,据他们统计,过去九天的战斗造成262人死亡。Earlier Friday, a pro-Russian separatist leader said he will not push for new peace talks with the Ukrainian government, vowing instead to gain control of more territory in the east.另外,乌克兰东部顿涅斯克的反政府武装领导人扎哈琴科表示,他不会推动与乌克兰政府进行新的和谈,而是决心在乌克兰东部攻占更多的领土。Russian news agencies ed rebel chief Alexander Zakharchenko, based in the eastern city of Donetsk, as saying that his forces are launching a new offensive to expand their territory.俄罗斯媒体星期五引述扎哈琴科的话说,他的部队正在发动新的攻势,扩大地盘。On Thursday in Donetsk, at least 13 people were killed when a trolley bus was hit in an apparent mortar attack, sparking accusations of blame from both sides.星期四,顿涅斯克一辆公交车被炮弹击中,导致至少13人丧生。政府和反叛武装都宣称对方应对此负责。来 /201501/355996

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