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博乐麦格假体隆胸多少钱乌鲁木齐县祛痘要多少钱You can now swipe your way to a BFF after dating app Bumble announced it has released a function that allows users to look for friends as well as lovers.最近,一个名为“大黄蜂”的手机App出台了新功能——用户只消用手指一滑,就可以找到恋爱对象和朋友。The app, which was launched by a group of former Tinder employees in December 2014, previously enabled women to approach men - but not the other-way around - for potential dates...but has now added a similar function for finding new friends.这款手机应用诞生于2014年12月。它的设计者们曾在另一交友应用Tinder工作过。之前,女性可以用这款应用认识男性,反过来则不行。如今,设计者们给它加入了交友的新功能。Bumble#39;s founder, Whitney Wolfe, 26, has extended the app#39;s dating function to allow users to adopt the #39;friend mode#39;, meaning you can swipe right on pictures of anyone you#39;d like to be gal pals with.现年26岁的“大黄蜂”创始人惠特尼·沃尔夫将App原有的约会功能加以拓展。使用者可以采用“朋友模式”。在此模式下,如果遇到感兴趣的人,你只要将对方的照片向右滑动就可以相互认识啦。Bumble, which has more than 500,000 users in the UK, was designed to appeal to women in response to Tinder which its creators believe is full of #39;creepy guys#39; and #39;cheesy pickup lines#39;.在英国,“大黄蜂”拥有的用户超过了五十万。其设计者认为,Tinder上充斥着各种“变态的家伙”和“厚颜无耻的搭讪”。而“大黄蜂”改进了这一点,目的是吸引更多女性朋友。The app instead allows women to message men first and its creators claim its female-freindly approach makes it safer and users are #39;will never receive unwanted messages#39;.“大黄蜂”让女性可以先给男性发信息。设计者表示,这种女性优先的方法更为安全。它让使用者们“再也不会收到讨厌的信息了”。#39;It#39;s almost easier to find a date than it is to find a friend,#39; Wolfe said on CBS This Morning on Monday.沃尔夫周一在CBS电视台的晨间节目《This Morning》中说:“好友难觅,找约会对象甚至都比找朋友更容易。”She said the move is a response to a demand for a platonic dating function from users.她表示,新功能的推出是为了满足用户对纯精神交友的需求。#39;We have an incredible user base, and so many of them were using this app to find friends. And they#39;ve been requesting a feature for — #39;Hey, I#39;m in a relationship, but I love Bumble. I still want to be able to use it.#39; #39;“我们有着惊人的用户数量。很多人都用这款App找朋友。他们一直在要求增加新功能——‘尽管我已经有恋爱对象,但我喜欢“大黄蜂”。我仍然希望能够使用它。’”Finding friends works the same way as finding a date on the app. Users can swipe right on the people they are interested in and if there#39;s a match, the two can start chatting. If no message is exchanged within 24 hours, the connection disappears from both users#39; messages.在这款App上,找约会对象和找朋友的操作方法是一样的。如果对某人感兴趣,使用者可以将对方头像向右滑动。若双方都对彼此感兴趣则配对成功,接下来就可以开始聊天了。如果在24小时内没有互发信息的话,那么这两个人的连接就断开了。However, detractors have criticised the fact that the app only allows users to #39;friend match#39; with members of the same sex.不过,也有人批评“大黄蜂”只让用户和同性会员进行“朋友配对”。 /201603/431561乌鲁木齐整形美容医院去胎记多少钱 The workplace is a fascinating place for anyone who loves language. There’s something about the office environment that seems to encourage the inventive use of language. For better or worse, the English language is often toyed with in the office space, creating whole new words and phrases that you’ll seldom hear outside of an office environment。对于喜爱语言的人来说,工作场所是一个极其具有吸引力的地方。办公环境看起来似乎是鼓励人们尝试创造性的使用语言。不管怎样,英语经常被玩弄于办公场所,人们经常创造出全新的单词和短语,你可能很少在办公环境外的地方听到过这些短语。Here are some of the most common words, phrases and idioms that you’ll come across if you’re working in an English-speaking office today。如果你现在在一个说英语的公司工作的话,下面是一些你可能会遇到的使用最普遍的单词,短语和习语。1、Water-cooler chat茶水吧闲聊This is an Americanism that has crossed over into British English too. Most offices these days have a water cooler, and this phrase has come to mean anything that people talk about when they happen to meet at the water cooler. This tends to refer to gossip or trivial things like discussing what happened in the soap opera that was on last night。这是一个美式短语,它同样也存在于英式中。现在许多公司都有饮水机,这个短语的意思是,大家在喝水的时候碰到会谈论一些事情。这会涉及到一些闲聊或者琐碎的事情,像讨论前天晚上肥皂剧的剧情是怎么发展的。2、Close of play下班临近Often shortened to COP in emails and text messages, and also as end of play or EOP, this simply means by the end of the working day. Why do bosses ask if they can have this work done by close of play rather than just asking if they can have it done today? Perhaps they are trying to make work sound more fun, as close of play is a sporting term, particularly used when it comes to cricket, where it means when the game ends for the day。在邮件和短信里通常会被缩写为COP,也同样可以写作EOP,end of play,它的意思仅仅是下班前。为什么老板会问他们是否能在下班前把这个工作做完而不是问今天他们能不能把它做完?也许他们在尝试让工作听起来更有趣,结束是当做一个体育术语,特别是用于板球的结尾,在这里它的意思是一天板球运动的结尾。3、Annual leave休假In the days before office-speak took over, people would simply say that they were going on holiday. But that doesn’t sound quite corporate, serious and professional enough. So you’ll often find people referring to their summer holiday as their ‘period of annual leave,’ for example, in their out-of-office auto reply email。这些天,在办公室闲聊接手之前,人们会简单的说他们要去度假。但是这听起来相当不合群体,不严谨和不专业。因此你会经常发现人们会提到他们的暑假作为他们的‘休假’,例如,在他们不在办公室的时候回复邮件。4、Hard copy打印稿More and more of our work documents are created and shared online without the need for printing, which is better for the environment as well as saving us time and effort. But sometimes real, physical documents are required. When someone wants a physical print out of a document rather than an electronic copy, they will ask for a hard copy。我们越来越多的工作文件没有必要打印,在网上直接写出来同大家一起分享,这种环境会更好,也会节约我们的时间和努力。但是有些时候真的,一些物理文档是需要纸质版的。当有人想要纸质文件而不是电子版的文时件,他们会要一个打印稿。5、Think outside the box打开思维No one knows what the box is, or what’s inside it, but bosses seem to like it when workers are outside it. If someone at your work asks you to think outside the box it means they don’t want you to limit your thinking. They want creativity, and ideas, and thinking outside the mainstream. This term is used to try and encourage new ideas and a fresh approach to problems。没有人知道这个盒子的范围是什么,或者里面装有什么,但是老板们似乎喜欢员工们都在外面。如果有人在你的工作范围要求你去打开思维想想外在的方面,这意味着他们不想限制你的思维想让你开发空间。他们想要的是创新,好点子和想到市场的主流。这个术语被用作试图激励员工想出新办法和一个新方法来解决问题。6、Brainstorming头脑风暴Brainstorming is another way to encourage workers to think outside the box. It’s a technique by which a group discussion is held to produce ideas. Ideas are spontaneously bounced around the group, often as a way of trying to solve a problem. Brainstorming actually goes back a long way, all the way back to 1939 when it was first devised by advertising executive Alex F. Osborn. He began developing methods for creative problem solving, as he was frustrated by employees’ inability to develop creative ideas individually for ad campaigns. In response, he began hosting group-thinking sessions and discovered a significant improvement in the quality and quantity of ideas produced by employees。头脑风暴是另外一种激励员工打开思维的方式。这是一种技术,一个团队一起讨论问题提出方法。团队里面,大家的办法都是突然想出来,经常用来解决问题。头脑风暴事实上回顾到了一种很长久的方式,回溯到了1939年,当广告执行总监亚历克斯F第一次设计出来。当他被员工们无能为广告活动想出有创新性的主意而备受挫败时,他开始为具有创造性的问题想出好的办法。作为回应,他开始举办集思广益期,发现员工们的想法的质量和数量,在很大程度上完善了很多。7、Desk jockey办公室工作This is a pun on the term disc jockey, and the chances are you’re being a desk jockey right now. Instead of spinning lots of records, you might be on your laptop checking emails, ing this article, while you’re eating a pasta salad or drinking a coffee from your work’s canteen. Ringing phones, beeping pagers, overflowing inboxes – they’re all the tools of the desk jockey。这是舞曲唱片播放员这个术语的双关用法,现在有机会让你成为坐办公室的人。而不是旋转很多的唱片,你可能在用笔记本电脑查看邮件,阅读文档,与此同时你在工作餐厅里面在吃通心粉沙拉或者喝咖啡。手机响,电话响,邮箱邮件满----他们都是在办公室工作的工具。8、USP独特卖点This stands for Unique Selling Point or Unique Selling Proposition. It’s used a lot in the marketing sector and was introduced as office-speak way back in the 1940s. It refers to those successful products that have unique, specific attractions to consumers – so much so that they were willing to switch to it from their brand of choice。USP代表的是独特的卖点或者独特的销售主张。在市场部分用的很多,被引用到办公室会话还要回溯到1940年。它指代那些成功的,对于客户而言有特点、有独特的吸引力的产品----如此以至于客户希望改变他们的品牌选择。 /201509/400919While the new media artist Lu Yang was studying at the China Academy of Art in Hangzhou in the 2000s, she drew up a series of works dealing with mind control. Many were deemed too sensitive, even borderline unethical, and remain unrealized. But with the help of the Fukuoka Asian Art Museum in Japan, Ms. Lu was able to obtain dead frogs that had been used in a medical dissection to produce one of the works. The result is a six-minute called “Reanimation! Underwater Zombie Frog Ballet” (2011), in which frogs wired to electrodes dance in water to a funky electronic beat.当新媒体艺术家陆扬于2000年代初在杭州的中国美术学院学习时,她绘制了一系列有关精神控制的作品。许多作品被认为过于敏感,甚至近乎不合伦理,因而仍未实际做出来。但在日本福冈亚洲美术馆的帮助下,陆扬得到了曾用于医学解剖的死青蛙,来创作一个作品。其结果就是2011年的《复活!僵尸青蛙水下芭蕾!》(Reanimation! Underwater Zombie Frog Ballet)。这段六分钟视频中,青蛙被连接到电极上,随着强烈的电子节拍在水下跳舞。Since graduating in 2010, the Shanghai-born Ms. Lu, 30, has produced a series of boundary-pushing multimedia works that explore neuroscience, mortality and religion.自2010年毕业以来,今年30岁、出生于上海的陆扬已经创作了一系列突破界限的多媒体作品,探索神经科学、死亡和宗教。In “Uterus Man” (2013), she collaborated with musicians, manga artists and others to create a project centered on an anime-style character called Uterus Man who rides a “pelvis chariot” and skateboards on a winged sanitary pad.在2013年的作品《子宫战士》(Uterus Man)中,她与音乐人、漫画家及其他人共同创作了一个项目,以一个叫做“子宫战士”的动漫风格的人物为中心,这个人物驾驶“骨盆战车”,并把护翼卫生巾当成滑板踩着。In “Moving Gods” (2015), which was featured in the China Pavilion at the 2015 Venice Biennale, Ms. Lu redefines the nimbus — the halo often seen in images of sacred figures — in what is meant to be a “sabotage” of ancient religious icons.在2015年的作品《移动神佛》(Moving Gods)中,陆扬重新定义了光背——即在神佛的画像中,背后常见的光晕——它意味着对古代宗教偶像的“破坏”。这个作品在2015双年展的中国馆里进行过展出。Her latest work is “Lu Yang Delusional Mandala” (2015), presented in September in a solo show at Beijing Commune. It applies concepts like stereotactic mapping and deep-brain stimulation to simulate a “delusion” in which Ms. Lu destroys her own body and work.她最新的作品是今年的《陆扬妄想曼陀罗》(Lu Yang Delusional Mandala),9月曾在北京公社的个展中展出过。它应用了类似于立体定向和深层脑刺激的概念来模拟“妄想”,陆扬在作品中对自己的身体和作品进行了摧毁。In an interview, Ms. Lu reflected on the human body, growing up in Shanghai and her collaboration with a Japanese asexual artist.陆扬在接受采访时思考了人体,回顾了在上海的成长,也讲述了与一位日本无性艺术家的合作。Q: How did you become interested in the subject of the body?问:你是怎样开始对身体主题发生兴趣的?A: When I was a child, I spent a lot of time in hospital emergency rooms because I had asthma. So naturally I became interested in the idea of medical treatment and the body. The body is fascinating to me because it is totally objective. There is no right or wrong. That’s why in my work I don’t indicate the value or the aim of things. I use a very cold and calm approach.答:从我还是个孩子的时候就开始了,因为我有哮喘,我在医院急诊室度过了很多时间。所以我自然而然地对医疗和身体的概念产生了兴趣。身体是很奇妙的,因为它是完全客观的,没有对和错。这就是为什么在我的作品中,不表达事物的价值或目的。我会用一种很冷、很平静的视角。Another theme in my work is religion. It’s more difficult to get into religion when you’re older because you’re more skeptical. But growing up, my family was pretty religious. I often my grandmother’s books about Buddhism, which made me really interested in religion.我作品中的另一个主题是宗教。当你年纪大一些时,就更难信仰宗教,因为会更加怀疑。但在我的成长过程中,我的家庭相当虔诚。我经常阅读我祖母有关佛教的书,这使我对宗教非常感兴趣。Q: Does your family have a background in art?问:你的家庭有艺术背景吗?A: My parents were just ordinary workers at a medical company. Now they’re both retired. I don’t talk about my art with my parents. But I think they’ve probably looked up my work on the Internet. They know I make art, and they know I can make a living. I can depend on myself, so for them that’s enough.答:我的父母只是一家医疗公司的普通工作人员,现在他们都退休了。我不和父母谈论我的艺术,但我想他们可能在网上搜过我的作品。他们知道我创作艺术,知道我能以此谋生。我可以依靠自己,所以对他们来说这已经足够。Q: Did you know from a young age, growing up in Shanghai, that you wanted to be an artist?问:你在上海长大时,从很小的时候就知道自己想成为一个艺术家吗?A: I always dreamed of being an artist. But after I entered middle school, I didn’t think it would be possible. I didn’t even know what artists did exactly. I only knew that artists could be creative in their work.答:我一直梦想成为一个艺术家。但在我上中学之后,我还不认为这是可能的。我甚至不知道艺术家到底是做什么的。我只知道,艺术家们可以在他们的作品中发挥创造力。I was able to get into the China Academy of Art because I really liked to paint. I was growing up at about the same time that Chinese contemporary art was beginning to emerge, so I learned about contemporary art early on. When I was in middle school, my classmates were interested in the latest trends, but I wanted to find more special things, so I started going to galleries and listening to Japanese music. Later, in high school, I subscribed to some magazines about contemporary art.我能够进入中国美术学院,是因为我真的喜欢画画。我成长在中国当代艺术开始萌芽的同一时期,所以很早我就了解了当代艺术。我在中学的时候,同学们都对最新的流行感兴趣,但我想寻找更特别的东西,所以我开始去画廊并且听日本音乐。后来,我在高中时订阅了一些有关当代艺术的杂志。Q: What were some of your early influences?问:有哪些东西对你产生了早期影响?A: I used to like Western rock music, but I don’t really listen to it anymore. I was also exposed to Japanese culture at an early age. In Shanghai, a lot of television channels played Japanese cartoons, so they had a big influence on our generation. My favorite thing today is still mainstream culture, like sci-fi movies with really good computer-generated effects and other really good Japanese animated movies. I don’t really like art-house films.答:我以前喜欢西方摇滚乐,但现在不怎么听了。我小时候也接触了日本文化。在上海,很多电视频道都播放日本卡通片,对我们这代人影响很大。我现在最喜欢的还是主流文化,像电脑特效非常好的科幻电影,还有其他很不不错的日本动画电影。但我不喜欢艺术片。Q: You often collaborate with other nonvisual artists, like the sound artist Wang Changcun and the composer Du Yun. How do these collaborations come about?问:你经常和非视觉的艺术家合作,如声音艺术家王长存和作曲家杜韵。这些合作是怎么开始的呢?A: Sometimes I search for musicians and sometimes they find me. I’ve collaborated with musicians who work in opera, death metal, electronic and pop music, and hip-hop. They are usually acquaintances or people I’ve discovered on websites like SoundCloud. The Internet is quite useful, because I don’t really interact with people that much. As long as I have access to a computer, I can make art.答:有的时候是我找音乐人,有时候是他们找我。我合作过的音乐人有从事歌剧的,有做死亡金属的,还有做电子和流行音乐以及嘻哈音乐的。通常是之前就认识人,或者是我在SoundCloud这样的网站上发现的。互联网很有用,因为我和人接触并不多。只要有电脑,我就能创作艺术。Q: What are the websites you go to?问:你通常都上哪些网站?A: One is Bilibili, a website for watching cartoons. I visit this every day.答:一个是哔哩哔哩(Bilibili),是个看卡通的网站。我每天都上。When I finish a work, I’ll upload it on Vimeo. For me, it’s important what average people online think. They’re not like people in art circles who might be really phony and say, “Oh, I like your work so much.” It’s boring if the only people who see your work are from one circle.我完成作品后,就会把作品上传到Vimeo上。对我来说,网上普通人的想法很重要。他们不像艺术圈的人,可能会很假地说:“哎呀,我太喜欢你的作品了”。如果看你作品的人来自一个圈子,就很没意思。Q: Do you identify as a Chinese artist?问:你认为自己是中国艺术家吗?A: It’s kind of inevitable that you’re labeled as one. If I have an exhibition abroad, they always say, “This is a Chinese artist.” But that’s why I say that I want to live on the Internet. That way, nobody knows who you are. People online only care about your work and whether it’s any good. They’re not thinking about who the person is behind the work. By living on the Internet, you can abandon your identity, nationality, gender, even your existence as a human being. I rather like this feeling.答:其实免不了会被贴上这个标签。如果我在国外办展览,他们总会说,“这是一位中国艺术家”。但这就是为什么我想活在网上。那样的话,没人知道你是谁。网上的人只在乎你的作品好不好。他们不去考虑谁是作品背后的那个人。在网上,你可以抛弃身份、国籍、性别,甚至是作为一个人的存在。我挺喜欢这种感觉的。Q: Can you talk about your 2013 work “Uterus Man”?问:你能不能谈谈你2013年的作品《子宫战士》?A: The human embodiment of “Uterus Man” in my work is a Japanese man named Mao Sugiyama, who had his genitals cut off and served them in a meal to other people. When I first heard about him I thought he sounded really weird. But then I noticed that he was a painter and that he had said that he hated gender labels and if he was just a painter then why did he need to have a gender? I was really moved so I got in touch with him. That’s how we started collaborating.答:我的作品里“子宫战士”的人类化身是一个叫杉山真央(Mao Sugiyama)的日本人。他做了生殖器移除手术,并将切除的部分做成食物给他人食用。我第一次听说的时候,觉得他非常诡异。但后来注意到他是一个画家,而且说过他痛恨性别标签,还说过如果自己只是一名画家,为什么还需要有性别。我非常受感动,所以和他取得了联系。我们就这样开始合作了。A lot of people think it’s a feminist work, while others think that it’s a superhero story. People project what they’re aly thinking. My own opinion is that you can’t choose your gender when you’re born and it only matters in a social context. When you’re contemplating something, you don’t consciously think, “As a man, I think this” or “As a woman, I think this.” That’s why I think society’s gender divisions are pretty absurd.很多人认为这是一部女权主义作品,其他人则认为这是一个超级英雄故事。人们会投射他们已经有的想法。我自己的观点是,你出生时无法选择性别,性别只有在社会背景下才会成为一个问题。当你在思考一件事时,不会下意识地想,“作为一个男人,我这样想”,或者“作为一个女人,我这样想”。所以,我觉得社会性别的划分很荒谬。Q: You said you basically live on the Internet and your work is influenced by things you see online. Is there any influence from real-world events or politics?问:你说过你基本上生活在网上,你的作品受到你在网上看到的东西的影响。现实世界的事件或政治对你有什么影响吗?A: The older generation of artists really like to make works concerning politics or the nation. But I think there are limitations to this creative method. If you don’t understand politics, or if you’re not from that country, you can’t understand the works.答:老一代的艺术家真的很喜欢创作与政治或国家有关的作品。但我觉得这种创作手法存在局限性。如果不了解政治,或者不是来自这个国家,就无法理解作品。I don’t really understand these kinds of things myself. I’m really scared of going to museums, because I don’t understand a lot of the works. There are things that are common to all human beings and even animals. Basically, I spend my time chasing after those universal things we all have in common.我自己实际上就不了解这类东西。我很害怕去物馆,因为不理解其中的很多作品。有一些东西是所有人类,甚至动物,共通的。所有人类,甚至动物,存在共同之处。我的时间基本上都花在研究那些我们所共有的,普世的东西上。 /201512/412982伊宁激光祛痘多少钱

乌鲁木齐整形美容医院激光去红血丝多少钱乌鲁木齐市友谊医院打美白针多少钱 5.He Mediated a Hostage Negotiation5.他曾在人质谈判中担当调解人Einstein was willing to put his pacifism and commitment to peace into action, even at the risk of his own hide. In 1914, he and three colleagues in Germany singled themselves out by daring to sign a statement protesting the then-empire#39;s militarism and involvement in World War I. The four issued the declaration in reply to the ;Manifesto to the Civilized World,; a government-sponsored document that defended Germany#39;s invasion of neutral Belgium and which nearly 100 eminent German intellectuals signed. While many of his colleagues offered the fruits of their genius to the war effort, Einstein refused.爱因斯坦是一个和平主义者,为了和平他甚至以身犯险。1914年,他和三位同事在德国大胆签署反战声明,反对军国主义,反对德国参与第一次世界大战。他们四人签署反战声明是为了表明立场,反对由德国政府发起的“文明世界的宣言”——该声明是德国为了侵略中立国比利时而进行的自我辩护,将近100位杰出的德国知识分子在上面签了字。虽然他的很多同事都将自己的科学研究成果贡献给了战争,但是爱因斯坦拒绝参与其中。The war left Germany devastated, deeply in debt and facing social upheaval. During the turmoil that followed, radical students at the University of Berlin took the rector and several professors hostage, and no one wanted to take their chances finding out how the police would resolve the standoff. Both students and professors respected Einstein, so he and Max Born, a German-born pioneer of quantum mechanics, found themselves in a position to defuse the situation, which they did. In later years, Einstein would recall with amused wonder how na#239;ve they had been for never considering that the students might have turned on them.战争让德国变得满目疮痍,负债累累,社会动荡不安。在后来的一次动乱中,几个思想激进的柏林大学学生把校长和几位教授挟持为人质,警察却用一个出乎意料的办法打破了僵局。由于爱因斯坦受到双方尊敬,因此他与量子力学奠基人,德国物理学家马克斯·玻恩一同出面平息了这次事件。多年之后,爱因斯坦仍然饶有兴趣地回忆这件事,他们从没想到会受到学生的攻击,实在太天真了。4.He Didn#39;t Win the Nobel Prize for Relativity4.相对论没有让他获得诺贝尔奖As with most scientific revolutions, Einstein#39;s breakthrough insights on special relativity in 1905 did not arise out of a vacuum. His genius lay in how he transformed previous work by scientists like Henri Poincaré and Hendrik Lorentz into a new, unified theory, one that removed the friction between Newtonian physics and James Clerk Maxwell#39;s theory of light.正如大多数科技革命一样,爱因斯坦在1905年创立狭义相对论,尽管在物理学研究上取得突破性进展,却并没有停滞不前。他把亨利·庞加莱和亨得里克·洛伦兹等前辈的研究成果发展成新的、统一的理论,这正是他的天才之处。他解决了牛顿力学与詹姆斯·克拉克·麦克斯韦提出的光学理论相冲突的问题。Published in 1916, Einstein#39;s theory of general relativity completed special relativity by bringing gravity and acceleration into the picture through the concept of warped space-time. Unfortunately, it took years to prove one of its key predictions, the lensing effect of gravity. When astronomers finally confirmed the bending of starlight during observations of a 1919 solar eclipse, it launched Einstein into overnight celebrity, but three more years would pass before the Nobel committee retroactively awarded him the 1921 Nobel Prize in physics in 1922. Einstein received the prize for ;the discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect.; The photoelectric effect refers to the release of electrically charged particles (ions or electrons) from (or within) a material that absorbs electromagnetic radiation (such as light). Einstein#39;s crucial work in this area resolved perplexing questions regarding the particle-wave duality of light. Nevertheless, Einstein#39;s acceptance speech focused on his work in general relativity, a problem that had occupied him for nearly a decade, and whose importance would not be fully appreciated for decades to come.1916年,爱因斯坦把重力和加速度带入弯曲时空中,创立并发表了广义相对论。遗憾的是,重力透镜效应,这一关键性假设在多年后才得以实。1919年,天文学家通过一次日食观察,终于实星光会受重力影响而弯曲,该发现让爱因斯坦一夜成名。然而,又过了三年多,在1922年,诺贝尔奖委员会才授予爱因斯坦1921年诺贝尔物理学奖。爱因斯坦因发现光电效应而获得诺贝尔奖。光电效应是指在电磁波(例如光)照射下,某物质(或内部)会发射出带电粒子(离子或电子)的物理效应。爱因斯坦在该领域的重大发现,解决了与光的波粒二象性有关的复杂问题。然而,爱因斯坦在发表获奖感言时,始终在讲有关广义相对论的研究工作,他用了将近十年才解开这项难题,可是在今后的几十年里,人们可能都无法充分认识到它的重要性。3.He Co-invented a Refrigerator3.他与别人合作发明了一种冰箱Between gas in the pipes and arsenic in the paint and wallpaper, households in the 1920s packed more than their share of deadly substances. Thus it seems appropriate that the transition from the traditional icebox (literally, an insulated wooden box with ice in it) to electrical refrigerators added to the peril by occasionally leaking volatile chemical coolants like methyl chloride, ammonia or sulfur dioxide to poison hapless homeowners.20世纪20年代,家家户户都存在很多安全隐患,比如各种管道里的气体、油漆和壁纸中所含的有毒物质——砷。由于电冰箱代替了传统冰箱(从字面可以看出,传统冰箱是一个里面放有冰块的,能够隔热的箱子),因此发生危险的可能性也随之增加。偶尔有制冷剂(氯甲烷、氨气或二氧化硫)泄露这样的意外发生,导致有人不幸中毒。One such incident in 1926 inspired Einstein to enlist the help of Hungarian physicist Léo Szilàrd in designing a new kind of appliance called an absorption refrigerator that required only ammonia, butane and water, plus a heat source for the pump. Patented in 1930, their device relied on the principle that liquids boil at lower temperatures when exposed to lower atmospheric pressures. As pressure in the pipe above the butane reservoir dropped, the butane would boil off, drawing in heat from its surroundings and lowering temperatures in the fridge. Because it had no moving parts, the appliance would last as long as its casing. Einstein and Szilàrd#39;s refrigerator lost out to more efficient competitors and to the introduction of chlorofluorocarbons, which replaced more hazardous coolants and rendered the compressor fridge safer for people, if not the ozone layer. But new technologies and growing environmental concerns have today sparked renewed interest in their approach, particularly as a means of providing refrigeration in remote and rugged areas.1926年发生了一起制冷剂中毒事件,这件事促使爱因斯坦产生研制新型冰箱的想法。在匈牙利物理学家莱奥·西拉德的帮助下,爱因斯坦发明了一种吸收式冰箱,这种冰箱只需要氨、丁烷和水,外加一个热源作为动力就可以运行。他们在1930年申请了专利,它的工作原理是:液体在低气压环境下可以低温沸腾。随着管中压力增加,丁烷容器中压力迅速降低,丁烷在低压环境下发生汽化,从而吸收周围的热量降低冰箱内温度。由于该装置没有运动部件,因此它的使用寿命和外壳一样长久。爱因斯坦和西拉德发明的冰箱很快被市场淘汰,一种新型冰箱——压缩机冰箱问世,这种冰箱用氯氟烃代替旧的制冷剂,提高了冰箱的安全性,但是存在一个致命的缺点——氯氟烃会破坏臭氧层。然而随着新技术不断涌现,加上人们越来越重视环保,爱因斯坦发明的冰箱再次受到关注,这种冰箱特别适合偏远地区。2.He Was Offered the Presidency of Israel2.他差点成为以色列总统Although Einstein made his mark primarily as a physicist, his political views have grown nearly as famous as his scientific achievements. But they were also more complex than many realize.尽管爱因斯坦是一位著名的物理学家,但是他的政治观点和他取得的科学成就一样出名,甚至比我们想象中的更为复杂。Einstein was a lifelong pacifist, except when it came to taking up defensive arms against the Nazis, who singled him out for persecution. Moreover, when he realized that scientists in Nazi Germany might be working on nuclear chain reactions with bomb potential, he wrote a letter to President Roosevelt urging that the U.S. government coordinate its own research in the area. The letter may have contributed to the formation of the Manhattan Project, to which Einstein -- much to his relief -- was not invited; the government considered him a security risk due to his many associations with peace causes and memberships in social advocacy groups like the NAACP. Nevertheless, his E mc2 equation was essential to their successful efforts in making the first atomic bombs. Einstein also helped fund the war effort by auctioning his manuscripts, and worked after the war to oppose the development of the hydrogen bomb and to control nuclear proliferation. In 1952, Israeli premier David Ben-Gurion offered Einstein the presidency of the newly established state of Israel. Einstein politely turned him down, citing advancing age and stating that his lifelong focus on objective matters had left him unsuited to politics.爱因斯坦一生坚持和平主义的立场,只有在遭到纳粹迫害时,才拿起武器捍卫自己的权力。爱因斯坦发现纳粹德国的科学家可能在研制核武器,他立即给美国总统罗斯福写信,说美国政府进行相关领域的研究。这封信成为曼哈顿计划形成的助推剂,不过,因为政府考虑到他与“全国有色人种协进会”这种主张和平的社会团体有着密切联系,所以爱因斯坦并没有受到该计划邀请,这一点让他十分欣慰。尽管爱因斯坦没有参加,但是在第一颗原子弹研制成功的过程中,他推导出来的方程式:Emc#178;起到了关键作用。爱因斯坦还通过拍卖手稿来资助抗战,等战争结束后,他依然坚持和平主义立场,反对研发氢弹,持控制核扩散。1952年,以色列总理戴维·本-古里安正式提请爱因斯坦为以色列共和国总统候选人。爱因斯坦婉拒了他的请求,称自己年事已高,一生从事科学研究早已无心从政。1.His Brain and Eyes Were Stolen1.有人偷走了他的大脑和眼睛Einstein intended that his body be cremated and his ashes scattered secretly, so as to avoid the possibility of admirers making a shrine of his grave. But when pathologist Dr. Thomas Harvey walked into the Princeton morgue on April 18, 1955, all of that went out the window. Presented with the opportunity to study the brain of one of the great geniuses of the age, and without permission, authority or experience as a neuroscientist, he absconded with 2.7 pounds (1.2 kilograms) of Einstein#39;s gray matter. He also removed the deceased physicist#39;s eyeballs and gave them to Einstein#39;s eye doctor, Henry Adams. They remain in a New York City safe deposit box to this day.爱因斯坦打算死后火化,并将骨灰洒在秘密的地方,以避免仰慕者到他的墓地朝拜。但是,1955年4月18日,病理学家托马斯·哈维走进普林斯顿大学医院的停尸间,爱因斯坦的这一愿望便落空了。为了研究这位伟大天才的大脑,他擅自偷走了爱因斯坦重达2.7磅(1.2公斤)的脑灰质。他还拿走了爱因斯坦的眼球,把它们交给爱因斯坦的眼科医生——亨利·亚当斯。直到今天,这双眼球仍然保存在纽约市一家的保险箱里。A tragicomic series of road trips ensued, with Harvey storing slices and chunks of the brain in jars, first in his basement, then in a cider box squirreled away beneath a beer cooler as he relocated after losing his medical license, then in the backseat of a reporter#39;s car. He apparently intended to study the brain and determine what made it so smart, but in 43 years he never got around to it, perhaps because he moved around so much or because lacked the expertise and funding. Ultimately, he returned most of the brain to Princeton, bringing the physicist#39;s postmortem peregrination full circle.接下来发生了一连串的事,真是让人哭笑不得。最初,哈维把大脑切开,装进广口瓶中,放在他的地下室;被吊销行医执照后,他又把大脑装进苹果酒盒里,放在啤酒冷藏器的下面;再后来又藏在汽车后座。很显然,他想找出爱因斯坦聪明过人的原因,可是在43年里,他一直没能实现这个愿望。也许因为他居无定所,也许因为他缺乏专业知识和资金。最终,他带着爱因斯坦的大脑进行了一次横贯美国之旅。然后,他把大脑还给了普林斯顿大学医院。翻译:刘安琪 审阅:烟囱 来源:前十网 /201602/427649新疆割双眼皮费用

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