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大理无痛人流那好QQ爱问

2019年11月23日 02:04:58 | 作者:新华对话 | 来源:新华社
I have a very 2014 question for you: How would you respond if you found out that a man living down the street regularly has sexual intercourse with a horse?我有一个非常适合在2014年提出的问题:如果你发现住在同一条街上的邻居定期和一匹马性交,你会作何反应?Would you be morally disgusted? Consider him and his behavior an abomination? Turn him in to the police? (This would be an option in the roughly three-quarters of states that — for now — treat bestiality as a felony or misdemeanor.)你会不会产生道德层面的厌恶感?将他和他的行为视为变态?会不会让警察逮捕他?(这个选项可以在大概三分之一的州得以实现-目前这些州将人兽性交视作一项重罪或者品行不端罪。Or would you perhaps suppress your gag reflex and try hard to be tolerant, liberal, affirming, supportive? Maybe you#39;d even utter the slogan that deserves to be emblazoned over our age as its all-purpose motto and mantra: Who am I to judge?或者你也许会压制住你的呕吐反射症状并努力想要对这种行为表达容忍,自由主义,肯定,甚至持态度?也许你甚至会吼出一句在我们这个时代备受推崇,多用途的口号和咒语:我又有什么资格来评判别人呢?Thanks to New York magazine, which recently ran a completely nonjudgmental 6,200-word interview with a ;zoophile; who regularly enjoys sex with a mare — unironic headline: ;What it#39;s like to date a horse; — these questions have been much on my mind.真要感谢《纽约杂志》。它于近期刊登了一篇6200字的非主观报道。它采访了一位名为“zoophile”的人,他定期同一匹母驴进行性交-采访报道的题目颇具讽刺意义:同一匹马约会是什么感受。我近期一直在想着这些问题。They should be on yours, too.你们也真应该思考一下。Because this is a very big deal, in cultural and moral terms.这是一件大事,不论是文化层面还是道德层面。No, not the fact of bestiality, which (like incest) has always been with us, but the fact of an acclaimed, mainstream publication treating it as a matter of complete moral indifference. (Aside, of course, from the requisite concern about animal abuse — a nonhuman analog to the pervasive emphasis on consent as the only relevant moral criterion for judging sexual behavior. The interview dispenses with this worry by informing us that the zoophile regularly brings his equine lover to orgasm orally — and that she often initiates acts of intimacy, showing that she appears to enjoy their sexual interactions.)不,困扰我们的并不是人兽性交这件事(类似乱伦),而是一股收到赞扬的,主流出版物将这种事情视作对于道德的完全无视。(当然,除此之外。关于这件事情的争议还有: 对于这个非人类代替物会产生动物虐待行为的普遍担心,到普遍将同意与否视为唯一一个评判性行为的相关道德标准。受访者让我们排除了这种担心,他表示,他通过口交定期给他的马爱人性高潮。并且他的马儿会经常模仿亲密的行为,已示自己对于这种性交的喜爱。Am I worried that large numbers of people will soon choose to shack up with their pets or farm animals? Not at all. I can#39;t imagine that very many people will ever be drawn to bestiality, no matter how casually it is treated in the media.我会担心有很多人会选择“搞上”他们的宠物或家畜吗?完全不。无论媒体对兽交的态度如何随便,我都不认为会有多少人被吸引。Why, then, is the New York interview a big deal? Because it#39;s perhaps the most vivid sign yet that, in effect, the ed States (and indeed the entire Western world) is running an experiment — one with very few, if any, antecedents in human history. The experiment will test what happens when a culture systematically purges all publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing, virtue and vice, elevation and degradation.然而,为什么这种现象被纽约媒体采访成一个大新闻?因为它也许是最生动的迹象表明,美国(实质是整个西方世界)实际上正在运行一个实验,一个很少甚至未曾出现过人类历史先例的实验。这个实验将测试当一个文化去系统地,全面地否认所有人们公认的价值观,善恶观,荣辱观时,会发生什么。Moral and religious traditionalists have seen this coming and warned about its consequences for years. And indeed, they are the ones raising the loudest ruckus about the New York interview.道德和宗教上的保守人士已经预见到这种情形并在多年来一直警告其后果。事实上,他们也是对纽约的采访反响最大的。I share some of their concerns. But there are at least two problems with their analysis of the experiment.我对他们的担心有一些赞同,但他们的实验分析至少存在两个问题。First, the trads are wrong to blame the purging of publicly affirmed notions of human flourishing on the sp of relativism. Viewed from inside traditionalist notions of virtue and vice, a culture that seeks to redefine ;normal; to include zoophilia might seem like a culture defined by relativism. But it isn#39;t. Rather, it#39;s a culture fervently devoted to the moral principle of equal recognition and affirmation — in a word, to an absolute ethic of niceness. Moral condemnation can be mean, and therefore it#39;s morally wrong — that#39;s the way growing numbers of Americans think about these issues.首先,传统人士不应该把大众价值观的丢失归咎于相对主义的传播。从传统观念上美德和恶习的角度来看,一个试图将人兽交重新定义为“正常”的文明似乎是由相对主义定义的。但它并不是,相反,这个文明热烈地忠于某些道德准则,而这些道德准则基于公众的普遍认知与许可——总而言之,这个文明忠于绝对意义上的美德。道德上的谴责可以很残忍,因此它在道德上是错误的——这正是越来越多的美国人在思考这些问题时用的方式。Of course, these nonjudgmental Americans would think differently — they would continue to publicly affirm notions of human flourishing and condemn acts that diverge from the norm — if they confidently believed in the foundation of these judgments. But increasingly, they do not. Judeo-Christian piety used to supply it for many, but no longer.当然,这些不偏不倚的人们有着不同的见解,他们将继续肯定人类公认的价值观并谴责与之相违背的行为——只要他们能肯定地相信着这些判断的基准。然而这样的人却越来越少。犹太教和基督教带来的虔诚信仰提供了许多道德基准,但已不再有过去的影响力。Then there#39;s the option of basing our judgments on what conservative bioethicist Leon Kass once called ;the wisdom of repugnance; — that is, on our commonsense moral intuitions. But as the liberal philosopher Martha Nussbaum has argued, the ;ick factor; just isn#39;t a reliable basis on which to make moral evaluations. And we know that from lived experience. Interracial romances once seemed icky, but then they didn#39;t. Next it was homosexual acts that passed through the looking glass from repellant to respectable. Faced with this slippage and uncertainty — with a long string of reversals in moral judgment — it#39;s no wonder that the ethic of unconditional niceness increasingly trumps all other considerations.然后,出现了一种选择,让我们的判断基于保守派生物伦理学家Leon Kass一度所说的“厌恶的智慧”——就是说,基于我们的常识中的道德直觉。但如自由主义哲学家Martha Nussbaum所辩驳的那样,是否感觉“令人作呕”并非一个可靠的道德评估依据。我们从各种生活经验中已知道这一点。不同人种间的爱情曾经受到厌恶,后来则不会。然后同性恋行为也在经历从被排斥到被尊重的过程。面对这样的易变与不确定性——带有一大堆观点相抵的道德观——难怪有关无条件美德的伦理正日益压倒所有其他的观念。And that brings us to the second way in which the trads go wrong — in speaking confidently about how we#39;re ;galloping toward Gomorrah.; This implies that they know exactly where the experiment is going to end up. The truth is that they — and we — have no idea at all. Because there has never been a human society built exclusively on a morality of rights (individual consent) and an ethic of niceness, with no overarching vision of a higher human good to override or compete with it.而这让我们见识到了传统出现问题的第二个面向—— 自信的谈论我们如何”快速的接近罪恶之城”。这意味着他们知道这个实验的最终结局是怎样的。真相是他们——还有我们——根本就不知道结局是怎样的。因为人类历史中从来没有出现过单单以权利道德(个体的同意)和友善伦理为基础的人类社会,没有一个更高人类善行的总体设想来推翻它或者与它进行竞争。As I noted above, I find it hard to imagine that more than a tiny fraction of human beings will ever choose to engage in sex acts with animals, even if and when the taboo has been thoroughly deconstructed and the behavior mainstreamed by dozens of sympathetic stories in the media. I suspect the same is true about incest and polyamory. Most people will continue to live boring, mundane sex lives, monogamously committed to one human being of the opposite sex at a time.正如我在上面所提到的,我根本无法想像会有很多人愿意与动物性交,即使这样的禁忌被重新结构以及主流媒体对这样的行为表示同情。我觉得这样的道理同样可以应用在乱伦和一夫多妻制上。大多数人将继续过无聊的世俗的性生活,并且坚持异性的一夫一妻制。So what, then, is there to worry about? Why is this cultural experiment a big deal?所以还有什么好担忧的?这样的文化实验又有什么了不起的呢?Because it stands as a stunning testament to our ignorance about ourselves. Roughly 2,500 years since Socrates first raised the question of how we should live, several centuries since the Enlightenment encouraged us to seek and promulgate scientific knowledge about the universe and human nature, Western humanity seems to have come to the conclusion that we haven#39;t got a clue about an answer. There is no consensus whatsoever about what ways of life are intrinsically good or bad for human beings.因为它对于我们自身的无知给予一个惊人的明。大约2500年前苏格拉底首次提出我们应该如何生活的问题,几个世纪以来的启蒙文化促进我们去寻找和传播关于宇宙和人类的本性,西方人文科学好像得出了结论那就是我们还没有得到最终的。关于人类如何去生活在本质上没有评判的标准。为什么要结婚和有孩子呢?如果这是你想要的,当然听起来很不错。你准备好恋爱多元化了吗?只要每个人都同意,又有乐趣。那么和马谈恋爱做爱能怎么样呢?关键要确保没有人会伤害,伤害是狭隘的定义(包括物理伤害和侵犯个人喜好)。That#39;s all we#39;ve got. Or at least all we#39;re left with, now that we#39;ve shed the (ostensibly) discredited notions of human virtue that most people once affirmed.这是我们所拥有的一切文化。或者至少这些都被我们继承了,既然我们已经摆脱了虚伪的人类表面观念和美德。Is that good enough? Can we do without a publicly affirmed vision of human flourishing? Fulfilling personal preferences (whatever they happen to be), seeking consent in all interactions, and abiding by the imperative of universal niceness — is that sufficient to bring happiness? Or will a world that tells us in a million ways that we are radically undetermined in our ends leave us feeling empty, lost, alone, unmoored, at sea, spiritually adrift?那样足够好吗?我们可以脱离大众观念去那样做吗?满足个人偏好(无论他们发生什么),寻求交流的一致,尊重普世法则——这足以带来幸福吗?或者我们根本无法确定我们来自哪里去向何方(结局的无法预料),那种空虚,失落,孤独,无依无靠就像在大海中漂流然而这个世界用一百万种方式告诉我们那根本就无法解决。I have no idea.搞不懂哎。But I suspect we#39;re going to find out soon enough.但是我们会尽快搞清楚的。 /201501/3537604. A Later Film Star Lingyu Ruan4. 影星—阮玲玉 In September 1983, forty-three old Chinese films were shown in Beijing at the exhibition ;A Retrospective of Chinese Films from the 1920#39;s to the 1940#39;s. ;One film star of the 1930#39;s caught the attention of the viewers because her films were still so fresh and touching. She was Ruan Lingyu.1983年9月,在“20世纪20—40年代电影回顾展览”,30年代的一位影星特别引人注目,因为时隔半个世纪,她的表演依然感人,使人回味元穷,她就是阮玲玉。 Ruan was born in a poor family in Shanghai in 1910. Her father, died when she was only five years old. Then she lived with her mother who worked as a maid for a rich family. After Ruan finished primary school, she had to find work to support herself. In 1926, she was recruited by Mingxing Film Company in Shanghai. From then on she stepped onto the movie stage. The following year she made her first screen appearance in the film Husband and Wife in Name. After that she played the leading roles in a number of films including A Tablet of Blood and Tears and The White Cloud Pagoda. In these films she started to show her talent in acting. In 1929, she transferred to Lianhua Film Company. Among the films she starred in, the more mature works were those made in the later period of her career such as Three Modern Women, Little Toys, and New Women. These films made her a first-class film star at that time.阮玲玉1910年出生在上海的一个贫困家庭。五岁丧父,与做仆人的妈妈相依为命。小学毕业后,阮玲玉不得不开始工作以维持生计。她于1926年进入上海明星影片公司,从此踏人影坛。次年,阮玲玉主演处女作《挂名夫妻儿之后,她相继在《血泪碑》、《白云塔》等多部影片中扮演主角,逐渐展现出她的演艺才华。 1929年离开明星影片公司,进入联华影业公司,阮玲玉便成为“联华”的基本演员。她主演了《三个登女性》、《小玩意》、《新女性》等多部影片。这些影片使阮玲玉一举成名。She succeeded because of her superb acting skills as well as her exceptional beauty. She acted so naturally and realistically that the roles she played always had an artistic appeal to the viewers. Her charm and performance took the country by storm. In order to overcome the limitations of silent films, she managed to convey meanings through her gestures and eyes. Her acting skills represented the highest level of the performing art in Chinese silent films. She was a versatile character actress. In the twenty-nine films she left us, she created various images of Chinese women such as factory worker, writer, social butterfly,wealthy woman, prostitute, and nun. Her success in playing Sister Ye, a country woman in Little Toys, shows she was diligent in creating that character, for Sister Ye#39;s life was beyond her own life experiences.阮玲玉之所以能走红,主要是由于她的精湛演技和花容月貌。她的演技自然传神,所演人物刻画得惟妙惟肖,令观众为之动情,她用魅力和演技征了观众。为了打破无声电影的局限性,她准确地运用眼神和动作来表现人物的性格和情感。阮玲玉的演技堪称中国元声影片的最高水平。她饰演的人物类型各异,在现存的她出演的29部影片中,塑造了形形色色的女性,如工厂工人、作家、交际花、富婆、,也有修女。在影片《小玩意》中,她成功地塑造了超出她自己生活阅历的劳动女性形象叶,这足以说明阮玲玉的表演天赋。Success in work did not bring her happiness in her family. In 1935, while her last film was being shot, a divorce suit and slanders in local newspapers put Ruan in great mental anguish. On the eighth of March,Ruan Lingyu committed suicide leaving behind her a final message ;Gossip can kill.; She lived for only twenty-five years. When the news was made public, the whole city of Shanghai mourned her death. Several hundred thousand people came out to the streets to watch her funeral procession. Indignant at the persecution of Ruan,the great writer Lu Xun (1881-1936) published an article entitled ;Gossip IsαFearful Thing ,; which denounced the newspaper blood hounds and gossip-mongers.1935年,由于婚姻的问题,报刊对阮玲玉诽谤和攻击,令她无法承受,被逼元奈,于1935年3月8日毒自杀,年仅25岁。消息传出后,整个上海沉浸在悲痛之中,成百上千的群众走上街头为阮玲玉送行。愤怒之下,著名作家鲁迅(1881-1936)发表文章《可怕的流言蛮语》,公开抨击传播流言蜚语的人。 /201505/373220

Boris Nemtsov, who was shot dead in Moscow on Friday, was one of the most charismatic Russian politicians of the post-Soviet era, a tireless campaigner and fiery orator renowned for his uncompromising opposition to the Putin regime.上周五在莫斯科被杀的鲍里斯#8226;涅姆佐夫(Boris Nemtsov)是后苏联时代最有魅力的俄罗斯政治家之一。他是一名不知疲倦的活动家和慷慨激昂的演说家,以毫不妥协地反对普京政权而闻名。He rose from humble origins to scale the heights of Russian power and was once touted as a future president. But after being booted out of office in 1998 he gradually emerged as one of the Kremlin’s most outspoken critics.他出身于普通家庭,后来一步步进入俄罗斯最高权力阶层,并一度被誉为未来的总统人选。但在1998年失势之后,他逐渐成为最直言不讳批评克里姆林宫的人士之一。In words that now sound prophetic, Nemtsov recently expressed fears for his life. In a February 10 interview with Sobesednik, a news website, he related how his mother would often say: “When will you stop railing against Putin? He’ll kill you!”涅姆佐夫不久前表达了对自己人身安全的担忧,这些话现在听起来像是预言。在今年2月10日接受新闻网站Sobesednik采访的时候,涅姆佐夫提到了自己母亲经常说的话:“你什么时候才会停止批评普京?他会杀了你!”Asked if he feared for his life, he said: “You know, yes, a little bit. But if I was really scared, I would hardly be the leader of an opposition party.”在被问及是否担心自己的性命时,他说道:“你知道,是的,有点担心。但如果我真的害怕的话,我就很难成为反对党的领袖。”Nemtsov was born in the Black Sea town of Sochi in 1959 of a Jewish mother and Russian Orthodox father. In the 1980s he studied physics at the state university of Nizhny Novgorod, known as Gorky in Soviet times.涅姆佐夫于1959年出生于黑海岸边的索契市,母亲是一名犹太人,父亲信奉俄罗斯东正教。上世纪80年代,他在下诺夫哥罗德(Nizhny Novgorod)国立大学攻读物理学专业——下诺夫哥罗德在苏联时代被称为高尔基市。He was swept up in the intellectual and political ferment of the glasnost era and by 1990 had been elected to the Russian Supreme Soviet or parliament. There, he caught the eye of Boris Yeltsin, Russia’s first democratically elected president, who appointed him governor of Nizhny Novgorod the following year.涅姆佐夫迅速投身于俄罗斯开放时代的思想和政治运动浪潮中,到1990年,他当选为俄罗斯最高苏维埃(即俄罗斯的议会)人民代表。在那里,他引起了俄罗斯首位民选总统鲍里斯#8226;叶利钦(Boris Yeltsin)的注意,后者在第二年任命其担任下诺夫哥罗德州州长。In this position, he turned the city into a laboratory of market reforms. Nemtsov was one of the first provincial officials of the Yeltsin era to auction farmland and sell state-owned shops and other businesses. And with his distinctive unruly black curls, engaging smile and colourful language, he was the closest thing Russia had to a popular, western-style politician.涅姆佐夫在下诺夫哥罗德任职期间积极开展市场改革试验。他是叶利钦时代首批拍卖农田并出售国有商店和其他企业的省级官员之一。涅姆佐夫有着独特不羁的黑色卷发、迷人的微笑和风趣的言辞,广受欢迎,是俄罗斯最接近西方风格的政客。In 1997, Yeltsin brought him to Moscow to work in the government. During this period, in which he rose to the rank of deputy prime minister, he was closely associated with liberals such as Anatoly Chubais, the architect of Russia’s privatisation programme.1997年,涅姆佐夫受叶利钦提携进入俄罗斯政府工作。在此期间他曾担任俄罗斯副总理,并与俄罗斯私有化项目设计师阿纳托利#8226;丘拜斯(Anatoly Chubais)等自由派人士关系密切。He grabbed headlines with eye-catching initiatives such as insisting that Russian ministers switch from Mercedes to domestically produced cars. Many saw him as a potential successor to Yeltsin.涅姆佐夫坚称,俄罗斯部长应将座驾从奔驰换为国产车,这类吸引眼球的提议让他登上了新闻头条。许多人将其视为叶利钦的潜在接班人。But he lost his job in August 1998 during the fallout from a financial crisis that saw Russia default on its domestic debt and which tarnished the reputation of the Yeltsin-era reformers.但在1998年8月他丢掉了副总理职位,当时金融危机肆虐,俄罗斯无力偿还国内债务,叶利钦时代改革家们的名声受损。He later drove efforts to create a liberal party that would bring together all reformist forces in Russia. He was one of the founders of the “Union of Right Forces” and was elected to the Duma, the lower house of the Russian parliament where he sat between 1999 and 2003. But his star waned with the rise of Vladimir Putin, who after becoming president in 2000 gradually curbed the democratic freedoms of the Yeltsin era.涅姆佐夫后来致力于创建一个将俄罗斯所有改革派力量联合起来的自由党派。他是“右翼力量联盟”(Union of Right Forces)的创始人之一,并在1999年至2003年当选为俄罗斯杜马(即议会下院)议员。但随着弗拉基米尔#8226;普京(Vladimir Putin)的崛起,他的光环褪色。普京在2000年当选总统之后逐渐遏制了叶利钦时代的民主自由力量。Unlike other leading liberals of the 1990s, such as Chubais, Nemtsov refused to reach an accommodation with the Putin regime, remaining an implacable opponent of the new leader.与上世纪90年代的丘拜斯等其他主要自由派人士不同,涅姆佐夫拒绝与普京政权达成和解,依然不遗余力地反对普京。He continued to found and lead liberal parties, and ran for mayor of Sochi in 2009, coming second with 14 per cent of the vote despite little coverage in the mostly state-run media. In 2013 he was elected to the regional parliament of Yaroslavl, northeast of Moscow.他继续创立和领导自由党派,并在2009年竞选索契市市长,以14%的得票率位列第二,不过基本上由政府控制的俄罗斯媒体对此鲜有报道。2013年,他当选位于莫斯科东北方向的雅罗斯拉夫尔(Yaroslavl)州杜马议员。But he was better known for organising street protests and rallies, and became a driving force behind the anti-Putin demonstrations of 2011 and 2012. He was often detained by police, and was sentenced to 15 days in jail in January 2011.但他更为人所知的是组织街头抗议和集会活动,并推动了2011年和2012年反对普京的游行示威。他经常被警方拘捕,并在2011年1月被判处15天监禁。He also published reports on official corruption, and in recent months had been investigating Russian involvement in the war in eastern Ukraine.他还发表了关于官员腐败的报告,最近几个月一直在调查俄罗斯是否卷入乌克兰东部的战争。The attack on him came less than two days before he was to take part in another rally to protest against what he called “Putin’s covert war against Ukraine”. After Friday’s events, that was turned into a memorial march to mark Nemtsov’s eventful life — and tragic death. Guy Chazan and Kathrin Hille在涅姆佐夫遭杀之时,距他原本要参加被其称为“普京对乌克兰隐秘战争”的抗议活动已不到两天时间。在上周五的事件之后,这场抗议活动已转变为对涅姆佐夫跌宕起伏的一生及其悲剧性死亡的悼念活动。 /201503/362185

Love A Good Bargain? You May Change Your Mind After Reading This你还忍心购买打折商品吗?How often have you walked out from your favorite store with a great sense of accomplishment for snagging an incredible pair of jeans or a gorgeous dress for next to ;nothing?; However, would you feel as smug if you knew that the person who made it works in an unsafe environment and gets paid next to ;nothing?; This was what the folks at advocacy group Fashion Revolution recently decided to put to test in Berlin, Germany.你有过多少次从最爱的装店走出来,为自己低价抢到很棒的牛仔裤或者漂亮的裙子而感到异常满足呢?然而,如果你知道装厂工人在不安全的环境辛苦制作这些衣,换来的却是可怜的薪水,内心还会自鸣得意吗?On April 23rd, some luck city residents encountered a bright turquoise pop-up vending machine with a sign that we all love to see - beautiful t-shirts for a mere 2 Euros ( .40 USD)! Not surprisingly, many flocked over to claim the bargain before it was gone.4月23日,部分市民有幸看到一款青绿色的自动售货机,上面写着深受欢迎的标语——好看的T恤,只要2欧元(1.4美元)。果不其然,看到的市民开始一阵哄抢,生怕折扣结束。When customers inserted their money, they were asked to select the color and the size they wished to purchase. But as they waited for the awesome t-shirt to drop, they experienced something unusual - images of the women and children that spend up to 16 hours a day making the cheap clothing inside overcrowded derelict warehouses. What#39;s worse is that despite working this hard work they barely make enough money to live on.顾客把钱塞进去后,会提示他们挑选自己喜欢的颜色和尺码。但是,在等待T恤出来的时候,他们却看到了一些不同寻常的东西——妇女和儿童为了加工这些低价装在简陋拥挤的仓库每天工作近16小时。更糟的是,他们工作时长这么久,所得工资还不足以糊口。Once the buyers had been educated about who made their cheap clothing, they were given the choice to go ahead with their purchase or donate the money to a charity dedicated to improving the life of contract workers in developing countries. Not surprisingly, 90% of the shoppers chose to donate. This just proved what Fashion Revolution has always believed - if people are made aware of the true cost of cheap fast fashion, they will re-think their purchases. The group is of course not trying to dissuade consumers from buying. They just want them to be aware of the entire supply chain and support Fashion Revolution#39;s mission to hold manufacturers accountable for the poor working conditions and low wages.顾客了解是谁加工了这些低价装之后,机器会给他们一个选择,是继续购买还是把这些钱捐给这些发展中国家的合同工,用来改善他们的生活。不出所料,90%的顾客选择把钱捐出去。这种行为正实了Fashion Revolution所相信的,如果人们意识到廉价衣真实的价值,就会重新考虑自己的购买行为。该组织这样做并非为了劝阻客人购买衣,而是想让他们了解整个生产链,并持他们组织来促使生产商对这些在艰苦环境工作、低收入的工人们负责。译文属原创,仅供学习和交流使用,未经许可,。 /201507/382386

With the arrival of February comes a question as inevitable as long-stem roses, come-hither lingerie and ridiculously bad Valentine’s Day restaurant deals: What wine goes best with chocolate?随着2月的到来,有个问题像长茎玫瑰、诱人内衣以及情人节那天餐馆的漫天要价一样让人无法回避:什么葡萄酒最搭巧克力?I have done my curmudgeonly best to avoid ever having to answer this question seriously. The whole issue smacks too much of “sinful desserts,” “guilty pleasures” and all the other puritanical constructions that cause people to feel as if they are daring the moral authorities by risking a glass of wine on a weeknight. If drinking wine with chocolate qualifies as a naughty thrill, well, our perception of naughtiness seems appallingly limited.我总是尽量避免严肃地回答这个问题。总的来说,这个问题会让人产生“万恶的甜品”和“充满罪恶感的享受”之类想法,还有诸如此类清教徒式的道德感,感觉就像是在工作日的晚上喝一杯葡萄酒来挑战道德权威。如果喝葡萄酒配巧克力就被认为是放荡的狂欢,呃,那么我们对放荡的看法也未免太狭隘了。Yet, while I personally am not that interested in drinking wine with chocolate, the question of which combinations are best is a good one, with some excellent answers. It turns out that wine and chocolate can indeed make beautiful music together, though, as I discovered in a week of testing various pairings, they can also sound some discordant notes.不过,虽然我个人对喝葡萄酒搭配巧克力不是那么感兴趣,但是什么样的组合最美妙是个很好的问题,能引出一些精的。事实明,葡萄酒和巧克力搭配在一起的确能演绎出美妙的乐章,不过,在我尝试不同组合的这一周里,我发现它们也能碰撞出不和谐的音调。The question hinges not simply on which wine to choose but on which chocolate you plan to eat. I experimented with various pure chocolate bars, ranging from milk chocolate (34 percent cacao) through dark chocolate (70 percent cacao) to very dark (85 percent cacao). I did not try filled or flavored bonbons, which no doubt would add different flavor dimensions and additional sweetness to the equation.这个问题不仅在于你选择哪种葡萄酒,而且在于你打算吃哪种巧克力。我尝试了好几种纯巧克力——从牛奶巧克力(含34%可可)、黑巧克力(70%可可)到可可含量更高的巧克力(85%可可)。我没有尝试巧克力夹心或巧克力味糖果,那无疑会使味道层次更复杂,增加额外的甜度。Like many people nowadays, I generally prefer the purer flavors of dark chocolate to milk chocolate. But counterintuitively, I found that the light sweetness of milk chocolate was more versatile with a wider range of wines than the darker chocolates, which have a distinct bitterness that, while welcome on its own, can clash with a wine that’s not equipped to handle it.和如今的很多人一样,相对于牛奶巧克力,我总的来说更喜欢黑巧克力更为纯粹的味道。不过出人意料的是,我发现牛奶巧克力淡淡的甜味比可可含量更高的黑巧克力更能与各种葡萄酒搭配。虽然黑巧克力独特的苦味本身惹人喜爱,但是有些葡萄酒可能无法降这种苦味,两者无法协调。Regardless of the chocolate itself, the wines that go with it best share two particular characteristics: They are intensely sweet, and they have good acidity, a quality that, despite the sweetness, lifts the wine and refreshes the palate, leaving you y and eager to eat even more chocolate.不管是哪种巧克力,与之最搭配的葡萄酒都有这两个特点:一方面特别甜,一方面又有极好的酸度。虽然舌尖品尝着甜味,但良好的酸度令酒味得以提升,让你的味蕾为之一振,让你做好准备想要吃掉更多巧克力。The wines most often associated with chocolate are port and Madeira. The two are frequently uttered in the same breath, yet I by far preferred Madeira with each type of chocolate. Madeira, from the Portuguese island of Madeira, can range from dry and light to rich and very sweet. The sweetest Madeiras, generally made from the malvasia candida grape and labeled “malmsey,” are what you want with chocolate. Bual Madeiras, which are slightly less sweet, were overwhelmed, but chocolate and malmsey indeed was a lovely match.最常与巧克力联系起来的葡萄酒是波特(port)和马德拉(Madeira)。这两种葡萄酒经常被同时提起,但是到目前为止,我更喜欢用马德拉来搭配各种巧克力。马德拉葡萄酒产自葡萄牙的马德拉岛,包括干型、清淡型、浓郁型和极甜型。最甜的马德拉葡萄酒通常是用玛尔维萨白葡萄做成的,被称为“玛尔维萨甜酒”(malmsey),用它来搭配巧克力最合适。布阿尔马德拉葡萄酒(Bual Madeiras)的甜度略为逊色,会被巧克力的甜味淹没,但是巧克力和马姆齐的确是迷人的组合。Blandy’s 5-Year malmsey, a wine aged a minimum of five years, is a good entry-level Madeira and costs about to . Even better is Blandy’s 15-Year Madeira, for to , which had a beautifully bright, refreshing flavor that was superb with chocolate. Best of all would be vintage malmsey, or one of my favorites, New York Malmsey Special Reserve, a bottling from the Rare Wine Company made in the style of Madeiras from the 18th and 19th centuries. It was almost kaleidoscopic in its complexity yet remained deliciously refreshing. It can be found for around .布兰迪葡萄酒庄(Blandy’s)的五年玛尔维萨(至少存放了五年时间)是很好的入门级马德拉,售价约为20至25美元。更好一点的是布兰迪的15年马德拉,售价为35至40美元,它有一种明快清新的迷人滋味,与巧克力搭配起来极为美妙。最好的是陈年玛尔维萨,或者我最喜欢的纽约玛尔维萨特藏(New York Malmsey Special Reserve),后者是稀有葡萄酒公司(Rare Wine Company)按照18至19世纪的马德拉风格酿造的。它的味道如同万花筒般丰富多,但仍保持着清新的口感,价格约为60美元。By comparison, port in general lacks that same refreshing element with chocolate. Save the powerful vintage ports for walnuts and Stilton. I prefer tawny ports, particular 20-year-olds, which have achieved a mellow nuttiness from long barrel-aging sometimes referred to as “rancio,” yet are still lively enough to dance compatibly with dark chocolate. Taylor, Cockburn and Sandeman are reliable labels and will generally cost to . Young ruby ports, like Graham’s Six Grapes, are decent alternatives for to .相比之下,波特葡萄酒总的来说缺乏与巧克力搭配所需的这种清新之感。还是把上好的陈年波特酒用来搭配核桃和斯蒂尔顿奶酪(Stilton)吧。我更喜欢黄褐色波特葡萄酒,特别是20年醇的,它长时间储存在木桶中,酝酿出一种柔和的口感,有时被称为“陈酿”(rancio),不过仍然足够活跃,能与黑巧克力和谐共舞。泰勒(Taylor)、科伯恩(Cockburn)和桑德曼(Sandeman)这些品牌值得信赖,通常售价为40至50美元。酒龄短的深红色葡萄酒是很好的替代品,比如格雷厄姆的“六个葡萄”(Graham’s Six Grapes)品牌,售价为15至30美元。Both Madeira and port are fortified wines, meaning the sweet versions have had neutral spirits added to the wine in mid-fermentation, which stops the process before all the sugar in the grape juice has been converted into alcohol. I tried a number of other fortified wines, too. A PX sherry, made of the pedro ximénez grape, was so insistently sweet and syrupy as to be almost undrinkable. I would rather pour this style over ice cream than pair it with chocolate.马德拉和波特都是甜度强化葡萄酒,意思是在发酵过程的中间阶段,在葡萄酒中加入中性烈酒,这会阻止葡萄汁中的所有糖分转化为酒精。我也尝试过其他几种强化葡萄酒。PX品牌有一种雪利酒是用帕德罗西门内葡萄(Pedro Ximénez)酿造的,它太甜了,像糖浆一样,几乎难以下咽。我更愿意把这种酒倒在冰激凌上,而不是和巧克力搭配。But two other, lesser known fortified wines, Maury and Banyuls, were great. These wines, both from Roussillon in the south of France, are called vins doux naturels, though paradoxically they are indeed fortified. They are also rare, and many winemakers in Roussillon, as in the Douro, where port is produced, have turned to making still wines as public tastes have changed. But you can still find occasional bottles of Maury and Banyuls, made largely with the grenache grape.但是另外两种不太出名的强化葡萄酒也很棒:莫里(Maury)和巴纽尔斯(Banyuls)。这两种葡萄酒都产自法国南部的鲁西永区,被称为天然甜酒,实际上它们也是强化型的。它们非常罕见,因为随着公众口味的改变,鲁西永的很多酒庄转而酿造无气泡葡萄酒,波特葡萄酒的产地杜罗河谷也是如此。但是你偶尔仍能找到莫里和巴纽尔斯葡萄酒,大多是用歌海娜葡萄(grenache)酿造的。A 2013 Banyuls “Rimage” from Domaine la Tour Vieille, around , was sweet with plenty of primary fruit flavors. It went just fine with the chocolate but will be even better after a few years of aging tempers the somewhat raw flavor of the alcohol.拉图尔维埃耶葡萄园(Domaine la Tour Vieille)2013年酿造的巴纽尔斯Rimage葡萄酒售价在30美元左右,它很甜,而且含有很多基础水果的味道。它和巧克力搭配也挺好,但是如果能多放几年,让酒精的呛口滋味变得柔和一点,会更好。I happened to have a rare bottle of older Maury, a 1965 from La Coume du Roy, which I opened last week to try with chocolate. I will report that this was a profound wine, sweet, nutlike and burnished, yet with bright, intriguing flavors that ricocheted through the mouth. It was surprisingly similar to the New York Malmsey Madeira, delicious in every way and especially with chocolate. You may not find a Maury this old, but I saw 1998 and 2001 Coume du Roys selling for around .我碰巧有一瓶罕见的莫里陈酿,它是皇谷御酿酒庄(La Coume du Roy)1965年酿造的。上周我把它打开,尝试和巧克力搭配。这种葡萄酒口感醇厚,很甜,有果仁味,明亮,同时又有欢快、诱人的滋味在口中回荡。令人意外的是,它与纽约玛尔维萨马德拉葡萄酒很相似,从各个方面讲都很美味,特别是与巧克力搭配。你可能找不到年份如此久远的莫里酒,但我见过1998年和2001年产的皇谷御酿葡萄酒,售价在40美元左右。While fortified wines in general may be the best choices for chocolate, I did find one sensational option among unfortified sweet wines: Tokaji Aszu from Hungary. These wines, made with grapes that have been inflicted with botrytis, the famous noble rot, are both fiercely sweet and wonderfully acidic, with flavors of orange and apricot that meld gorgeously with chocolate.虽然强化葡萄酒总体来说可能最适合与巧克力搭配,但我的确在非强化甜葡萄酒中找到了一个很好的选择:匈牙利的托卡伊·阿苏(Tokaji Aszu)葡萄酒。这种葡萄酒是用感染了葡萄孢菌(著名贵腐菌)的葡萄酿造的,具有强烈的甜味和美妙的酸味,还有橙子和杏的味道,它和巧克力的味道融合在一起好极了。I tried a 2003 5 Puttonyos from Royal Tokaji, which had turned a dark amber in the bottle. Yet in the glass it was bright and lovely, thoroughly refreshing and a joyous match with each style of chocolate. And unlike the fortified wines, which ranged from 15 to 20 percent alcohol, it was about 10 percent. Wines like these, from slightly more recent vintages, run to a bottle.我还尝试了皇家托卡伊(Royal Tokaji)的2003年5 Puttonyos(Puttonyo是当地采集葡萄的容器,用以表示甜度等级——译注)葡萄酒,它在酒瓶中会变成深琥珀色。但是盛在玻璃杯中却显得明亮秀丽,它的清新口感与每种巧克力搭配都令人愉悦。强化葡萄酒的度数通常为15%至20%,而这种葡萄酒的度数约为10%。类似的这种年份较近的葡萄酒售价为40至50美元。No doubt other wines can work with chocolate, too. I’ve heard good things about Barolo Chinato, a fortified, sweet and herbal digestif made from Barolo. Some people like Amarone or powerful zinfandels, wines that are richly fruity and maybe not quite dry. Personally, I will stick with Madeira, which has the additional benefit of being virtually indestructible even after a bottle is opened. That way, if you don’t finish the bottle on Valentine’s Day, you’ll have the answer to the perennial question waiting for you next year.不必怀疑其他葡萄酒也能和巧克力搭配。我听人赞美过巴罗洛Chinato葡萄酒,它是产自巴罗洛地区的强化、甜味、草本餐后酒。还有些人喜欢阿马罗内(Amarone)或浓郁的仙粉黛葡萄酒(zinfandel),这两种酒具有浓郁的水果味,可能不是很干。我个人还是钟爱马德拉,它的另一个好处是,即使在开瓶之后,依然能保持原味。这样的话,就算情人节那天你没喝完那瓶酒,明年你也能回答那个永恒的问题了。 /201502/359900

7.Chess Therapy7.国际象棋疗法Sometimes healing is best done in the company of kings and queens. Patients get clear about their feelings in chess therapy, a technique used to reach patients who have trouble communicating verbally. The idea of using board games to help patients learn problem-solving skills was first used by Persian scholar Rhazes (AD 852–932) during his tenure as chief physician at a Baghdad hospital. Since then, the game of chess has been used to represent real-life problems, allowing patients to explore skills like conflict resolution and decision making.有时国王和王后的陪伴能实现最佳治疗效果。患者很清楚自己在国际象棋疗法中获得的感受,该疗法用于影响那些口头沟通有障碍的患者。利用棋牌游戏帮助患者学习解决问题的技巧,最初是波斯学者拉齐(公元852–932)在巴格达一家医院担任主任医师期间使用过。此后,国际象棋的游戏被用来代表现实问题,从而使患者有机会探索解决冲突和做出决策的技能。One case study reports that chess was an excellent outlet for a 16-year-old boy with schizoid personality disorder who felt emotionally isolated from other people. While he struggled to form relationships, playing chess helped him see his therapist as a partner and confidant. As therapy went on, he felt safe sharing his feelings, all during the banter of discussing his next move.一个案例研究报告显示,对于一个患有分裂性人格障碍并在感情上与他人隔绝的16岁男孩而言,国际象棋是绝佳的发泄渠道。虽然他努力建立关系,下棋让他把治疗师视为合作伙伴和知己。随着治疗的推移,他分享感受时感到很安全,一切都融入了讨论他下一步棋的轻松氛围。Rooks and pawns allow patients to act out fantasies and explore impulses. Simply questioning why the patient has decided to move a piece in a certain way might give way to conversation about a bigger issue.车和卒让患者表现出幻想并且探索冲动。只关心为什么患者决定以某种方式移动一枚棋子的问题,应该让位于讨论更重大的内容。6.Wilderness Therapy6.荒野疗法When the campsite is set up and the fire is lit, the doctor is in. Wilderness therapy is a successful, and sometimes controversial, way to help troubled youth by teaching life and social skills on the hiking trail. Intensive group therapy and one-on-one sessions are coupled with outdoor activities like mountain climbing and fly-fishing to teach self-reliance and responsibility. Programs promise to reform even the most wayward of offenders, including juvenile delinquents and teens with depression, anger management issues, or eating disorders.当露营地搭建完毕,篝火已经点燃时,医生的作用就开始显现了。荒野疗法是一种通过在远足途中传授生活经验和社交技巧来帮助内心有困扰的年轻人的方法,这种方法很成功但有时候也具争议。密集的集体治疗和一对一治疗总是与室外活动一起进行,比如爬山和假蝇钓鱼(译者注:指用假苍蝇钓鱼的技巧或运动,流行于欧美)可以教会人们自立和负责任。这些活动甚至可以改变异常任性而不守规矩的人,包括青少年罪犯和患有抑郁症、情绪管理有问题或者饮食失调的青年。While wilderness therapy can be effective, certain methods have come under fire for using unethical, and sometimes downright abusive, techniques to help struggling youth. Wilderness programs are loosely regulated, so not all programs are staffed by qualified professionals. Upon closer examination, some ;therapy; groups seemed to be just military-style boot camps with little mental health benefit.虽然荒野疗法可以达到预期效果,但是运用不道德的方法,有时甚至是残忍的方法来帮助苦苦挣扎的年轻人,这遭到了强烈指责。由于荒野治疗项目监管不严,导致并不是所有的项目活动都是由专业人员来开展。最近的项目检查结果表明,一些治疗小组似乎就是军事化训练营地,实际上对心理健康几乎毫无益处。Most famous for his controversial wilderness therapy programs is Steve Cartisano, founder of the Challenger Foundation and several other programs throughout the US and South America. Cartisano faced negligent homicide charges when two teens died during excursions that he was supervising. Although he has been acquitted of that charge, a string of abuse allegations have followed him wherever he sets up shop. He maintains his innocence and his dedication to helping youth, but his whereabouts are currently unknown.史蒂夫·卡迪萨诺(Steve Cartisano)因颇具争议的荒野治疗项目而出名,他创立了;挑战者基金会;(Challenger Foundation)和美国、南美地区其他一些项目。卡迪萨诺被指控因疏忽而杀人,因为在他监管下的两个少年死于远程旅行。尽管最后他被宣判无罪释放,但是无论他到哪里去开店,一系列的辩解都会笼罩他的左右。他继续保持清白并努力帮助青少年,但是他的行踪目前无人知晓。Even legitimate wilderness therapy groups have been criticized for partnering with teen escort companies to forcibly remove unwilling participants from their homes to attend the program. While controversy and risk exist, wilderness therapy might be a creative way to teach life skills when other methods have failed.即便是合法的荒野理疗小组也受到过批评,因为他们与一些少年托运公司合作,强制那些不愿参加他们项目的人离开家去参加他们的项目。尽管存在争议和风险,当其他方法不管用时,荒野疗法可能是一种即可以传授生活技巧而又颇具创意的方法了。5.Hypnotherapy5.催眠疗法Hypnotism might seem like a magic trick, but it actually has the power to help people break into their subconscious to get to the cause of their problems, like smoking or overeating. Hypnotherapy helps patients change unwanted behaviors with suggestions of new behavior patterns during guided meditation sessions.催眠理疗法就像具有魔法的花招一样,但是它确实可以帮助人们进入潜意识并且找到问题的原因,像抽烟和过度饮食这一类问题那样。在冥想过程中,催眠疗法帮助患者改变他们讨厌的行为,并给予他们不同行为方式的建议。The feeling of ;zoning out,; such as while driving long distance or lying on the beach, is what a hypnotic state feels like. While hypnotized, the patient is not asleep, but rather extremely relaxed and sensitive to suggestion. Psychotherapists who use this method believe that while hypnotized, a patient can uncover subconscious negativity and replace it with new ways of thinking or feeling.;走出来;的感觉——长时间开车或者躺在沙滩上的感觉与催眠状态下的感觉一样。被催眠后,患者并没有睡着,他们对一些建议表现得极度放松和敏感。使用这种理疗方法的理疗师认为,当实施催眠术时,病人会暴露自己潜意识里的消极之处,并且会用新的想法或者感觉取代它。Skilled hypnotherapists begin the process with a relaxation exercise to clear the mind and to release tension. (Think of the classic line, ;You#39;re getting very sleepy.;) From there, the hypnotist expertly guides the patient through suggestions to solve the problem, like choosing healthier snacks or eating smaller portions to lose weight. The brain, much like a sponge in this moment, will supposedly start to incorporate those recommendations into new patterns of thought.经验丰富的催眠师刚开始都会让患者做些放松的活动来清醒大脑,释放压力。(想想经典的台词,你会变得睡意朦胧)之后,催眠师会给病人一些建议来指导他们解决一些问题,比如选择更健康的小吃或者吃少一点来减肥。大脑在此刻就像一块海绵,它开始吸收这些建议然后转变成新的思维模式。Hypnotherapy is meant to be used alongside regular talk therapy and not just on its own. Patients can even learn to hypnotize themselves to find stress relief on their own.催眠疗法意味着,长时间有规律的说话治疗并不是单单靠催眠。病人甚至可以学着自己对自己实施催眠术来解压。4.Sandplay Therapy4.箱庭疗法Building sand castles is fun in the summertime and may have therapeutic value, too. Much like chess therapy, sandplay therapy offers those with trouble communicating the chance to share their feelings by designing scenarios with figurines in sand trays. Children, and sometimes adults, relay their feelings through expressive creations without ever having to speak a word.夏日堆沙堡,既有趣又有治疗作用。箱庭疗法和象棋疗法相似:有交流障碍的人可以用沙盘里的小模型设计不同场景,这为他们提供了分享情感的机会。不光是孩子,成人也可以一言不发,通过沙盘设计表达自己的情感。Inspired by the teachings of Carl Jung, Swiss psychologist Dora Kalff developed the sandplay technique to communicate with patients who might have difficulty sharing their feelings as a result of trauma or abuse. Patients are provided with trays of sand and a variety of figurines. They are instructed to create stories about the toys and the patterns of play that emerge can often mirror real problems in the patient#39;s life.箱庭疗法,用于治疗那些因精神创伤或者虐待而有情感表达障碍的患者,是瑞士精神分析学家卡尔夫基于荣格的思想而发展的一项心理疗法。患者会得到一些沙盘和形态各异的小雕塑,在治疗师的指导下给玩具编造一些故事,而这些故事脚本往往都会反应他们在现实生活中遇到的难题。Therapists are trained to pick up on those symbols. When a child makes adult figures act aggressively while child figures behave anxiously, the therapist might ask the child to explain why older people are mean to little kids. A conversation about the toys might give way to sharing details of an abusive parent. While discussing trauma or abuse can be difficult, the playfulness of the sand sets the stage for healing conversation to take place.治疗师经过训练要掌握以下技巧。当孩子的言行惹怒家长,而孩子表现出焦虑时,治疗师可以引导孩子说说;为什么成人会对孩子如此刻薄;。与其谈论玩具,不如聊聊父母虐待的细节。直接聊痛苦或虐待的事可能不会顺利,但有了箱庭疗法,心理治疗就有了谈话治疗的平台。审校:Amy.L 编辑:Freya然 校对:落花生 /201507/385499

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