明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年08月21日 13:56:12

The fortnight it took for UN climate talks to finally stagger to an end in Lima yesterday morning has shaken many assumptions about what it will take to achieve the historic global climate deal due to be sealed in Paris next December.持续两周的联合国气候谈判利马会议昨日上午蹒跚撑到终点。对于需要付出怎样的努力才能在明年12月的巴黎会议上达成历史性的全球气候协定,这两周的经历动摇了人们的许多设想。“If so much blood flows negotiating the prenuptial, what does that mean for the marriage?” asked Yvo de Boer, a former UN climate chief who heads the Global Green Growth Institute that helps developing nations.“如果谈判婚前协议要流这么多血,那么这对婚姻意味着什么?”曾是联合国气候变化机构负责人、如今执掌全球绿色增长研究所(Global Green Growth Institute)的伊沃#8226;德波尔(Yvo de Boer)表示。全球绿色增长研究所为发展中国家提供帮助。The Lima meeting did eventually manage to fulfil its main aim of approving guidelines for how countries will set out their plans to cut greenhouse gas emissions in the lead-up to the Paris agreement.利马会议最终确实设法达到了主要目标,即批准了各国在巴黎会议之前应当如何制定减排计划的指引。The agreement, if it is approved, would be the first to commit all countries to make such reductions.有望在巴黎达成的协定如果获得批准,将是首份要求所有国家削减温室气体排放的全球气候协定。But this only happened after a fraught round of negotiations that ran more than 30 hours overtime and sometimes appeared to be in danger of collapsing.但上述指引是在经过一轮艰辛的谈判之后才达成的。利马谈判超时30多个小时,而且有时似乎面临谈崩的危险。This is not that unusual. Few of the mammoth annual climate negotiations the UN has conducted over the past 20 years have ended on time, forcing negotiators to sleep where they can in their offices as meetings drag on through the night.这种局面并非那么不同寻常。过去20年里,联合国主持的庞大年度气候谈判很少按时结束,各国谈判代表不得不在办公室里随便找个地方小睡片刻,因为会议会彻夜举行。What made this year’s round of pyjama diplomacy especially sobering, however, was the nature of the disputes and the expectations that had preceded it.然而,今年这轮“睡衣外交”特别发人深省的地方在于纠纷的性质和会前的期望。The delegates who arrived in the temporary white tent venue that was erected for the conference in Peru’s army headquarters had been buoyed by events that had raised hopes this meeting would be far less contentious than its predecessors.当谈判代表们抵达秘鲁陆军总部为本次会议搭建的临时白色帐篷场地时,他们得到近期一些事态的鼓舞;这些事态加大了各方对今年的会议将比往年更加顺利的期待。The most important were a landmark US-China emissions pact in November and a package of hefty pledges from wealthy countries to help poorer nations deal with climate change that topped the bn mark during the Lima conference.最重要的是美国和中国在11月达成的具有里程碑意义的减排协议,以及富国为帮助穷国应对气候变化而作出的一系列慷慨承诺,这些承诺在利马会议期间突破了100亿美元大关。These commitments were carefully orchestrated to overcome a long-held suspicion among poor countries that they would never get enough help to create a low-carbon economy and adapt to the impacts of climate change.这些承诺经过精心策划,目的是化解贫穷国家长期以来的怀疑,即它们将永远得不到足够帮助来创建低碳经济和适应气候变化的影响。As a result, the UK’s energy secretary, Ed Davey, voiced the views of many when he declared on arrival in Lima: “I am more confident we can achieve a global climate change deal than I have ever been before.”其结果是,英国能源大臣埃德#8226;戴维(Ed Davey)在抵达利马时说出了很多人的心里话:“我比以往任何时候都更加相信,我们能够达成一份全球气候变化协定。”It soon became evident that this conference was going to be dogged by the same rifts between rich and poor countries that have long blocked progress in climate talks.但人们很快就看清本次会议将再次受到富国和穷国之间分歧的困扰。这些分歧曾长期阻碍气候变化谈判取得进展。Eleven days into the talks, delegates had managed to agree only one 28-word paragraph for the final text of the conference outcome. It said countries should “intensify their high-level engagement” to accelerate action on climate change.谈判进入第11天之际,各国代表只就会议成果最终文本中一个28个单词长的段落达成共识。该段称,各国应当“加强高层接触”,以加速对气候变化采取行动。Developing countries have long railed against calls for them to help fix a pollution problem caused by nations that prospered from it.长期以来,发展中国家一直强烈反对呼吁它们帮助解决由已靠化石燃料实现繁荣的国家造成的污染问题。Rich countries say that is increasingly unworkable when China is the world’s largest emitter and India is catching up fast.富国表示,在中国已成为全球最大排放国、印度正迅速赶上的情况下,光靠富国减排已经越来越行不通。The EU and the US had hoped the talks would be limited to making sure the pledges countries were to volunteer for the Paris deal would focus on emissions reduction.欧盟和美国此前希望,利马谈判的范围将局限于确保各国为巴黎协定自愿提交的承诺会侧重于减排。Instead, it rapidly became clear that developing countries wanted to make sure the pledges also included a recognition of the need for financial aid, as well as a firmer acknowledgment of the differences between developed and developing nations.但很快就变得明朗的是,发展中国家希望确保这些承诺还包括承认有必要提供财务援助,以及对于发达国家和发展中国家之间分歧的更确切承认。Amendments in the meeting’s draft outcome, including the insertion of a reference to the loss and damage vulnerable countries faced from climate change, eventually ensured the talks succeeded.对会议成果草案的修订,包括插入关于脆弱国家面对气候变化所造成损失和损害的内容,终于确保利马谈判取得了成功。But the effort it took to achieve this foreshadows the challenges that lie ahead before Paris.但是,为此付出的努力预示着巴黎会议面临的挑战。“I think everybody expected this would be easier,” said Jake Schmidt, a veteran climate talks expert from the Natural Resources Defense Council, a US environmental charity. “What we’ve seen in Lima shows Paris is not going to be an easy undertaking.”“我想此前大家都预期本次会议会更容易些,”美国环境慈善组织——自然资源保护委员会(Natural Resources Defense Council)的资深气候谈判专家杰克#8226;施密特(Jake Schmidt)表示,“我们在利马看到的情况表明,巴黎谈判不会容易。” /201412/348820

When it comes to birthday treats, most four-year-olds would gleefully try to eat their own bodyweight in cake.要说生日吃啥大餐,大多数4岁大的孩子恨不得吃下跟自己体重一样分量的蛋糕。So for Alfie Rose, it was a dream come true when he was presented with a life-sized replica of himself made from chocolate sponge.而一个叫Alfie Rose的小男孩竟美梦成真了,因为他收到了一个按照他的模样等比例做成的巧克力海绵蛋糕。It is so realistic, it looks like a waxwork model of the boy himself – only a lot tastier.这个蛋糕跟Alfie非常形似,像是为他度身打造的蜡像,只是这个“蜡像”更美味。The cake weighs two stone and was made from a dozen tiers of sponge which were then coated in chocolate and buttercream icing and airbrushed with edible food colouring.这个蛋糕重2英石(12.7千克),由很多层海绵蛋糕组成,外面裹上了巧克力酱和奶油糖霜,然后涂上可食用染料。And because the real Alfie is never far from his favourite monkey cuddly toy, an identical edible monkey forms part of the amazing birthday surprise.因为Alfie总是将他最爱的毛绒猴子玩偶带在身边,所以一个一模一样的猴子也成了这份生日惊喜的重要部分。It took 27-year-old baker Lara Clarke 15 hours to make, and was a gift ordered by Alfie#39;s godmother Tammy Morris, 25, and her husband Stephen, 35.这个蛋糕由27岁的面包师Lara Clarke完成,花费了她足足15个小时。订蛋糕的是Alfie25岁的教母Tammy Morris,以及她35岁的丈夫Stephen。Alfie#39;s mother Chantelle Rose, 23, said: #39;I couldn#39;t believe how amazing the cake looked, and I just cried. Alfie was so happy. He was just screaming and pointing, ;It#39;s me, it#39;s me, it#39;s Alfie and monkey;.Alfie的母亲Chantelle Rose现年23岁,她说:“我真不敢相信这个蛋糕竟然那么棒,我都哭了。Alfie看到了非常高兴,他一直指着蛋糕尖叫:‘那是我,那真的是我,那是Alfie和他的猴子玩偶。’” /201402/274936


  There is no shortage of critics who confidently attribute China’s rise to the forceful intervention of the state in the economy. But the ranks of policy makers and commentators decrying Beijing’s brand of state capitalism are wrong – and, worse, they risk provoking short-sighted and counterproductive responses.坚信中国崛起缘于国家强势干预经济的批评人士为数不少,由政策制定者和员们组成的这些批评者强烈谴责北京奉行的国家资本主义。但他们的观点是错误的,而更糟的是,他们可能引发短视和毫无建设性的回应。The reality is that China’s rapid economic ascent is the result of the expanding role of the market and the rise of private businesses. Private companies now account for more than two-thirds of output, up from nothing when reform began in 1978, in an economy that has expanded 25 times in real terms. They account for almost all employment growth in the same period. Private companies are also increasingly the leading contributors to export growth.现实情况是,中国经济快速崛起是市场角色不断扩大和私营企业壮大的结果。在一个实际规模扩大了25倍的经济体中,私营企业贡献的产出比例,从1978年中国开始改革时的零,升至如今的逾三分之二。同期几乎所有的就业增长均来自私营企业。私营企业还日益成为出口增长的主要贡献因素。State companies’ shrinking role has been particularly rapid in manufacturing, which opened up to competition from private businesses in the 1980s. State enterprises’ share of output in the sector is now only a fifth, compared with four-fifths in 1978. Conventional wisdom says state industrial companies have enjoyed a resurgence since the onset of the global financial crisis. In fact, the growth in output of private businesses since 2008 has averaged 18 per cent, twice the pace of expansion of state businesses.中国国有企业的角色,在制造业收缩得尤其快——中国的制造业在上世纪80年代向私营企业放开了竞争。国企在制造业所占产出份额现在只有五分之一,而在1978年则有五分之四。人们普遍认为,自全球金融危机爆发以来,中国国有工业企业如今已经复兴。实际上,自2008年以来私营企业产出年均增长18%,是国企扩张速度的两倍。Underlying the relatively poor performance of state industrial companies is low productivity. Most investment is financed with retained earnings – so private industrial businesses, with a return on assets more than twice that of state companies, can expand more rapidly. This is reinforced by the increasingly commercial behaviour of mostly state-owned banks: in recent years they have lent almost twice as much to private as to state companies.国有工业企业相对疲弱表现的深层根源在于生产率低下。大多数投资资金来自留存利润,因此资产回报率是国企两倍多的私营工业企业能够更为迅速地扩张。大多数国有的行为日益商业化,让私企更加如鱼得水:在最近几年里,它们向私企发放的贷款几乎是发放给国企的两倍。China’s industrial policy is perhaps exemplified best by the State-Owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, created in 2003 to oversee the largest state-owned non-financial enterprises. Critics say it favours state companies in an attempt to create national champions that are larger, more powerful and more profitable. But this has failed: the return on assets of Sasac’s companies has plummeted since 2007, and is now below half their cost of capital.创建于2003年、监督各大国有非金融企业的中国国有资产监督管理委员会(SASAC)或许是中国工业政策的最佳体现。批评人士称,国资委青睐大型国企,力图创建更大、更强、更加盈利丰厚的国家冠军企业。但这种努力失败了:自2007年以来国资委监督企业的资产回报率大幅下降,现在还不到其资本成本的一半。The disparity between state and private companies is evident even in the steel industry, identified by Sasac as one industry in which Beijing was to maintain relatively strong control. This seemed an easy task in the mid-2000s, when state companies produced half of all steel output and their efficiency matched that of private companies. But when the annual growth in output fell to an average of just 9 per cent after 2006, compared with its average pace of more than 20 per cent earlier in the decade, state companies’ returns fell sharply. By 2012 they were in the red, and their share of production had fallen below a third. In contrast, the return on assets of private steel companies rose after 2006, reaching a peak of over 10 per cent in 2011 before declining slightly. With private steel companies investing more than twice as much as their state counterparts, their rising output share will continue.即便在被国资委确认为北京要保持相对强有力控制的钢铁行业,也体现出国企和私企之间的差距。在2005年,这似乎是一个轻松的任务:当时全国一半的钢铁由国企生产,它们的效率与私企相当。但是在2006年以后的几年里,年均产出增长率降至9%(该十年的头几年平均增长率超过20%),国企回报率大幅下降。到2012年,它们出现了亏损,产量份额下降至三分之一以下。相比之下,私营钢铁企业的资产回报率在2006年之后出现上升,在2011年达到逾10%的峰值后略有下降。由于私营钢企的投资是国企的两倍,它们的产量份额仍会继续上升。The exception to the rise of private business is in finance, telecoms and other high-tech business services, as well as in upstream oil and gas. In manufacturing, private companies now account for seven times more investment than state ones. But in services the share of state companies’ investment exceeds that of private companies and has declined only very slightly in recent years. Yet the productivity differential favours private service providers by a margin of two to one over state enterprises, suggesting a substantial misallocation of capital.私营企业兴起的例外是在金融、电信、其他高科技商业务行业,以及油气行业的上游领域。在制造业,私企现在的投资份额是国企的7倍。但在务业,国企投资份额超过私企,近几年只是略有下降。然而,私营务提供商的生产率比国企高出一倍,这表明资本配置严重不当。The footprint of state companies is shrinking but, because they earn far less than their cost of capital, they remain a drag on growth. If China enacts economic reforms announced last year – particularly eliminating all but natural monopolies such as power distribution – and making the market the decisive factor in the allocation of resources, private businesses will displace state enterprises in services. That would allow China to sustain a relatively high rate of growth and thus to continue its role as a leading driver of global growth. Those who make policies and predictions based on a fundamental misunderstanding of China’s ascent are likely to miss out.中国国企的地盘正在缩小,但因为它们的利润远低于资本成本,它们依然拖累了增长。如果中国实施去年宣布的经济改革(尤其是打破除电网等自然垄断业务以外的一切垄断),让市场成为资源配置的决定性因素,私企将取代国企在务业的角色。这将让中国保持相对高速的经济增长,从而继续其作为全球增长主要驱动因素的角色。那些对中国崛起有着根本性误解并据此制定政策和作出预测的人很可能错失机遇。The writer is a fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics and#8201;author of ‘Markets over Mao: The Rise of Private Business in China’注:本文作者是彼得森国际经济研究所(Peterson Institute)研究员,著有《市场高于毛泽东:中国私营企业的崛起》(Markets over Mao, the Rise of Private Business in China)一书。 /201409/328354。


  Last year was the hottest on earth since record-keeping began in 1880, scientists reported on Friday, underscoring warnings about the risks of runaway greenhouse gas emissions and undermining claims by climate change contrarians that global warming had somehow stopped.科学家上周五发表报告显示,去年是自1880年记录开始以来,地球上最热的一年,对温室气体排放失控的危险发出了更强的警告,削弱了反对气候变化者认为的全球变暖已经停止的观点。Extreme heat blanketed Alaska and much of the western ed States last year. Records were set across large areas of every inhabited continent. And the ocean surface was unusually warm virtually everywhere except near Antarctica, the scientists said, providing the energy that fueled damaging Pacific storms.去年,酷热天气覆盖了阿拉斯加州和大部分美国西部地区。地面温度在所有有人居住的大陆上都创下了记录。科学家说,海洋表面在除南极洲附近海域以外的几乎所有水域中都异常温暖,为造成巨大破坏的太平洋风暴提供了能量。In the annals of climatology, 2014 surpassed 2010 as the warmest year. The 10 warmest years have all occurred since 1997, a reflection of the relentless planetary warming that scientists say is a consequence of human activity and poses profound long-term risks to civilization and nature.在气候学的史册里,2014年超过了2010年,成为最热的年份。有记录以来的10个最暖年份都是在1997年以后,反映了地球不断变暖的趋势,科学家说,这种变暖是人类活动的结果,并对人类文明和大自然构成了深远的长期危险。“Climate change is perhaps the major challenge of our generation,” said Michael H. Freilich, director of earth sciences at NASA, one of the agencies that track global temperatures.“气候变化也许是我们这代人的重大挑战,”美国国家航空航天局(NASA)地球科学部主任迈克尔·H·弗莱利赫(Michael H. Freilich)说,他的部门是跟踪全球气温的机构之一。Of the large land areas where many people live, only the eastern portion of the ed States recorded below-average temperatures in 2014, in sharp contrast to the unusual heat in the West. Some experts think the weather pattern that produced those American extremes is an indirect consequence of the release of greenhouse gases, though that is not proven.在美国许多人居住的大面积地区之中,只有东部在2014年记录到低于平均气温的温度,这与西部的异常高温形成了鲜明对比。有专家认为,造成美国这些极端温度的天气模式是温室气体排放的间接后果,但这个观点尚有待明。Several scientists said the most remarkable thing about the 2014 record was that it had occurred in a year that did not feature a strong El Ni#241;o, a large-scale weather pattern in which the Pacific Ocean pumps an enormous amount of heat into the atmosphere.一些科学家说,2014年成为创下气温纪录的一年,最值得注意的一点是该年度并没有发生强大的厄尔尼诺现象,一种由于太平洋将巨大的热量输送到大气层所造成的大尺度天气模式。Skeptics of climate change have long argued that global warming stopped around 1998, when an unusually powerful El Ni#241;o produced the hottest year of the 20th century. Some politicians in Washington have seized on that claim to justify inaction on emissions.对气候变化持怀疑态度的人长期以来认为,全球气温已在1998年左右停止变暖,那年是20世纪最热的一年,原因是异常强大的厄尔尼诺现象。华盛顿的一些政客用这种说法作为不对温室气体排放采取行动的理由。But the temperature of 1998 is now being surpassed every four or five years, and 2014 was the first time that happened without a significant El Ni#241;o. Gavin A. Schmidt, head of NASA’s Goddard Institute for Space Studies in Manhattan, said the next strong El Ni#241;o would probably rout all temperature records.但1998年的记录现已被每四、五年一次的新记录多次打破,而2014年的记录是在没有显著厄尔尼诺现象发生的年度创下的。加文·A·施密特(Gavin A. Schmidt)是位于曼哈顿的美国宇航局戈达德太空研究所的所长,他说,下一次的强厄尔尼诺现象可能会打破所有的温度记录。“Obviously, a single year, even if it is a record, cannot tell us much about climate trends,” said Stefan Rahmstorf, head of earth system analysis at the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany. “However, the fact that the warmest years on record are 2014, 2010 and 2005 clearly indicates that global warming has not ‘stopped in 1998,’ as some like to falsely claim.”“很显然,单独一个年度,即使是创记录的年度,不可能告诉我们很多关于气候变化趋势的东西,”德国波茨坦气候影响研究所地球系统分析部门主管斯德范·拉姆斯朵夫(Stefan Rahmstorf)说。“然而,有记录以来的最热年度是2014年、2010年和2005年的这个事实清楚地表明,全球变暖并没有‘在1998年停止’,像一些人喜欢错误地宣称那样。”Such claims are unlikely to go away, though. John R. Christy, an atmospheric scientist at the University of Alabama in Huntsville who is known for his skepticism about the seriousness of global warming, pointed out in an interview that 2014 had surpassed the other record-warm years by only a few hundredths of a degree, well within the error margin of global temperature measurements. “Since the end of the 20th century, the temperature hasn’t done much,” Dr. Christy said. “It’s on this kind of warmish plateau.”但是,那些宣称不大可能会消失。阿拉巴马州大学亨茨维尔校区的大气科学家约翰·R·克里斯蒂(John R. Christy)以怀疑全球变暖的严重性而知名,他在一次采访中指出,2014年的记录只比以前年度的创纪录温度高出百分之几度,完全是在全球温度测量值的误差范围之内。克里斯蒂说,“自20世纪末,气温并没有太多变化,一直处于较暖的稳定水平。”Despite such arguments from a handful of scientists, the vast majority of those who study the climate say the earth is in a long-term warming trend that is profoundly threatening and caused almost entirely by human activity.尽管有少数人坚持这种说法,但绝大多数研究气候的科学家表示,地球正在经历一个长期变暖的趋势,这种趋势给人类带来深刻的威胁,而且几乎完全是由人类活动造成的。They expect the heat to get much worse over coming decades, but aly it is killing forests around the world, driving plants and animals to extinction, melting land ice and causing the seas to rise at an accelerating pace.他们预测,在未来几十年中,炎热天气会变得更糟,这种天气已经在世界各地导致森林死亡、植物和动物物种灭绝、陆地冰层融化,以及海平面上升速度加快。“It is exceptionally unlikely that we would be witnessing a record year of warmth, during a record-warm decade, during a several decades-long period of warmth that appears to be unrivaled for more than a thousand years, were it not for the rising levels of planet-warming gases produced by the burning of fossil fuels,” Michael E. Mann, a climate scientist at the Pennsylvania State University, said in an email.宾夕法尼亚州立大学的气候科学家迈克尔·E·曼恩(Michael E. Mann)在电子邮件中说,“如果不是由于燃烧化石燃料所产生的、导致地球变暖的气体排放越来越多的原因,在上千年史无前例的几十年较暖期间、创纪录地变暖的十年中,看到变暖的又一个记录年度,是非常不可能的。”NASA and the other American agency that maintains long-term temperature records, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, issued separate data compilations on Friday that confirmed the 2014 record. A Japanese agency had released preliminary information in early January showing 2014 as the warmest year.NASA和另一个保持长期气温记录的美国机构、国家海洋和大气在上周五发布了各自的数据汇编,实了2014年是创纪录的一年。一家日本机构曾在一月初发布初步信息显示,2014年是最热的一年。One more scientific group, in Britain, that curates the world’s temperature record is scheduled to report in the coming weeks.英国的一个收集全球气温纪录的科学小组也将在未来几周内提交报告。Separate temperature measurements taken from satellites do not show 2014 as a record year, although it is close. Several scientists said the satellite ings reflected temperatures in the atmosphere, not at the earth’s surface, so it was not surprising that they would differ slightly from the ground and ocean-surface measurements that showed record warmth.来自用卫星采集的独立温度测量结果没有显示2014年是记录年,但是接近记录。几位科学家说,卫星测量的数据反映的是大气层的温度,而不是地球的表面温度,所以卫星数据会与来自地面和海洋表面的测量结果略有不同,并不奇怪,而表面的温度测量显示了创记录的温暖。“Why do we keep getting so many record-warm years?” Dr. Schmidt asked in an interview. “It’s because the planet is warming. The basic issue is the long-term trend, and it is not going away.”施密特在接受采访时问道,“为什么我们接连看到如此多的创纪录温暖年度?这是因为地球正在变暖。根本的问题是,这是一种长期趋势,这种趋势不会消失。”February 1985 was the last time global surface temperatures fell below the 20th-century average for a given month, meaning that no one younger than 30 has ever lived through a below-average month. The last full year that was colder than the 20th-century average was 1976.1985年2月是全球表面温度低于给定月份的20世纪平均值的最后一个月份,这意味着所有年龄在30岁以下的人都没有经历过低于平均温度的月份。最后一个低于20世纪平均温度的年度是1976年。The contiguous ed States set a temperature record in 2012, a year of scorching heat waves and drought. But, mostly because of the unusual chill in the East, 2014 was only the 34th warmest year on record for the lower 48 states.不包括阿拉斯加和夏威夷在内的美国本土曾在2012年创下温度记录,那年发生过灼人的热浪和干旱。主要是由于东部地区不同寻常地寒冷,才使得2014年的温度对这48个州来说,仅在有记录以来的最暖年度中排名第34。That cold was drawn into the interior of the country by a loop in a current called the jet stream that allowed Arctic air to spill southward. But an offsetting kink allowed unusually warm tropical air to settle over the West, large parts of Alaska and much of the Arctic.冷空气是被一个名为高空急流的气流循环带到美国本土的内部,这让北极的冷空气南下。但是,一个抵消这种冷空气的怪现象,让异常温暖的热带空气停留在西部地区、阿拉斯加大部分地区以及北极大部分地区的上空。A few recent scientific papers say that such long-lasting kinks in the jet stream have become more likely because global warming is rapidly melting the sea ice in the Arctic, but many leading scientists are not convinced on that point.一些最近发表的科学论文说,高空急流中这种持续较长的怪现象,由于全球变暖正在导致北极地区海洋中的冰迅速融化而变得更可能发生,但许多主要的科学家还没有被这种观点说。Whatever the underlying cause, last year’s extreme warmth in the West meant that Alaska, Arizona, California and Nevada all set temperature records. Some parts of California essentially had no winter last year, with temperatures sometimes running 10 to 15 degrees above normal for the season. The temperature in Anchorage, Alaska’s largest city, never fell below zero in 2014, the first time that has happened in 101 years of record-keeping for the city.不管是什么根本原因,去年美国西部地区的极端温暖意味着,阿拉斯加州、亚利桑那州、加利福尼亚州和内华达州都创下了气温记录。加利福尼亚州的一些地区去年基本上没有冬天,那些地区的气温有时比季节正常温度高出10到15华氏度(5.5到8.3摄氏度)。在阿拉斯加的最大城市安克雷奇,2014年的气温从未低于华氏零度(或摄氏零下18度),在该市101年的气温记录中,这是首次。Twenty years of global negotiations aimed at slowing the growth of heat-trapping emissions have yielded little progress. However, 2014 saw signs of large-scale political mobilization on the issue, as more than 300,000 people marched in New York City in September, and tens of thousands more took to the streets in other cities around the world.二十多年的旨在减少温室气体排放增长的全球谈判几乎没有进展。但在2014年,人们看到了针对这个问题的大规模政治行动的迹象,在30多万人去年九月在纽约举行大游行之后,世界各地的其他城市中也有数以万计的人走上街头。The next big attempt at a global climate agreement will come when negotiators from around the world gather in Paris in December. Political activists on climate change wasted no time Friday in citing the 2014 heat record as proof that strong action was needed.达成一个全球性气候协议的下一次大尝试,将是在来自世界各地的谈判代表今年12月聚集巴黎的时候。气候变化问题的政治活动人士上周五不失时机地引用2014年的温度记录为,表明采取强有力行动的必要性。“The steady and now record-breaking rise in average global temperatures is not an issue for another day,” Michael R. Bloomberg, the former New York mayor who is spending tens of millions of dollars of his personal fortune to battle climate change, said in a statement. “It’s a clear and present danger that poses major economic, health, environmental and geopolitical risks.”纽约前市长迈克尔·R·布隆伯格(Michael R. Bloomberg)正在为抗击气候变化花费自己私人财产的数千万美元,他在一份声明中说,“全球气温稳步上升、如今破纪录地上升的问题,不是一个未来的问题。这是一个迫在眉睫的明显危险,对经济、健康、环境和地缘政治有重大的危害。” /201501/355247Dear Annie:After almost 30 years in commercial banking, I took an early-retirement package during all the layoffs that went on in early 2009. It seemed like a good move at the time, but now I find I really miss working, and, since I#39;m still only in my early 50s, I#39;ve got at least another decade ahead in which to use my skills and experience. The problem is that five-year hole in my work history. I#39;ve spent the time taking some classes, doing a couple of consulting projects, and volunteering to help two local non-profits straighten out their finances. But my resume still shows no ;real job; for those years, and the few employers I#39;ve met with recently have seemed to hold that against me. Do you and your ers have any suggestions on how to handle this? -- Minding the Gap亲爱的安妮:我曾经在商业工作过30年。2009年初的裁员潮中,我接受了一笔提前退休金之后就退休了。当时,这似乎是很好的选择,但现在我发现,自己非常怀念工作的时光。而且,我刚过50岁,至少还能用我的能力和经验工作十年。问题在于,我的履历中将会出现五年空白期。虽然这段时间我学习了一些课程,参加了几个咨询项目,还作为志愿者帮助当地两家非盈利机构解决了财务问题。但这些年的经历在简历上仍不算是“真正的工作”,我最近见过的雇主大多也拿这个来反对我。我该怎么办?您和您的读者有什么建议?——M.G.Dear M.G.:Cold comfort though it may be, the number of long-term unemployed in the U.S. (defined as those out of work for six months or longer) seems stuck at about 3 million, so you can#39;t be the only one wondering. The first step in overcoming the stigma attached to that gap is one you may aly be taking: Bring it up yourself, rather than waiting for interviewers to ask.亲爱的M.G.:美国长期失业人口(指失业达六个月或更长的人)似乎达到了300万人,所以你肯定不是唯一一个在思考这个问题的人,虽然这个事实可能起不到任何安慰的作用。而要克履历空白期这一劣势,第一步是:自己主动提出,而不是等面试官问起。你可能已经做到了这一点。;Confront it,; advises Patty Prosser, CEO of HR and talent-management consultants OI Global Partners. ;Bring that hiatus up right at the start of the conversation, and enumerate all the things you#39;ve been doing to keep your knowledge and skills current. The more specific real-life examples you can provide, and the more closely they align with the job you#39;re seeking, the better.;人力资源与人才管理咨询公司OI Global Partners的CEO帕蒂#8226;普罗瑟建议:“面对事实。在对话开始的时候就主动提出这段空白,同时详细说明为了让自己的知识和能力一直保持在最佳状态,你都做过哪些事情。你能够提供的现实事例越具体,与你申请的工作的关系越密切,效果就越好。”Your volunteer experience may be especially relevant to finance jobs you#39;re applying for, but Prosser has seen plenty of job candidates downplay their unpaid achievements, or even neglect to mention them at all. ;Making an impact in a volunteer organization often takes a very special set of #39;people#39; skills that for-profit employers really value, so talk about that,; she says. ;Even if you #39;only#39; led a band-parents#39; fundraiser at a child#39;s school, for example, our career coaches would encourage you to tell how you got people engaged and what the outcome was.;你的志愿者经历与你正在申请的财务工作尤为相关,但普罗瑟见过许多求职者,他们对作为志愿者所取得的成就,要么轻描淡写,要么只字不提。她说:“在志愿者组织中产生影响,往往需要非常特殊的‘与人相关的’能力,而这些能力正是经营性公司雇主真正看重的东西。所以,不妨谈谈这些方面。即便你只是在孩子的学校负责家长团体的一项资金筹集活动,我们的职业教练也会鼓励你谈论一下如何让人们参与其中,最后取得了怎样的成就等。”The consulting projects you worked on probably helped keep you sharp, so talking about those is a good idea, too. Briefly describe any new skills you picked up and the results you accomplished -- and don#39;t be surprised if those temporary gigs lead to an offer of another short-term project at a company where you#39;re job-hunting. ;A growing number of employers prefer to bring on new hires on a contract basis before deciding whether to hire them full-time,; Prosser observes.你参与的咨询项目也能帮你保持敏锐度,所以谈谈这些经历也是不错的选择。简单介绍一下你学到了哪些新技能,实现了什么样的成果。如果你求职的公司因为这些临时工作给了你一份短期项目的工作邀请,不必大惊小怪。普罗瑟说:“越来越多的雇主在决定是否作为全职员工聘用求职者之前,更喜欢先提供合同制的岗位。”Ford R. Myers, an executive career coach and author of Get the Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring, agrees that tackling the issue head-on -- as opposed, he says, to ;just hoping they won#39;t notice; -- is your best bet. ;Be forthright about it,; he says. ;Explain your early-retirement decision to interviewers in a professional, unapologetic way.;高管职业导师、《绝处逢生——怎样在岗位荒中找到理想的工作》(Get the Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring)一书的作者福特#8226;R#8226;梅尔斯同意,最好的做法是直面这个问题,而不是“寄希望于人们注意不到它”。他说:“直截了当地提出来。以专业、毫不后悔的方式,向面试官解释当初提前退休的决定。”At the same time, Myers suggests a few ways to make your five years between ;real jobs; less conspicuous on paper. First, if you haven#39;t aly done so, rewrite your resume using a functional format that groups all your past work together under different headings according to what you actually did (;Accounting,; ;Management,; and so on), rather than when you did it. This ;highlights your functional strengths, instead of focusing on dates of employment,; he says.与此同时,梅尔斯提供了五种方式,让“真正工作”之间的五年空白在简历上看起来没有那么扎眼。首先,如果你还没有这么做,不妨使用按工作职能划分的模式重写简历,以自己实际做过的工作作为小标题,而不是从事这些工作的时间。他表示,这样做“可以突出你的职能优势,而不是把重点放在就业日期上。”Since hiring managers skim most resumes (with or without chronological gaps) for no more than 10 seconds, Myers also urges that yours be as specific as you can make it. ;Quantify everything you can, including retention rates, sales numbers, performance increase, and the number of people or projects you#39;ve managed,; he advises. ;Wherever possible, use percentages, hard numbers, and dollar figures.;有些招聘经理浏览大多数简历的时间不超过10秒钟(不论是否有空),所以,梅尔斯还建议简历一定要尽量具体。他建议:“尽量把所有内容进行量化,包括人才保留率、销售数字、绩效提高,以及自己管理的人员或项目的数量等。如果可能的话,使用百分比、硬数据和美元数字。”Active verbs help too, he adds: ;Words like #39;create,#39; #39;launch,#39; #39;initiate,#39; #39;devise,#39; and #39;conduct#39; have a lot more impact than vague phrases such as #39;responsible for.#39;;他补充道,一些积极的动词也会有所帮助。“比如‘创造’‘首创’、‘发起’‘策划’和‘实施’等动词,比‘负责’等模糊的短语更有效。”Try not to get discouraged if your job hunt takes a while, Myers adds. ;Some employers will be open-minded and won#39;t see your five-year gap as an obstacle to hiring you,; he notes. ;There will be others, however, who reject you purely on the basis of that gap. You need to expect this, and try not to take it personally.; Or, as a health care executive Patty Prosser met with recently put it, keep in mind that ;if you were smart five years ago, you#39;re still smart now; -- or maybe even smarter. Good luck.梅尔斯表示,如果你的求职过程需要花费很长时间,不要灰心。他说:“有的雇主非常开明,他们不会把你五年的空白期视为聘用你的障碍。但也有人会因为这段空白期而拒绝聘用你。你要做好这样的心理准备,不要把它当作针对你个人的行为。”或者,正如帕蒂#8226;普罗瑟最近遇到的一位医疗行业高管所说,记住“如果你五年前是聪明人,五年后依然是聪明人”——甚至更聪明。祝你好运。 /201404/289203

  Wondering where global growth is headed this year? It might help to keep an eye on today#39;s oil prices.想要知道今年的全球增长情况吗?关注一下当前的油价或许能有所帮助。A sharp drop in global oil demand that began in May was a #39;leading indicator#39; of slowing global growth, as the latest round of gross domestic product data from Europe and Japan have confirmed, says London consulting firm Energy Aspects.伦敦咨询公司Energy Aspects称,自5月份开始全球石油需求大幅下滑是全球增长放缓的“先行指标”,而欧洲和日本公布的最新国内生产总值(GDP)数据也实了这一点。The price of Brent crude, the global benchmark, is down 12% from its mid-June peak, the result of tepid demand from European and Asian refineries as well as a perception of reduced geopolitical risk. While prices trawl 14-month lows near 1 a barrel, they are still too high to lure more demand from drivers and other consumers, Energy Aspects says.由于欧洲和亚洲炼油厂需求疲软,加上市场感觉地缘政治风险在下降,作为全球油价基准的布伦特原油价格已较6月中旬高位下跌了12%。Energy Aspects表示,虽然布伦特原油价格已跌至每桶101美元左右的14个月低点,但仍不足以激发驾车者和其他消费者的更多需求。#39;Overall weakness in global oil prices signal that demand has not really picked up#39; yet, the firm says. #39;This raises the question of whether the global economy and stock markets are due for a lurch downwards#39; later this year.Energy Aspects称,全球油价的整体疲软态势表明需求尚未真正回升,这令人怀疑全球经济和股市是否会在今年晚些时候突然下行。The Brent futures market points to sluggish demand. In July, the futures market for global benchmark Brent crude flipped out of backwardation -- when the front-month contract is more expensive that contracts for delivery in later months. Brent is now in contango, meaning that the front-month October contract is cheaper than contracts for later this year and next.布伦特原油期货市场状况显示出需求低迷。7月份,作为全球油价基准的布伦特原油期货价格脱离了倒价结构。所谓倒价结构,是指近月合约的期货价格高于远月合约的价格。目前布伦特原油期货价格处于顺价结构,十月份交割的期货价格低于今年底和明年交割的期货价格。Contango indicates that traders are buying near-term supplies at a discount because there are enough barrels to go around.顺价表明交易员们正在以低价买进短期合约,因为原油供应充足。On Monday, Oman crude oil on the Dubai Mercantile Exchange flipped to contango as well. While Brent is most reflective of the European market, the contango in Oman suggests that the Asian market is also well-supplied.周一,迪拜商品交易所交易的阿曼原油期货合约也出现顺价。布伦特原油是欧洲原油市场走势的风向标,而阿曼原油期货出现顺价则表明亚洲市场供应也很充足。The link between global growth and oil prices does carry some caveats, of course. A geopolitical crisis that threatens oil production from Iraq, Russia or elsewhere could send prices soaring again. And oil demand typically falls in the late summer and early fall as refiners perform seasonal maintenance, so stronger global growth might not show up in oil prices right away.当然,把全球经济增长和油价联系在一起确实需要注意一些问题。威胁到伊拉克、俄罗斯和其他地区原油产量的地缘政治危机可能推动油价再度飙升。由于炼油厂会在夏末秋初之际进行季节性维护,在此期间石油需求一般会出现下跌,因此全球经济增长加速的影响可能不会马上在油价中体现出来。Still, Energy Aspects says, demand for gasoline, diesel and other oil products could be an important indicator in the second half of the year.但是Energy Aspects表示,对汽油、柴油和其他成品油的需求可能是显示下半年经济增长的重要指标。#39;We are definitely not suggesting that the oil market is pointing towards a severe global recession, but [oil markets] may be telling us something about the state of the world economy which economic forecasts are currently not capturing,#39; the firm says.该公司表示,虽然不能确定无疑地说油市走势表明全球经济出现了严重衰退,但也可能从中窥探出经济预期中尚未反映出的全球经济形势的一些情况。 /201408/322188China’s government has banned its ministries and federal agencies from buying Apple products, as a state-led campaign against US technology companies in China gathers momentum.中国政府已禁止各部委和中央政府机关购买苹果(Apple)产品。目前一场由国家主导的针对美国科技公司的运动正在中国形成势头。Ten Apple products including the iPad, MacBook Air and MacBook Pro were left off a government procurement approved list distributed last month, after they were included in a June version of the list, Bloomberg and Chinese media reported yesterday. China is Apple’s second-biggest market, after the US.彭社(Bloomberg)和中国媒体昨日报道,7月下发的政府采购名单剔除了10款苹果产品,包括iPad、MacBook Air和MacBook Pro;而6月制定的采购名单上这些产品还在列。中国是苹果的第二大市场,仅次于美国。This week, both foreign antivirus software companies in China, Kaspersky Lab of Russia and Symantec of the US, were also struck off the list.本周,两家外国杀毒软件公司——俄罗斯的卡巴斯基实验室(Kaspersky Lab)和美国的赛门铁克(Symantec)——也被排除出中国的政府采购名单。The list of approved suppliers applies only to federal institutions funded by the central budget and does not include regional governments or large enterprises, according to Kaspersky.据卡巴斯基表示,批准的供应商名单只适用于由中央财政资助的中央政府机构,不包括地方政府或大型企业。Meanwhile, the temperature for foreign tech companies was raised even further after it emerged yesterday that Microsoft’s offices in four cities were raided by government inspectors as part of an antimonopoly probe launched last week.同时,外国高科技公司受到的压力进一步加大,昨日传出的消息称,微软(Microsoft)在四个城市的经营场所受到工商执法人员的突击检查,作为上周发起的反垄断调查的一部分。The State Administration for Industry and Commerce also raided the offices of consultancy Accenture, which does financial work for Microsoft, according to a message on the SAIC website. Microsoft said in a statement yesterday that it was “serious about complying with China’s laws and committed to addressing SAIC’s questions and concerns”.根据国家工商行政管理总局(SAIC)网站发布的消息,该局还突击检查了承担微软公司财务外包的咨询公司埃森哲(Accenture)的办公室。微软昨日在一份声明中表示,该公司“严格遵守中国法律,致力于解决国家工商行政管理总局提出的问题和关切”。The climate for US tech companies in China has declined after the revelations by National Security Agency contractor Edward Snowden that US tech companies had in some cases co-operated with the NSA in spying. In May, the US justice department announced indictments against five Chinese military officers for hacking.自美国国家安全局(NSA)前合同工爱德华#8226;斯诺登(Edward Snowden)爆料称美国科技公司在某些情况下配合NSA的间谍活动以来,美国科技公司在中国的经营环境有所恶化。今年5月,美国司法部还对5名涉嫌从事黑客活动的中国军官提出刑事指控。In addition to Apple and Microsoft, a number of US tech brands have been singled out for bans, threats of bans or large fines, and television smear campaigns in China in the past few months, including Google, Cisco, IBM, and Qualcomm.除了苹果和微软以外,还有多个美国科技品牌近几个月里在中国遭遇禁令、被威胁施加禁令或处以大笔罚款,以及电视抹黑宣传,包括谷歌(Google)、思科(Cisco)、IBM和高通(Qualcomm)。China rankles at being portrayed as singling out US companies, however, saying the US has arbitrarily excluded Chinese tech manufacturers Huawei and ZTE from the US market over security concerns.不过,中国对于自己被描绘成蓄意为难美国企业表示不满,指出美国以安全关切为由,武断地将中国高科技制造商华为(Huawei)和中兴(ZTE)挡在美国市场门外。Apple’s Beijing office declined to respond to requests for comment. Last month, Apple was criticised by state-run broadcaster CCTV for how it handles iPhone customers’ location data, saying it presents a security threat to users. Apple denied the accusation. “Apple does not track users’ locations – Apple has never done so and has no plans to ever do so,” it said.苹果公司的北京办事处拒绝回应置评请求。上个月,官方的中央电视台批评苹果处理iPhone用户位置数据的方式,称其给用户带来安全威胁。苹果否认了这一指控。“苹果不会追踪用户的位置——苹果从未这样做,也没有计划要这么做,”该公司表示。The procurement list is a carefully guarded secret and Chinese government agencies declined to comment on it.采购清单是精心保守的机密,中国政府机构拒绝就此发表。 /201408/319473

  China on Sunday banned shark fin for official dinners as part of its austerity drive. The controversial ingredient joins hairy crabs, mooncakes and expensive suitcases as the latest victim of President Xi Jinping’s campaign.中国周日发布《党政机关国内公务接待管理规定》,禁止工作餐提供鱼翅等菜肴,这是厉行节约运动的一部分。继大闸蟹、月饼和高档行李箱之后,鱼翅这种备受争议的食材也成为中国国家主席习近平发起的这场运动的“受害者”。Chinese state media reported that the central government has banned official dinners with shark fin, bird’s nest and wild animal products in a new directive. Xinhua, the state news agency, said government staff would not be able to serve cigarettes and expensive alcohol at official functions.中国官方通讯社新华社报道,中央政府下达的这项新规定禁止工作餐提供鱼翅、燕窝和用野生保护动物制作的菜肴,禁止提供香烟和高档酒水。This comes as Samsonite, the 103-year-old luggage maker, says China sales will show a “certain amount of moderation” this year due to Mr Xi clamping down on extravagant spending.与此同时,已有103年历史的行李箱制造商新秀丽(Samsonite)表示,受习近平打击奢侈浪费风气影响,该公司今年在华销售增长将出现“一定程度的放缓”。Ramesh Tainwala, Samsonite’s Asia head, says sales are expected to decline at least 10 percentage points from a growth rate of more than 20 per cent last year to 12-15 per cent this year.新秀丽亚洲区总裁拉梅什?塔因瓦拉(Ramesh Tainwala)表示,今年销售额增长率将下滑至少10个百分点,由去年的逾20%降至12%至15%之间。“Because of the austerity drive that is going on with the government? Officials are now trying to learn?.?.?.?how they are supposed to react,” says Mr Tainwala. “Will this be considered as, let us say, a luxury or avoidable expense?”塔因瓦拉表示:“因为中国政府眼下正在推行的厉行节约运动……官员如今正努力搞清楚……他们该怎么做。比如说,他们会想,这会不会被视为奢侈品或可避免的出呢?”Since coming to power a year ago, Mr Xi has cracked down on excessive spending by government officials. The drive has taken a toll on everything from culinary delicacies such as abalone and exotic crabs to the kind of transportation and hotels that government workers use on official business trips.自一年前上台以来,习近平一直在打击政府官员的过度出。这项运动波及了方方面面,从鲍鱼、大闸蟹等美味食物,到政府工作人员在差旅中的交通方式和住宿规格。One Beijing resident and local official who travels to Nanjing to visit a relative says she was accustomed to being picked up at the airport in a government car. But she says the car has disappeared since Mr Xi became China’s leader.一名经常去南京探亲的北京地方官员说,过去她一下飞机就坐上在机场等候的公务车,自从习近平上台以来,这种待遇就消失了。To power his campaign, Mr Xi, or his propaganda team, has created slogans such as “four dishes and a soup” to urge officials to refrain from the kind of previously ubiquitous banquets that were laced with copious amounts of baijiu or, in more recent years, expensive claret.为宣传这场运动,习近平(或他的宣传团队)创造了“四菜一汤”等宣传语,以敦促官员杜绝过去普遍存在的那种摆满高档白酒(近年来则还有高档红酒)的公务宴请。In an interview, Tim Parker, Samsonite chief executive, and Mr Tainwala stress that China remains a very important market for the company. Mr Parker says he can “well imagine that in the next sort of three to four years that the company will make its first acquisition of a Chinese business”.塔因瓦拉和新秀丽首席执行官蒂姆?帕克(Tim Parker)在一次采访中强调,中国仍是新秀丽非常重要的市场。帕克表示,他完全可以“设想,再过个三四年左右,新秀丽将首次收购一家中国企业”。But, in the meantime, Samsonite must join other global luxury brands in navigating the new austere landscape in China. Mr Tainwala says one way the campaign is hurting business is through the impact on corporate gifts. Banks have also cut back on redemption campaigns that allow customers to exchange accumulated points for luggage and other items.但与此同时,新秀丽必须和其他国际奢侈品牌一样,应对厉行节约运动下中国的新形势。塔因瓦拉表示,这场运动冲击公司业务的方式之一,是影响企业的礼品购买行为。也减少了积分兑换行李箱等礼品的活动。As a result, there has been “a lot of slack” in Samsonite’s sales to businesses in China. Mr Tainwala says airlines that typically buy cases in bulk for flight crews until recently held off, as they tried to interpret the rules being telegraphed by Mr Xi.因此,新秀丽在华对企业销售情况“很不景气”。塔因瓦拉表示,航空公司以前往往批量购买行李箱,配发给机组成员,但最近也不这么做了,因为航空公司试图解读习近平主政下这些新规定传递出什么样的信息。“Buying is being looked upon a little bit more carefully and the new rules and regulations and guidelines are getting released,” says Mr Tainwala.塔因瓦拉表示:“人们在购买时变得更谨慎了,而新的规定、监管措施和指导方针还在不断出台。”But he adds that recently there are “indications that some of the airlines and banks which operate redemption schemes are aly getting started” again.但他补充说,最近有“迹象显示,一些航空公司和又开始在做积分兑换活动”。 /201312/268205

  A South Korean appeals court has handed a sentence of life in prison to the captain of the Sewol ferry that sank last year, overturning a lighter punishment by a lower court.一家韩国上诉法院判处去年翻沉的岁月号渡轮船长李俊锡终身监禁,推翻了一家法院此前做出的较轻判决。The high court in the southern city of Gwangju on Tuesday convicted Lee Joon-seol of the murder of 304 passengers who died when the ferry sank last April off the country#39;s southwest coast.星期二,韩国南部城市光州的高等法院判定李俊锡对304名乘客犯有谋杀罪。去年4月,岁月号渡轮在韩国西南沿海翻沉,导致这些乘客死亡。In November, a lower court sentenced Lee to 36 years in jail after finding him guilty of gross negligence and dereliction of duty for abandoning the passengers, who were mostly high school students on a school outing.去年11月,一家法院判定丢下乘客(大多是外出郊游的高中学生)自己弃船逃生的李俊锡犯有严重渎职罪,判处他36年监禁。Lee#39;s action ;seriously hurt our national image, (and) is not forgivable for any reasons,; according to a court statement published by the South Korean news agency, Yonhap.韩联社发表的法院声明说,李俊锡的行为严重损害了国家形象,无可原谅。The court also reduced the sentence of 14 crew members. They will now receive jail terms ranging from 18 months to 12 years, instead of the five- to 30-year sentences handed down in November.这家法院对14名船员减刑。他们的刑期从18个月到12年不等,而他们去年11月被判刑五至30年。 /201505/373170。




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