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西安市第五医院消化病电话号码陕西省二一五215医院胃部幽门螺杆菌急慢性胃炎Business商业报道Schumpeter熊彼得Fighting the flab减肥大作战Corporate headquarters have put on weight, and need to slim down again企业的总部体积膨胀,需要再次瘦身“ONE of the most extraordinary corporate centres in America.”“这可能是美国最奇怪的企业总部了 。”This is how Trian Partners, a disgruntled shareholder of PepsiCo, described the headquarters of the snacks-to-soft-drinks company in a recent letter to its board.特利安基金管理公司在给百事公司的董事会最近的一封信中抱怨道。特里安基金是这个销售零食和软饮料的公司的股东。Set amid lakes and fountains in 100 acres of wealthy Westchester County, New York, PepsiCos HQ features seven interconnected three-storey office buildings designed in the 1960s by Edward Durell Stone, a pioneering American modernist architect.百事总部位于纽约市富裕的威彻斯特郡,坐落于湖泊与喷泉之间,占地约100英亩,中心是七座相连的三层办公楼,此楼是美国现代主义先驱建筑师爱德华?斯通在1960年设计的。Its crown jewel is the Donald M. Kendall Sculpture Gardens, named after a former chief executive, which has works by artists such as Alexander Calder, Henry Moore and Auguste Rodin.百事总部最吸引人的景观就是以其前总经理Donald M. Kendall名字命名,由Alexander Calder、Henry Moore 和Auguste Rodin三位艺术家共同建造的雕塑花园。Mr Kendall reportedly intended the garden to reflect his vision for the company by creating an atmosphere of “stability, creativity and experimentation”.据报道称,Kendall是想要这用花园能展现他对公司的构想,即“稳定,创新和实验性”。Two years ago PepsiCo began a 243m upgrade of the complex to make space for more staff and “create a more collaborative and innovative work environment”.两年前,为了给更多的员工创造空间,并“建立一个更利于协作与创新的工作环境”,的百事公司斥资2.43亿美元,开始对其总部的建筑群进行升级。Trian, run by Nelson Peltz, a veteran activist investor, thinks shareholders would be better served by selling it and shedding many of its 1,100 workers, as part of a broader cost-cutting and productivity-boosting strategy that would see PepsiCo split in two.由资深活跃投资人纳尔逊佩尔茨运作的特里安基金则认为,百事应该把总部卖掉,并将其中的1100名员工裁掉大半,以此作为消减成本和提升生产力计划的一部分,百事内部对此产生了分歧。The raiders of the 1980s, who made fortunes by seizing and shaping up flabby conglomerates, were supposed to have put an end to corporate extravagance and administrative bloat.上世纪八十年代的那些恶意收购者通过给臃肿的企业集团瘦身攫取了大量利益,人们本以为企业铺张浪费的习气和管理人员过剩的问题已经在那时被终结了。But PepsiCo is not alone in now being accused of these.可是,像百事这样因这类问题被诟病的公司不在少数。A recent report by Sanford C. Bernstein, a research firm, reckoned that Coca-Cola, which is spending 100m on upgrading its home in Atlanta, has overheads that are 30% of sales, almost as high as PepsiCos 32%.调研公司Sanford C. Bernstein最近的一份报告指出,可口可乐公司正花费1亿美元升级其在亚特兰大的总部,可口可乐公司的经常性开占其营业额的30%,百事的则为32%。Activist investors such as Trian, which also has its guns trained on DuPont, a chemicals firm, may find inspiration in other examples highlighted by Bernstein.像特里安这样的活跃投资者又把矛头指向了化学公司DuPont,后者可能是受到了Bernstein强调的那些反面教材的启发。Procter amp; Gambles overheads ratio is far higher than that of its consumer-goods archrival, Unilever; so is Estee Lauders compared with that of LOreal, another big cosmetics firm.日用消费品公司Procter amp; Gambles的经常性开比率比其主要竞争对手Unilever要高出一大截;化妆品行业大公司Estee Lauder同LOreal也形成了这样鲜明的对比。It is hard to think of many big companies that could not benefit from taking a fresh look at their overheads.如果那些大公司能重新审视自己的费用开,一定可以获益良多。One, perhaps, is Mars, a family-run confectioner with a tiny, frugal HQ in suburban Virginia.玛氏食品公司就是一个很好的例子,这个家族企业在弗吉尼亚州郊外的总部简朴而精致。Another is Berkshire Hathaway.伯克希尔哈撒韦公司也是个很好的例子。In this years letter to shareholders, sent last month, the conglomerates boss, Warren Buffett, broke a long-standing “no pictures” policy to show off his head-office team, just 24 strong.上个月,这个大集团的的老板巴菲特在今年给股东的信中打破了其长期以来的“无照片”的传统,展示了他仅由24名精英组成的总公司团队。Mr Buffetts last big acquisition, of Heinz, was made in partnership with 3G, a Brazilian private-equity firm whose boss, Jorge Paulo Lemann, has a passion for cost-saving.巴菲特上一笔大宗收购,就是与巴西的私募股权公司3G资本合伙收购亨氏食品。3G的老板Jorge Paulo Lemann很热衷于消减成本。Heinz had aly undergone a round of cuts under pressure from Mr Peltz.虽然亨氏之前就已经在Peltz的督促下进行了一轮开消减。But 3G found plenty more to trim, as it applied its “zero-based budgeting” approach, in which all spending must be justified from first principles each year.但3G认为还有很多地方需要消减,才能达到它的“零基准预算”标准,即每一项开都要以实现公司的年度目标为目的。Swathes of managerial jobs were axed, as was the companys “aviation department”, which ran its corporate planes.亨氏大片的管理层职位被砍掉,其中包括管理企业飞机的“航空部”。Mr Buffett is impressed: hitherto he has mostly bought well-run firms that he could largely leave alone, but now he wants to do more deals like the Heinz one.巴菲特对此印象深刻,想来只会收购那些自我运行良好,不需要他再多加关注的企业,但现在,他想多做几次像亨氏这样的收购。Of course there are many reasons, other than differing levels of bloat, why businesses vary greatly in which functions are performed centrally, and in how many people and other resources are needed at head office.除了不同程度的人员过剩之外,当然还有其他原因,造成了各企业在职能的重心取向方面和总部需要的人力物力多寡方面千差万别。But there is evidence that companies have piled on the pounds in recent years.然而,的确有据近年来企业有增重的趋势。A study by Sven Kunisch, a management professor at the University of St Gallen in Switzerland, and others looked at the head offices of 761 big companies in Europe and America between 2007 and 2010.瑞士圣加伦大学的管理学教授Sven Kunisch及其同事以2007至2010年全球761个大型企业的总部为对象进行了一项研究。By the end of the period, a quarter of them had more than 600 staff at HQ, whereas another quarter had fewer than 63.截至年底,四分之一的公司拥有超过600名员工,而另一个季度已经不到63人。Two-thirds of the firms said they had made significant changes during the period, generally strengthening centralised control over their divisions.三分之二的公司表示他们已经取得了重大变化,普遍加强中央集权控制他们所存在的分歧。Some 44% of the firms had increased the headcount at HQ, whereas only 28% trimmed.截至2010年,其中四分之一的企业都加强了对其分部的控制,约44%的企业都增加其总部的人数,而只有28%进行了消减。Of the 21 countries in which the head offices were located, only ones based in Denmark and Greece reduced staff numbers on average.在此研究涉及到的21个国家中,只有位于丹麦和希腊两国的企业总部的平均员工人数减少了。All this at a time, in the wake of the financial crisis, when companies were striving to protect their profit margins by cutting jobs elsewhere in the workforce.而这也是由于金融危机的影响,企业为了保其利润率,只得裁员以减少工资出。All aboard the mother ship登上母舰What might explain the return of head-office bloat?是什么原因再次造成了企业总部的膨胀呢?The crusade for leaner, more focused companies, which began in the 1980s, ran out of steam after the turn of the century.上世纪美国刮起了一场主要集中于企业的精简运动,从80年代一直持续到世纪末。And three other issues moved up bosses agendas, each seemingly justifying extra staff at HQ: globalisation meant that the mother ship had more far-flung operations to oversee; new digital technology made it easier, in theory, to centralise control and oversight; and, starting with Americas Sarbanes-Oxley act in 2002, deregulation gave way to a growing regulatory burden, bringing with it a bigger head-office compliance operation.三个原因使得这一运动开始转向,每个原因似乎都为企业增加总部的多余人员提供了合理性:全球化意味着企业总部需要监管更多的海外业务;数字技术理论上也为企业实施集中控制和监督提供了便利;另外,美国在2002颁布的萨宾法案也加重了企业监管负担,企业为了进行合规操作,不得不扩大总部。Various events, from the September 11th 2001 terror attacks to the financial crisis, may have made bosses view the world as an increasingly complicated and uncertain place.从2001年的911事件到后来的的金融危机,各种意外事件已经让企业家们觉得这个世界正变得越来越复杂多变。It would not be surprising if many of them responded in the same way as Jeffrey Immelt, the boss of GE: in his latest annual letter to shareholders, he confessed that “We attempted to manage volatility through layers and reviewers.所以某些人的表现得像通用电气的的老板伊梅尔特一样其实并不奇怪:在最近的一封给股东的年度致股东信中,他进行了自我反省:“我们曾期望用层层审查来控制不确定性。Like many companies we were guilty of countering complexity with complexity...more inspectors, multiple reviewers.”像很多公司一样,用复杂的系统来解决复杂的问题,我们对此感到很内疚…更多的监管人员,更多的审查者。”The result was a “higher cost structure, an artificial sense of risk management, and we were insulating our people from the heat of the market.” Mr Immelt has now decided to reverse course.这样的结果就是“高成本的结构,一种风险得到控制的错觉,而且还把我们的员工同市场隔离起来。”GE has launched a new simplification strategy, with a goal of cutting overheads to 12% of sales from 16%, including a 45% reduction in the cost of the corporate headquarters, by 2016.伊梅尔特现在决定转变方向。通用已经开启了一个新的精简计划,目标是在2016年之前把开从占营业额16%减到12%,其中包括把企业总部的开消减45%。Other bosses would be wise to do the same, or expect to have Mr Peltz and his fellow activists on their case.其他的企业老板最好也去效仿伊梅尔特,不然只好等着成为佩尔茨等的一众活跃投资人的靶子了。 /201403/282100西安市第一医院胃溃疡幽门螺杆菌反流性胃炎 糜烂性胃炎 Smartphones in China中国的智能手机市场Taking a bite out of Apple分苹果一杯羹Xiaomi, often described as China’s answer to Apple, is actually quite different有中国的苹果之称的小米实际上跟苹果很不一样。Sep 14th 2013 | BEIJING |From the print editionIT FEELS more like a rock concert than a press conference as the casually dressed chief executive takes to a darkened stage to unveil his firm’s sleek new smartphone to an adoring crowd. Yet this was not the launch of the new iPhone by Apple on September 10th, but of the Mi-3 handset by Xiaomi, a Chinese firm, in Beijing on September 5th. With its emphasis on snazzy design, glitzy launches and the cult-like fervour it inspires in its users, no wonder Xiaomi is often compared to its giant American rival, both by admirers and by critics who call it a copycat. Xiaomi’s boss, Lei Jun (pictured), even wears jeans and a black shirt, Steve Jobs-style. Is Xiaomi really China’s answer to Apple?小米的发布会比起新闻发布会更像是一场摇滚音乐会。打扮随意的首席执行官登上深色的舞台向粉丝们揭开其公司最新的时尚智能手机。然而,这不是9月10日苹果的新iPhone发布会,而食中国公司小米9月5日在北京举行的小米3发布会。凭借其时尚的设计,炫目的发布会和用户被激发出的疯狂的热情,小米难免经常被崇拜者和批评者同美国的竞争对手苹果作比较,批评家称其产品为山寨货。小米的老板,雷军(如图),甚至穿着类似乔布斯风格的牛仔裤和黑色短袖。小米真的是中国的苹果吗?Xiaomi sold 7.2m handsets last year, in China, Hong Kong and Taiwan, earning revenues of 12.6 billion yuan (.1 billion). Apple sold 125m smartphones globally, earning about billion of its 7 billion sales. But since it was founded in 2010, Xiaomi has grown fast. A recent funding round valued it at billion, more than Microsoft just paid for Nokia’s handset unit. That made Xiaomi one of the 15 most heavily venture-backed mobile start-ups ever, says Rajeev Chand of Rutberg, an investment bank. In the second quarter of 2013 Xiaomi’s market share in China was 5%, says Canalys, a research firm—more than Apple’s (4.8%) for the first time.去年小米在中国大陆,香港和台湾一共售出了7200万台手机,收入达126亿人民币(约合21亿美元)。苹果在全球卖出了1.25亿台手机,销售额为1570亿美元,收入达到800亿美元。但是由于小米始建于2010年,小米的增长速度极快。最近的一轮融资,小米估值达100亿美元,超过微软刚刚买下的诺基亚手机部门。投资Rutberg的Rajeev Chand表示这使得小米成为全球目前为止最值钱的15个手机公司之一。Yet “we have never compared ourselves to Apple—we are more like Amazon,” says Lin Bin, Xiaomi’s co-founder, who once worked for the Chinese arms of Microsoft and Google. Apple sells its iPhone 5 for around 0 in China and has the industry’s highest margins. Xiaomi offers its handsets at or near cost: the Mi-3, its new flagship, costs 2,000 yuan (0). Xiaomi sells direct to customers online, rather than via network operators or retail stores, which also keeps prices down. Crucially, its business depends on selling services to its users, just as Amazon provides its Kindle ers at low prices and makes its money on the sale of e-books. The idea is to make a profit from customers as they use the handset, rather than from the sale of the hardware, says Mr Lin.然而,曾在微软和谷歌工作过的小米联合创始人林斌表示,我们从没有跟苹果对比,我们更像是亚马逊。苹果的iPhone5在中国的售价约为860美元,是行业中利润率最高的手机。小米提供的手机接近成本,新旗舰米3售价为2000元(330美元)。小米通过线上商店直接卖给消费者,而不是通过网络运营商或零售商店,这也压低了价格。最重要的是,它的业务依赖于将务卖给用户,就像亚马逊提供低价的kindle阅读器,通过卖电子书赚钱。林先生表示,这个想法是通过用户对手机的使用赚取利润,而不是通过硬件销售。Xiaomi’s services revenues were 20m yuan in August, up from 10m yuan in April. It is a classic internet business model: build an audience then monetise it later, as Google and Facebook did, notes Mr Lin. Selling games, custom wallpapers and virtual gifts may not sound very lucrative, but China’s internet giants have found a huge market for virtual goods: the biggest, Tencent, sold billion-worth of them last year.小米8月份的务收入为2000万,从四月的1000万增长至此。林先生指出,这是一种典型的互联网商业模式:吸引听众然后套现,谷歌和facebook也是这么做的。售卖游戏,自定义壁纸和虚拟礼品听起来没那么利润丰厚,但是中国的互联网巨头们找到了虚拟物品的巨大市场:最大的腾讯去年卖出了50亿美元的虚拟物品。Another big difference is their openness to user feedback. Apple takes an almost Stalinist approach to its handsets, limiting user customisation in favour of a “we know best” design philosophy. Xiaomi is more guided by its users, releasing a new version of its MIUI software (based on Google’s Android operating system) every week in response to their suggestions. In some cases Xiaomi asks users to vote via weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter, on whether particular features should be included or how they should work—a form of democracy its American rival would never countenance.另外一个很大的不同是他们对待消费者反馈的态度。苹果对自己的手机采取的几乎是斯大林式的方法,限制用户定制,用一种我们知道什么是最好的设计哲学。小米更以用户为导向,每周发行一个新版本的MIUI软件(基于谷歌的安卓操作系统)响应用户的建议。有些时候,小米会通过微投票征求用户的建议,这是其美国对手绝对不会赞同的民主工作形式。Apple’s launch this week of the iPhone 5C, a colourful, slightly cheaper version of the iPhone aimed at consumers in China and other developing countries, marks a shift in its strategy as it faces competition from Xiaomi and many other Chinese firms. Apple’s handsets have sold well in developed countries, but those markets are maturing. Global sales of smartphones are growing by 50% a year, notes Canalys, but by 108% a year in China, which now accounts for over one-third of global sales.这周苹果发布了iPhone 5c,一款色版稍便宜的iPhone,这款设备旨在吸引中国和其他发展中国家的消费者,标志着在诸如小米和其他中国公司的竞争下战略的转变。苹果的手机在发达国家非常畅销,但是这些市场相对成熟。Canalys指出,全球智能手机销量每年增长50%,但是在中国增速为108%,占据全球三分之一的销量。For the first time, Apple held an official launch event in Beijing this week, indicating its growing interest in this market. Yet there was widesp surprise at the high price of the 5C, which will cost 3 in China, limiting its appeal among less wealthy buyers. A rumoured deal with China Mobile to distribute the iPhone 5C and subsidise its cost has so far failed to materialise. (Apple also unveiled the iPhone 5S, its new high-end smartphone, which features a fingerprint er for improved security.)本周苹果首次在北京举办了官方发布会,表明其在中国市场的兴趣与日俱增。但是外界对5c的价格普遍感到惊讶,在中国售价高达733美元,限制了其对不太富裕买家的吸引力。传言与中国移动的交易销售iPhone 5c以及补贴方案至今都没有实现。(苹果也发布了iPhone 5s,最新的高端机型,具备指纹识别器,提高了安全性。)Xiaomi the money小米的资金As Apple looks to tap the rapid growth of the Chinese market, Xiaomi is heading the other way. It recently hired Hugo Barra, a Google executive responsible for product development for Android, to develop new products for international markets.随着苹果开始注意挖掘中国市场的快速增长,小米选择了另一条路。最近小米聘请了谷歌安卓产品开发主管Hugo Barra为国际市场开发新产品。Yet Xiaomi and other Chinese firms sell so many games, apps and add-ons in large part because the Chinese government requires handsets to run a neutered version of the Android operating system, without Google’s app store, mail service, maps and other features. That helps Xiaomi sell its own replacement services, an advantage it will lose once it steps outside China. How scared should Apple be, really, of a rival that has yet to prove that its business model will work at home, let alone abroad?然而,小米和其他中国公司销售如此多的游戏,应用和插件很大程度上是因为中国政府要求手机运行一个阉割版的安卓操作系统,不包括谷歌的应用程序商店,邮件务,地图和其他功能。这有助于小米销售期自己的替代务,而这在国际市场上会失去优势。小米的商业模式在国内尚未称得上成功,更不用说在国外了,苹果应该为此感到害怕吗? /201309/257023陕西胃出血最佳治疗方法

汉中市中医院看胃肠胃痛胃病运城妇幼保健院消化病地址查询 Science and technology科学技术Low-cost radar低成本雷达A programme worth watching值得一看的节目How air-traffic control can use television signals to plot aircraft空中交通管制局如何利用电视信号找出飞行器位置?A NOVEL radar will soon be helping to keep an eye on aircraft flying over London.很快,一种新式雷达将帮忙监视伦敦上空的飞机。Conventional radar uses a rotating antenna to sweep the sky, sending out radio pulses and detecting those which are reflected back from aircraft.传统雷达使用旋转天线扫视上空,不断发出射电脉冲并探测被飞行器反射回来的部分。The experimental system that will begin operation in June does not send out any signals of its own,而将于6月份启动的实验系统并不会自己发出任何信号,but instead relies on a network of receivers to pick up television programmes.而是依靠一个接受电视信号的接收器网络。It is hard to imagine British TV staples like Cash in the Attic, Downton Abbey and endless repeats of Top Gear being used to detect aircraft.很难想象像《家中藏宝》、《唐顿庄园》、《疯狂汽车秀》等这类英国的主打电视节目被用来侦查飞行器。But that, in effect, is what will be happening.但事实就将会如此。By measuring the slight differences between the original broadcast signal and the signals reflected from aircraft flying in the vicinity, it is possible to plot the position of aircraft on a screen, just as is done with conventional radar.通过测量原广播信号和附近飞行器反射信号间的细微差别,有可能在屏幕上标绘出飞行器的位置,这和传统雷达的工作原理一样。The difference is that a system that relies on signals aly in the air can be simpler, cheaper and use a lot less power.两者的区别是,利用空中已有信号的操作系统可以更简便、更便宜,还能省不少电。The London trial is being run by Thales UK, an engineering group, Roke Manor Research, an RD consultancy, and NATS, which manages Britains air-traffic control.伦敦实验系统的运行由工程组泰利斯英国公司、研发咨询公司曼乐研究公司和英国国家空运局负责,It is backed by the British governments Technology Strategy Board.并得到了英国政府技术战略委员会的持。The group call their system multi-static primary surveillance radar.工程组把自己的系统称为多基站主监视雷达,It is a form of passive radar, which goes back a long time.属于存在已久的被动雷达中的一种。Although it had been known since the late 19th century that radio waves can be reflected by objects, it was not until the years leading up to the second world war that a number of countries began secretly developing ways to detect aircraft.虽然19末世纪时人们就已经知道物体能够反射无线电波,但直到二战前几年才有一些国家开始秘密研究侦查飞机的方法。Many of the early tests relied on ordinary broadcasts to provide the signals.这些早期的测试当中有很多都靠普通的无线电波来提供信号。In an experiment in 1935 a Handley Page Heyford bomber flew between a receiving station and a B transmission tower to see how well it could be detected.在1935年的一场实验当中,一个名为亨得利·佩奇·海福德飞行员驾驶轰炸机从B发射塔和一个接收站之间飞过,从而找出飞机能在多大程度上被侦查出来。Well enough, it seems, because the Air Ministry immediately ordered a full demonstration system.看来当时的效果还不错,因为航空部马上下达命令要求进行全套演示。Blip, blip雷达界的新老交替In 1940 the US Navy coined the term radar to describe radio detection and ranging.1940年,美国海军创造出雷达一词,用以描述无线电探测和测距。Modern radar is highly sophisticated but it largely relies on emitting a signal.现代雷达极其复杂,但主要还是靠自己发出信号。By measuring the time taken for the reflected signal to return it is possible to work out the position of an aircraft.通过测量被反射信号返回雷达所需的时间,就有可能计算出飞行器的位置。A slight shift in the frequency, because of the Doppler effect, means its speed and direction can be measured too.由于多普勒效应,返回信号的频率有微小变化,这就意味着飞行器的速度和飞行方向也可以被测量出来。Passive radar can take similar measurements and is aly used in limited ways, mostly by the armed forces.被动雷达可以进行类似的测量,并且已经得到一些受限应用。Relying on background signals to detect objects has an advantage in stealth operations:在秘密行动中依靠背景信号来侦查物体有这样一个优势:no pulse is sent out to alert anyone to what you are doing, or attract an anti-radar missile.由于没有发出脉冲信号,没人会警觉你在什么,也不会引来反雷达导弹。The growth in radio and television broadcasts—especially with digital and high-definition TV—now provides an enormous amount of high-frequency radio waves which are ideally suitable for passive radar systems.现在无线电和电视广播的增长提供了海量的高频电波,这些非常适合用于被动雷达系统。Moreover, the availability of cheap and powerful computing makes it feasible to analyse the data required to build a system like MSPSR.此外,成本低廉和功能强大的计算机可以分析需要用于建立类似MSPSR系统的数据。Thales and its partners expect to be able to produce results as good as conventional radar.泰利斯工程组和合伙人们期待MSPSR的表现能和传统雷达一样好。The trials are designed to see how passive radar could support Britains air-traffic management.实验项目的目的在于找出被动雷达能够如何帮助管理英国的空中交通。It could help small airports that lack radar or fill gaps in areas where coverage is currently patchy.它有助于那些缺乏雷达的小型机场,或者弥补那些雷达覆盖不完整地区的缺陷,MSPSR might also reduce the interference caused in some places by wind turbines.MSPSR还能减少一些地方由涡轮机造成的干扰,And because it is a networked system it could be more reliable than the present set-up, which typically depends on using just one radar at each airport.它是一个呈网络覆盖的系统,比目前的系统更可靠。The aviation industry is cautious about adopting new technologies wholesale, so there is a long way to go before conventional radar is turned off in favour of passive systems.航空业在大规模采用新技术方面很是谨慎,因此传统雷达完全让位于被动雷达还尚有时日。But governments may be tempted to think about doing so, for reasons that go beyond passive radars lower operating costs.但政府或许会对此动心,原因不只是被动雷达的成本更加低廉:With growing demand for wireless devices, passive radar would allow the radio spectrum currently used by conventional radar to be freed up and auctioned off to mobile operators.随着无线设备的需求不断增加,被动雷达能够将目前用于传统雷达的无线电频谱解放出来,然后再拍卖给移动运营商。One difficulty is that passive radar relies on a third party for its signals.被动雷达的一个难题在于它要依靠第三方提供的信号。The continued availability of transmissions is considered to be part of Britains critical national infrastructure, says John Smith, the project leader for Thales.泰利斯工程组的项目带头人约翰?史密斯说,广播电视业被认为是英国关键的国家基础设施。Nevertheless, he adds, the study will look at how agreements can be made with broadcasters to ensure reliability and performance, and how to deal with routine maintenance when TV transmission towers are turned off.不过他补充道,研究将着眼于如何跟广播公司达成协议,以及如何在电视信号发射中断时进行例行维护。Air-traffic controllers and pilots would not take kindly to being confronted with the equivalent of a TV test card.空中交通管制员和飞行员可不会乐意接受电视测试卡的等价物。 /201309/257858西安市中医院胃病胃肠网上预约咨询

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