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明星资讯腾讯娱乐2019年07月23日 14:05:52
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Five years ago, when I became dean of Nottingham University Business School, the inclination among many of my students to view me as a dinosaur was not only painfully manifest, but entirely understandable. After all, the vast majority of undergraduates are in their late teens, whereas I am, well, comfortably past that particular milestone.5年前,当我出任诺丁汉商学院(Nottingham University Business School)的院长时,很多学生都明明白白地倾向于把我视为老古董,这让我很郁闷,但我也完全可以理解。毕竟,绝大部分的大学生都还踩着青春期的尾巴,而我,好吧,已毫无疑问度过了这一时期。What is much more obvious to me now, as I hand over the reins to my successor, is the speed at which we all risk becoming “out of date”. Each of us might continue to contribute very effectively, yet the truth is that most of us soon find ourselves, to some extent, removed from the cutting edge of technology and development.如今,当我把院长的重任交给我的继任者时,在我看来明显得多的是,我们所有人加速面临“过时”的风险。我们每个人或许非常高效地继续做着贡献,但事实是,我们中大多数人很快发现,自己或多或少地脱离了科技和发展的前沿。As someone whose research has long focused on innovation and creative problem-solving, I consider this one of the most perturbing issues I encountered during my deanship. I also believe it is one that deans have a duty to address. It is a concern pertinent to business schools everywhere, because it is illustrative of a worrying acceleration in the uncertainty of students’ future requirements.作为长期专注于研究创新和创造性解决问题的人,我认为这是我担任院长期间遇到的最令人焦虑的问题之一。我认为这也是院长们有义务解决的问题。这与世界各地的商学院息息相关,因为它表明未来对学生要求的不确定性也在令人担忧地加速增长。I had responsibility for around 2,000 students in the UK, as well as oversight of another 3,200 within the business schools at the University of Nottingham’s campuses in China and Malaysia. Steering the curriculum so that it would best meet their needs in terms of content and delivery was among the most important elements of my remit.我曾对英国大约2000名学生负有责任,还对诺丁汉大学中国和马来西亚校区商学院里的另外3200名学生负有监督义务。从整体上把握课程设置,使之可以最好地满足学生在教学内容和教学效果方面的需求,是我工作职责中极为重要的一部分。As I increasingly came to appreciate, this is no easy task for any dean. A major hurdle – and I know from attending conferences that the successes and shortcomings with which I became familiar are shared by deans the world over – is the disconnect between one’s own experiences and the environment that students are preparing to face.正如我在工作中逐渐领会的,这对任何一位院长来说都非易事。主要的障碍是院长的个人阅历与学生将要面对的环境脱节,而通过参加各种会议,我了解到,我在工作中逐渐熟悉的种种成功和不足,也是世界各地的商学院院长们都会遇到的。This detachment exists even where the rise to deanship, unlike my own, has been meteoric. The pace of transformation is nowadays so rapid, so relentless, that the struggle to remain genuinely relevant to the “real world” is constant. Even many students may find that by their mid-twenties they are slightly distanced from the new actualities confronting teenagers. Dinosaurs are getting younger.即便一位院长很快就升到了这一位置(不像我是花了很长时间),这种脱节也会存在。如今的转型步伐如此之快、如此之残酷,以至于真正与“真实世界”保持联系成为一场持久战。甚至很多学生也可能发现,到25岁左右,他们已经与青少年面对的新现实稍有脱节。老古董越来越年轻了。How do business schools guard against this threat? Needless to say, complacency is not an option. A dean’s most significant contribution to the cause may well be to demonstrate that a truly meaningful culture of change, adaptation and improvement – as opposed to mere rhetoric – must start at the top and be all-encompassing.商学院的守护者如何防范这种威胁?不用说,故步自封肯定是不行的。院长对这份事业最重要的贡献,很可能就是用行动(而不只是言语)明,真正有意义的崇尚改变、适应和改善的文化,必须从领导层做起、把所有人和事都包括进来。Alternative perspectives are vital in this regard. Although, I felt authoritative confidence should be a crucial component of my leadership, I surrounded myself with a close team whose members were sufficiently self-assured and curious to provide me – and each other – with much-needed reality checks.就这点而言,不同的视角至关重要。尽管我当时觉得,作为领导的自信应该是构成我领导力的关键组成部分,但我让一个团队紧密包围在自己身边,团队的成员有充分的自信和好奇心,可以让我——以及我们彼此——提供亟需的现实检验。Similarly, the advice, perceptions and outlooks of those from beyond academia can be of enormous worth. In some ways this is the very essence of creative problem-solving: the acknowledgment that answers lurk everywhere. The chances are that every one of us, even if unwittingly, has dealt with a difficulty by redefining it in more expansive terms, discovering an analogous instance where it has been overcome and tailoring the solution to suit our circumstances. There is much to be said for shifting from the specific to the general and back again.同样,学术界以外人士的建议、看法和设想也可以非常有价值。在某些方面,这就是创造性解决问题的实质所在——承认可能来自任何地方。我们每个人在处理难题时,即便是无意的,也很可能先对它进行更普遍的界定,发现曾经解决过的类似问题,然后据此制定适用于眼下情况的解决方案。从特殊到普遍、再从普遍到特殊,这其中有太多值得大书特书的道理。It is also essential that academics continue to teach. It is not uncommon for senior staff to feel their research eminence somehow absolves them of this commitment, at least as far as undergraduate teaching is concerned. Some have lost confidence in their own abilities; others have forgotten the huge value of such work. The more you isolate yourself from the student population, the likelier you are to be seen as a dinosaur.学校继续授业解惑也是至关重要的。高级教职工感觉,他们在研究上的成功某种程度上使他们免除了这种职责(至少在本科教学方面),这并不罕见。一些人对自己的教学能力失去信心;还有些人忘记了教学工作的巨大价值。你跟学生距离越远,你就越可能被视为老古董。Perhaps above all, though, business schools would do well to remember the power of radical innovation. I have long believed this, even when I was confined to weighing in with supposedly wise words from the safety of the sidelines, and half a decade on a loftier perch has only reinforced my opinion. I have been able to see much more clearly how business schools serve their students and their stakeholders. I can only conclude that the vast potential afforded by radical innovation remains greatly unexplored and underexploited.不过,或许商学院最好牢记根本性创新的力量。长期以来,我一直相信这一点,即便在我还限于只能作为旁观者、安全地提出理应明智的建议时就是如此,而5年来身居高位反而强化了我的观点。我可以更透彻地理解商学院如何务于其学生及其股东。我只能得出一个结论:根本性创新带来的巨大潜能,在很大程度上尚未被发掘和充分利用。The fact is that the university sector as a whole is stuck in a rut of incrementalism. Multidisciplinary collaborations – not the neatly aligned alliances that proliferate today but imaginative unions that might substantially add to our epistemic base and reshape our overall approach – represent a route out of that rut. Business schools too easily overlook how strongly placed they are to take a lead in championing the radical over the risk-averse.事实上,整个大学仍然陷于老一套的渐进主义之中。多学科合作可以带领我们跳出窠臼——并非如今大量出现的那种整齐划一的合作,而是可能从实质上扩充我们的知识基础、并重塑我们整体方法的那种具有想象力的联合。商学院太容易忽视它们有多么好的条件去带头持冒险(而非规避风险)了。Of course, most of us will still become dinosaurs eventually. Such a fate is to some degree inescapable in a world of ceaseless change, irrespective of age, experience and attitude. But accepting the near-inevitable bestowing of personal Jurassic status is one thing; openly inviting mass extinction is quite another.当然,我们多数人最终仍将成为老古董。在不断改变的世界里,无论你的年龄几何、阅历多少和态度怎样,在一定程度上都难逃这样的命运。但是,接受几乎不可避免的老古董封号是一回事,公然地静待被整体淘汰则完全是另一回事。 /201601/420947

Wearing a grey jacket from Alexander McQueen, pale grey cashmere sweater and button-down shirt, his baby birdlike features exaggerated by black-rimmed spectacles, Federico Marchetti meets me in a small parking lot on the shores of Lake Como, Italy. It’s a steely grey day and the clouds hang mistily over the surrounding hills. As he greets me, the scene has a whisper of John le Carré about it — like two operatives meeting to share secrets.在意大利科莫湖(Lake Como)边的一个小停车场内,我见到了费代里科氠尔凯蒂(Federico Marchetti),当时他身着Alexander McQueen牌的灰色夹克、搭配浅灰色羊绒衫和纽扣领衬衫,佩戴的黑框眼镜进一步凸显出他精明的五官。天色阴沉,云雾缭绕着附近的山上。当他问候我时,整个场景有点约翰勒卡雷(John le Carré)的味道——我们俩就像是两名特工在接头交换情报。The truth is rather more prosaic. The 46-year-old tech entrepreneur and founder of Yoox, the vast e-commerce retailer of luxury goods now poised on the brink of a merger with Net-a-Porter, is about to give me a tour of his hood.而事实远没有那么戏剧性。这位46岁的科技企业家、大型奢侈品电子商务零售商Yoox(即将与Net-a-Porter合并)的创始人,正准备带我在他的地盘四处看看。Marchetti settled in Como permanently a year ago, at the insistence of his partner, Kerry Olsen, a writer and journalist, who wanted to raise their daughter, Margherita, three, in a house with a garden. “I moved for her,” he says, explaining the daily commute to his office in Milan. Although Como has no shortage of starry inhabitants — Richard Branson is a few minutes along the lakeside, George Clooney owns a villa — the neighbourhood has, says Marchetti, the same sleepy provincial feel of his childhood home in Ravenna, the Byzantine capital in Italy’s northeast.在其伴侣克丽攠尔森(Kerry Olsen)的坚持下,马尔凯蒂1年前在科莫定居了下来。奥尔森是一名作家兼记者,她希望让他们的女儿——3岁的玛格丽塔(Margherita)在有花园的房子里长大。“我是为了她才搬家的,”他在解释自己为什么每日往返于位于米兰的办公室和这里时说。尽管科莫不乏星光熠熠的居民——理查德布兰森(Richard Branson)的住处就在湖边,距离马尔凯蒂家仅有几分钟的路程,乔治克鲁尼(George Clooney)在这里也有一栋别墅。马尔凯蒂称,这个社区寂静的乡村感就像他童年时在拉文纳(位于意大利东北部,过去曾是拜占庭在意大利的首府)的家一样。Walking towards the restaurant, we pass a palazzo belonging to a Russian billionaire that is being renovated for his daughter, and a dilapidated silk factory. The former mill is Marchetti’s, a two-year building project that will ultimately become the family home. With its industrial windows and factory roof, it is the antithesis of the splendid building next door. “I didn’t want a great ostentatious house,” he says. It will, however, fulfil his lifetime ambition of having a swimming pool: a 20m lap pool in the basement. “I never wanted a Ferrari. But I always wanted a pool.”在去往餐厅的路上,我们路过了一栋属于一位俄罗斯亿万富翁的豪宅(现在他正在为女儿翻修这栋宅子)和一座破败的丝绸厂。该厂现在归马尔凯蒂所有,正在装修(工期两年),最终将成为马尔凯蒂的家。这座有着工厂式窗户和房顶的建筑与隔壁富丽堂皇的豪宅形成鲜明的对比。“我不想要一栋特别浮夸的房子,”他说。然而,这栋房子将会实现他毕生的愿望:拥有一个位于地下室的长20米的小型游泳池。“我从不想要法拉利,但是我一直想要一个游泳池。”As we enter the restaurant, 40 pairs of eyeballs turn towards us. The diners are all local tradesmen, burly men on their lunch break. We were going to sit inside, as rain seems imminent, but the sight of so many young men, eating in silence, is a little overwhelming. “Shall we go back outside?” asks Marchetti, with a sympathetic grin. We take a corner table under a tree in the courtyard. “It has been family-run for over 100 years,” he says of the bar with its tabacchi desk by the till. “It’s our second home and the food is very good. I asked you to come here because I wanted to show you how I live. Rather than bring you to a Milanese super-duper restaurant, the luxury guy is bringing you to a little bar.”当我们走进餐厅时,40双眼睛立刻转向我们。用餐者都是身材健硕的本地人,正在享受午休时光。因为感觉快下雨了,我们本来准备坐到餐厅里面,但是这么多沉默用餐的年轻人盯着我们的目光,让人有点招架不住。“要不我们回外面吧?”马尔凯蒂问道,脸上带着同情的笑容。我们在院子角落一颗树下的桌子旁坐定。“这里是家族经营的,已经开了100多年了,”他说起这个吸烟桌紧挨着收银机的酒吧,“这里是我的第二个家,食物非常赞。我让你来这儿,是因为我想让你看看我是怎么生活的。这个奢侈的家伙没带你去米兰的高级餐厅,而是带你来一个小酒吧。”Today, though, the luxury guy has a sore tummy and is on “a strict diet” of fish and steamed vegetables — “no rice, or potatoes,” he insists, while ordering a shoal of lake fish that will be variously deep-fried, roasted, smoked and smothered in green sauce. I eat some b while Marchetti demonstrates parsimonious restraint; he is, however, persuaded to take a thimble of white wine.不过,这个奢侈的家伙今天肚子痛,而且还正处于“严格节食”中,只能吃鱼和蒸煮的蔬菜。他坚持“不要米饭,不要土豆”,然后点了各种炸、烤、熏、青酱拌的湖鱼。在马尔凯蒂展现自己过于严苛的自制力时,我吃了些面包;而他在我的劝说下抿了几口白葡萄酒。The younger son of a “white-collar” family — his father was a warehouse manager at Fiat and his mother worked at a call-centre (in “e-commerce”, he jokes) — Marchetti launched Yoox in 2000 with next to no experience of the fashion industry but the conviction he could persuade luxury brands to sell him end-of-season stock to sell online, at a time when luxury accounted for “zero per cent” of the e-commerce market.马尔凯蒂来自“白领家庭”,是家里的次子,他父亲是菲亚特(Fiat)一家货仓的经理,母亲在电话呼叫中心(他开玩笑说,也算是“电子商务”)工作。2000年创办Yoox时,他几乎没有任何时尚业从业经验,但却坚信能够说奢侈品牌把季末尾货卖给他、让他在网上销售,而当时奢侈品在电子商务市场上的份额为“0%”。Since then, Yoox has grown into a multinational “lifestyle” company with revenues of 524m and a net profit of ㄠ3.8m last year. It entered the US in 2003, Japan in 2004 and, in 2006, signed a deal with Marni to provide tech support and a website for the Italian fashion house. Yoox now powers the web infrastructure for 38 luxury brands (“mono brands”), including Armani, Valentino and those owned by the Kering group. In 2009 the company was listed on the Milan stock exchange. And on March 31 this year, Marchetti announced plans for a merger with Net-a-Porter, the luxury fashion site founded, also in 2000, by Natalie Massenet.从那时起,Yoox逐渐发展为一家跨国“时尚”公司,去年收入达到5.24亿欧元、净利润1380万欧元。2003年进入美国,2004年进入日本,2006年与意大利时尚品牌玛尼(Marni)签订协议,为后者提供技术持并建一家网站。Yoox如今为38家奢侈品牌打理它们的在线商店(“单一品牌专卖”),其中包括阿玛尼(Armani)、华伦天奴(Valentino)以及开云集团(Kering)旗下的几个品牌。2009年,该公司在米兰交所挂牌。今年3月31日,马尔凯蒂宣布了与Net-a-Porter的合并计划,后者是纳塔莉氠斯内(Natalie Massenet)于2000年创办的奢侈品时尚网站。In September, Marchetti will become chief executive of the newly created Yoox Net-a-Porter Group (Massenet will be executive chairman) and will oversee the operations of the world’s largest online luxury retailer. When the merger was announced, the implied valuation for the combined group was 3.4bn, with annual sales of ㄠ.3bn, shipping to 180 countries worldwide, and with a combined total of 24m unique users.今年9月,马尔凯蒂将成为新成立的Yoox Net-a-Porter集团的首席执行官(马斯内将担任执行董事长),负责这家全球最大的奢侈品在线零售商的运营。在合并消息宣布时,合并后集团的潜在估值为34亿欧元,年销售额13亿欧元,产品销往180个国家,总共拥有2400万不同用户。Not bad for someone who, even after 15 years in the industry, still describes himself as an outsider. “I’ve always been ambitious,” says Marchetti, as he gently separates some fish from its spine. He attributes his drive to no one. “My parents didn’t encourage me in any way. I wasn’t guided. But I was extremely, extremely, extremely good at school.” Neither was there an inspirational teacher to push him into further education — first economics in Milan, then an MBA from Columbia University. “I did it my own way,” he says. “I’ve been alone most years. I started Yoox by myself.”对于已在时尚行业干了15年却仍然称自己为局外人的他来说,这是个不错的成绩。“我总是野心勃勃,”马尔凯蒂一边剔鱼骨一边说。他并不把自己的进取心归功于任何人。“我父母从没有以任何方式鼓励我这样。也没人引导过我。但是我就是非常、非常擅长念书。”他也不是因为哪个老师的鼓励而继续深造——先是在米兰学习了经济学,之后在哥伦比亚大学(Columbia University)拿到MBA。“我就是按照自己的方式做的,”他称,“大多数时间我都是自己一个人。我也是自己创办了Yoox。”......The merger is another step towards a long-imagined “dream” of Marchetti — the specifics of which he is vague about. “We started talking about a merger in 2009 but it was too early. It hasn’t been done to please investors, or for stock price; it’s a merger based on substance. And the substance is two companies that started at exactly the same time, with exactly the same vision, but which took completely different approaches. We started with end-of-season, they started full price. Then they started end-of-season [with The Outnet], we started full price [with The Corner]. Then we launched the mono brands, because we were strong at the back-end with logistics, and they launched the editorial content, because they were strong at the front end with the marketing. It’s incredible, like sliding doors — like it was almost planned. I don’t think any merger in history has been so perfect on paper. ”两家公司合并是马尔凯蒂向着其长期憧憬的“梦想”迈进的又一步(具体细节他不愿多谈)。“我们2009年便开始讨论合并,但那时还太早。合并并不是为了取悦股东或者推高股价,而是一次基于实际情况的合并。现实就是两家公司几乎同时创办,拥有完全相同的梦想,但是选择的道路却截然不同。我们从季末尾货做起,他们从全价商品做起。之后他们(创立The Outnet)进入季末尾货市场,而我们(创立The Corner)进入全价商品领域。再之后我们推出了单一品牌专卖,原因是我们在后端物流方面很强,而他们推出了编辑内容板块,因为他们在前端营销方面很强。我们就像两扇滑动门一样相互契合,简直不可思议,几乎像是设计好的。我不认为公司合并史上有过如此完美合拍的案例。”Nevertheless, as he quickly points out, this is not a marriage of equals. Marchetti is still a solo operator and he’s very clear that the Yoox Net-a-Porter Group has only one boss. He raises a hand: “And that’s me.”尽管如此,正如他很快指出的那样,这并非一次平等的联姻。马尔凯蒂仍然是唯一的掌门人,他非常清楚地表明Yoox Net-a-Porter集团只有一个老板。他举了举手说:“那就是我。”While their business models have followed opposite but complementary paths, Marchetti and Massenet’s managerial styles might be harder to fuse. At Net-a-Porter, the glamorous, California-born Massenet has built her empire on foundations of sororal cheerleading — lots of positive affirmations, #incrediblewomen and whooping about team achievements. Marchetti, on the other hand, is notable for his relative anonymity. “They don’t like me,” he says of his relationship with his staff. Really? “No, they don’t like me,” he continues. “There is no love.” He stops. “I think they feel inspired. But they don’t need to love me.”尽管两家公司的商业模式选择了截然相反却又相互补充的发展道路,但马尔凯蒂和马斯内的管理风格也许没那么容易调和。在Net-a-Porter,生于加州的魅力女性马斯内以拉拉队为基础建立了她的帝国,这里充满了正面肯定、对女性的歌颂、对团队成绩大张旗鼓的宣扬。而马尔凯蒂是出了名的低调。“他们不喜欢我,”他说起自己和员工的关系时这样说。真的吗?“是的,他们确实不喜欢我,”他接着说,“没有爱,”他顿了一下,“我觉得他们会感觉受到鼓舞。但是他们不需要爱我。”Will there not, then, be a conflict of cultures in the new world order? “We’re different,” says Marchetti. “But it’s not bad. I don’t need love. I need results.”那么,在新公司中不会出现文化冲突吗?“我们截然不同,”马尔凯蒂称,“但是这不是坏事。我不需要员工的爱。我要的是业绩。”On paper, Marchetti’s attitude may seem arrogant but, in person, his gnomic self-analysis is drily amusing: when I suggest our lunchtime rendezvous is an elaborately staged attempt at humility and that no one in the bar knows who the hell he is, he starts laughing. “Today everything low-key. And then when you leave the helicopter arrives with my dinner...”栠攀 jokes.理论上,马尔凯蒂的态度可能看起来很傲慢,但是与他本人接触时,他精辟的自我剖析颇有些冷幽默:当我暗示我们的午餐地点是为了彰显其谦虚的精心安排、且餐厅里没人知道他到底是谁时,他笑了起来。“今天一切都很低调。等你走了以后,直升机会给我送晚餐过来……”他开玩笑说。In fact, his braggadocio sounds more like incredulity: as if he’s still a little mystified by his success. “Starting a company like Yoox in a country like Italy, it’s quite a miracle. It was a cultural innovation: internet, venture capitalist, stock options...It was an American story in Italy, so it was quite brave. But, at the same time, I had huge advantages: the proximity to the designers, speaking the same languages to the brands, understanding their needs.”事实上,他的自夸听起来更像是质疑:仿佛他对自己的成功仍然有点困惑。“在意大利这样的国家创办一家Yoox这样的公司,是个不小的奇迹。这是一种文化革新:互联网、风投资本家、股票期权……这是一个发生在意大利的美国故事,所以这相当勇敢。但是,与此同时,我也拥有巨大的优势:与设计师近在咫尺、与品牌厂家说着同样的语言、理解他们的需求。It was brave, possibly foolhardy, to launch a company selling discounted luxury goods in 2000. At the time, Marchetti was working as a merchant banker — and miserable with it. “I was leaving the office around 8pm and at night writing my business plan. Around Christmas 1999 I said, ‘I think I need to do it.’ I’m 30, I had to take a risk. So I quit my job. And in 40 days I convinced the venture capitalist to give me ㄠ.5m for 33 per cent of my idea,” he says. “And this was Italy, where there were two venture capitalists, not Silicon Valley, where there are hundreds.在2000年创办一家卖打折奢侈品的公司的确很勇敢,可能还有些鲁莽。当时,马尔凯蒂是一名商业的员工——过得很痛苦。“晚上8点左右我才离开公司,夜里还要写商业计划。1999年圣诞节前后,我说,‘我觉得我必需做这件事。’当时我30岁,不得不冒一次险。于是我辞掉工作。在40天内说风投给我150万欧元,来买我这个想法的33%的所有权,”他称,“这发生在当时只有两个风投资本家的意大利,而不是在如今有着数百名风投资本家的硅谷(Silicon Valley)。”“I took a big risk, and the risk was essential. I cannot say I love risks. I’m not a cowboy. I suffer, internally. But it’s a fine line between luck and risk and I’ve been very lucky. We started in the same month as Net-a-Porter, in June 2000. Boo.com [the LVMH-backed e-commerce site] collapsed in May 2000, and then luxury collapsed. Had I [tried to get] the investment a month later, I would have got nothing.”“我冒了很大风险,而这种风险是有必要的。我不能说自己喜欢冒险。我并非莽撞之人。我内心很受煎熬。但是,幸运和风险仅有一线之隔,而我非常幸运。Yoox和Net-a-Porter在同一个月创办,都创办于2000年6月。Boo.com(路威酩轩集团(LVMH)出资的电商网站)于2000年5月关停,随后奢侈品业也垮了。如果我再晚一个月去争取投资,我可能筹不到一分钱。”He may not be a cowboy but there must have been a certain swagger about the 30-year-old nobody. “I didn’t even have a website,” he says. “And I was not the son of any one. I was just selling the dream of an online service. And I was very good at selling the dream. Because I believed in that dream.”他也许不是莽撞之人,但是当时那个30岁的无名小卒身上必然带着某种狂妄。“我连个网站都没有,”他说,“我也没有爹可以拼。我当时只是在推销自己关于在线务的梦想。我很擅长推销梦想。因为我相信自己的梦想。”Marchetti made fashion his focus because it was a native luxury, because he had the home advantage and because there was no competition. “You cannot be great at everything,” he argues, when I suggest the big fashion brands have been rather cowardly about e-commerce. “You need to be a specialist. The internet is a different set of skills. Unless, like Burberry, you have a leader and designer that is an internet native and it’s part of the strategy.”马尔凯蒂把重心放在时尚方面,因为它是天然的奢侈品,还因为他有本土优势,而且还没有竞争。当我表示大型时尚品牌一直对电子商务相当畏惧的时候,他反驳道,“你不可能什么事都精通。你需要成为一个专家。互联网是一套不同的技能。除非像巴宝莉(Burberry)一样,你有一个出生于互联网时代的领导者兼设计师,并且互联网是你战略的一部分。”Marchetti’s specialism is in logistics and, to that end, his greatest asset is a warehouse in Bologna. A 102,000 sq m distribution centre through which 8,000 orders are processed every day, it is the mother ship for the group’s operations. It is here that every one of the 5.5m items currently stocked are unpacked, checked for damage, photographed, tagged, stored and repackaged on their passage to a final destination. A marvel of technology, it is patrolled by robots that pick out items from container-loads of goods while 55 studios capture between 9,000 and 15,000 images every day. It’s also a very human enterprise; human hands unpack the incoming product, dress the mannequins and pack the merchandise away when it is sold: they might also wrap them in tissue paper or tie them with a ribbon depending on the particulars of the mono-brand packaging. “It’s an amazing operation,” says Marchetti. “You wouldn’t expect so much perfection from an Italian company — about 0.001 per cent of mistakes. Why? Because we cannot send Armani.com a Saint Laurent product. We need it to be right, otherwise it’s a loss of credibility.”马尔凯蒂的特长在于物流,在这方面,他最宝贵的资产就是位于洛尼亚的仓库。这个面积达10.2万平米的配送中心,每天处理的订单数达到8000个,是该集团运营的大后方。就在这里,550万件现有库存商品逐一被拆包、检查、拍照、打上标签、存放好、然后在发给最终顾客前重新包装好。这是科技的奇迹,机器人将商品从成集装箱的货物中拣出,55间摄影室每天拍摄9000-15000张照片。这也是一家非常需要人力劳动的企业;入库商品拆包、给模特穿上装、商品售出时打包好发走,靠的都是人工;有些商品还需要人工用薄纸包好或是用丝带打结(取决于不同的个别品牌的具体包装要求)。“这是一项神奇的业务,”马尔凯蒂称,“你想不到一家意大利公司能如此完美——错误率约为0.001%。为什么呢?因为我们不会给Armani.com送一件圣罗兰(Saint Laurent)的商品。我们需要它准确,否则我们会失去信誉。”Neither does the stock hang around. “We have a huge inventory in our logistics, so it’s a huge commitment,” he says. “Boo.com collapsed because of the inventory.” So what do you do? Discount it to death? “Yes,” says Marchetti. “And everything goes.”他们也不会让库存停留太久。“我们物流中的库存量很大,因此这是巨大的投入,”他称,“Boo.com就是因为库存积压严重倒闭的。”那你怎么办?打折到卖出去?“是的,”马尔凯蒂说,“所有东西都会清掉。”His other great advantage is a vast bank of data. With nearly 15 years and millions of transactions to pick over, he has become a font of retail information and it’s a joy to quiz him about the world’s shopping habits. Who are the serial returners? “The Germans,” he says. “They’re the worst.” And the least likely to shop during office hours? “The Japanese are the most ethical guys. They only ever shop after midnight. They don’t sleep.” (The Brits tend to shop late afternoon and evening and, though he won’t speak ill of his countrymen, it’s pretty clear from his facial expression that Italians like to do it at their desks.) The Spanish prefer red while the Italians love purple. Men are more loyal to brands and 65 per cent of transactions are undertaken by women, except in China, where the reverse is true.他另外一个巨大的优势是拥有海量数据库。坐拥近15年、数百万笔交易的信息,他成了零售业信息的百科全书。考他世界各地的购物习惯是件很有趣的事。哪国人最爱退货?“德国人,”他称,“他们最爱退货。”哪国人最不可能在上班时间购物?“日本人是最有职业道德的。他们只在半夜购物。他们压根不睡觉。”(英国人往往在傍晚和夜里购物,尽管他不想说同胞的坏话,但从他的面部表情上可以清楚看出,意大利人喜欢在办公室网购。)西班牙人对红色青睐有加,而意大利人最爱紫色。男性的品牌忠诚度更高,而65%的交易是女性完成的,不过中国是个例外,那里的情况是相反的。It’s a game I could play all day. “It’s a sociological dream,” he agrees. It’s also valuable. For example: “We found out that when women buy shoes, in two-thirds of cases they only buy shoes, they don’t mix the cart with anything else. It’s a very focused category. Which means that, after analysing 8m orders with shoes, we launched a website for shoes only [shoescribe.com], because we knew what women want. The power of information is huge.”这个小游戏我能玩上一整天。“这是社会学梦寐以求的信息,”他也赞同。这些信息也很有价值。比如:“我们发现,当女性买鞋时,2/3的情况下她们只买鞋,她们不会在购物车里加入其它商品。这是一个非常专注的种类。这意味着,在对800万个鞋履订单进行分析后,我们推出了一个只卖鞋的网站(shoescribe.com),因为我们知道女性购物者想要什么。信息的力量太大了。”If I were a luxury CEO, I would insist Marchetti be at every meeting. But, he says, luxury has been fairly reluctant to harness the power of his data. “Historically, it’s an industry that drops down from creativity to the customer — data have not been so essential. But I do my bit and I’m sure that they will come.”如果我是一个奢侈品CEO,我会坚持让马尔凯蒂参加所有会议。但是,他说,奢侈品牌一直挺不愿意利用其数据的力量。“从历史角度来说,这是个从创意沦落到迎合消费者的行业——数据一直没那么重要。但是我会做好分内之事,我敢肯定他们会来找我的。”Perhaps it’s just as well. If all we were being offered were things based on web sales, our wardrobes would probably be directed by housewives in Texas. Besides, while Marchetti knows what sells, he still doesn’t know why.也许这也是公平的。如果市面上售卖的所有装都是基于互联网销售情况决定的,那么我们的衣柜很可能会由德克萨斯州的主妇说了算。此外,尽管马尔凯蒂知道哪些商品卖得好,但他仍然不知道这是为什么。“There’s a very common risk with data that you can become lost in it. At Yoox we still use a good part of commercial instinct for the buy. It’s a mix. Using data is a piece of information but that doesn’t necessarily mean that we are led by it. It’s the sociological point of view that I’m missing. Why do women buy only shoes when they buy online? I don’t know. I just know that they do.”“运用数据有一个非常普遍的危险,那就是你可能会迷失其中。在Yoox,我们仍然很大程度上利用商业直觉决定进哪些货。两者要结合起来。利用数据是获得一种信息,但是未必意味着我会被它左右。我不知道的是社会学上的观点。为什么女人在网上购物时只买鞋?我不知道。我只知道她们就是这样。”In a commercial world dominated by chatter about Applebot and Silicon Valley evangelists, Marchetti is an exception. He’s not especially tech-obsessed: he couldn’t care less about the Apple Watch, and he’s less dogmatic about the omnipotence of the tech age than one might assume. He doesn’t believe, for example, that the internet will kill print media, nor the fashion show. “I’m a hybrid type of guy,” he says. “I’m not a fanatic who thinks the world will only go online, or that there will be no more fashion shows, or e-commerce will be 100 per cent of sales...I really think the fashion shows are a very efficient way to make business.”在这个由关于Applebot(苹果(Apple)的网络爬虫——译者注)的议论和硅谷(Silicon Valley)狂热者主导的商业世界里,马尔凯蒂是个异类。他并不是特别沉迷于科技:他一点都不关注Apple Watch,对科技时代的无所不能也没有人们所认为的那样武断。例如,他不相信互联网会干掉纸媒和时装秀。“我是那种比较兼容并包的人,”他称,“我不是那种认为整个世界只会日益转移到线上的狂热者,也不认为不会再有时装秀或者销售将100%通过电子商务完成……我真的认为时装秀是一种非常有效的做生意的方式。We walk together up the hill towards his temporary home until the mill is complete. It’s an unassuming house, albeit one with a tower in the garden and extra houses for two housekeepers. Otherwise, it’s full of the normal jumble of a family home. Nothing fancy. Neither is his new boat, an old wooden knockabout called La Dolce Vita he picked up because he thought it would be nice “to bring my ladies out”. He suddenly looks a bit doleful. “The next three years won’t be la dolce vita, that’s for sure,” he says suddenly, as he considers the implications of his “perfect merger”.我们一起向山上走向他在工厂改装完成前的临时住所。这是一栋朴实无华的房子,尽管花园里有一座高塔,还有额外的房子给两名管家住,不过除此之外就像普通人家的房子一样,一点儿都不浮夸。他新买的船也很朴实,是一艘名为“甜蜜生活”(La Dolce Vita)的旧木船,他买它的理由是觉得用它“载着我的美女们出航”会很美妙。突然间他看起来有点沮丧,“接下来的3年不会是甜蜜的生活,这是可以肯定的。”说话间他在琢磨“完美合并”带来的影响。In spite of this, he’s very happy. “I’m a bit Calvinist, I think, in a country that is very Catholic,” he explains. “Even when I took the company public I was distant. I just came home and ate a bowl of minestrone. No champagne. No holiday. Nothing. I think it’s a problem — I always then think what’s next? I’m never satisfied. But when I did the merger I was very, very, happy.”尽管如此,他还是很开心。“我觉得,在一个天主教影响很大的国家,我有点像个加尔文教徒,”他解释说,“即使是在我的公司上市的时候,我也是很淡然的。我只是回家吃了一碗意大利蔬菜浓汤。没有开香槟。没有去度假。什么都没有。我觉得我有这毛病——总是会想接下来怎么办?永不满足。但是当我完成合并时,我非常非常开心。”No minestrone then? “No, no,” he laughs. “No minestrone that night...”那天晚上没吃意大利蔬菜浓汤吗?“没有,没有,”他笑道,“那天晚上没吃……” /201509/400247

“We’re steeped in Viking history, with all its fantastic stories, and if you have a story you can sell more,” said Patricia Retson, Highland Park’s brand heritage manager, after we had toured the distillery’s dankly atmospheric cellar and sleek tasting room. “But we’re also trying to make a real connection, and if it’s going to work, it has to be authentic.” To that end, the distillery’s Loki gets its mischievousness from an aroma that is all sweet apples, but turns to smoke and wood on the palate. Its Leif Erikssonis aged in 100 percent American oak barrels.“我们是浸透着维京历史的,有许许多多幻异故事,有了故事,东西就更好卖,”高原骑士品牌传承经理帕特莉西亚·雷特逊(Patricia Retson)说,她刚刚带着我们参观了阴冷潮湿的酒窖和装潢精美的品酒厅。“但是我们也在努力建立一种真正的联系,这种联系要想发挥作用,必须得纯正才行。”为此,酒厂出品的Loki(洛基)用甜苹果的芳香构成了一种调皮的气质,但尝起来却是烟熏和木味。而它的Leif Erikssonis(莱夫·埃里克松)是在百分之百的美国橡木桶里陈放的。Yet in downtown Kirkwall, where the Romanesque cathedral, built of sandstone, houses the relics of St. Magnus Erlendsson, the Norse-descended Earl of Orkney who was martyred after an unsuccessful battle with a rival chieftain in the early 12th century, and where miniature Viking ships still cap the post office lintel, Donna Heddle had no doubt the connection went considerably deeper than mere marketing.与此同时,在柯克沃尔市中心那座砂岩建造的罗马式大教堂里,存放着诺尔斯世袭的奥克尼伯爵圣·马格努斯·厄林德孙(St. Magnus Erlendsson)的遗物,他在12世纪初被一个敌对的高地领主击败,后被册封为圣人,在这里的邮局门楣上,至今还有维京人的船只造型。在唐娜·黑德尔(Donna Heddle)看来,跟维京的关联绝对不只是市场营销那么肤浅。As the director of the Center for Nordic Studies, Dr. Heddle sees evidence of Norseness almost everywhere: in the Orkney dialect that puts its prepositions at the end of sentences; in a concept of social justice that emphasizes egalitarianism and spurns status or rank; in the fact, she said, that 66 percent of Orcadians’ DNA is Norwegian. And just as the Nordic presence helps explain the separate sense of identity that Scots feel from the English, so too does it explain the separate identity that Orcadians feel from mainland Scots. “Vikings are very sexy now,” she said. “But for us it’s more than that. You can see it in our knitting patterns and our sailing skills and in the can-do attitude. This is a living legacy.”作为北欧研究中心(Center for Nordic Studies)主任,黑德尔士能在每个角落找到诺尔斯文化的痕迹:将介词放在句子最后的奥克尼方言;强调平等主义、摒弃尊卑或等级的社会正义观念;还有,她说奥克尼人有66%的挪威人基因。北欧特征让苏格兰人对英格兰产生了身份认同上的隔阂,同样也让奥克尼人跟苏格兰大陆有了距离感。“维京人现在很时兴,”她说。“但对我们来说不是那么简单。在我们的编织图案、我们的航海技巧、我们的进取心里都能看到。这是一份鲜活的遗产。”Living, but also dead. After Kirkwall, we drove across windswept hills and muddy farmlands, before arriving at Orphir and the archaeological remains of Earl’s Bu. According to the medieval Orkneyinga saga, the nearly 1,000-year-old site was home not only to a round church built by Magnus’s murderous cousin Hakon, but also to a grand drinking hall, or bu. Like most Viking drinking halls, it was the scene of quite a lot of violence (proximity to a church came in handy; the brawlers could slip next door to repent of their drunken behavior, and, consciences cleansed, get back to guzzling mead). Maybe it was the film in the modest visitor center that recounted how one drunken slight had unleashed a massacre at the hall, or perhaps we had watched too much of “Game of Thrones,” but as David and I walked about the lonely ruins of the stone church (a third of its curved walls still standing), I suddenly found myself charging him with an imaginary battle ax. After a brief but virtual bloody fight, we collapsed on the grass in giggles.鲜活的,但同时也是死的。离开柯克沃尔,我们驶过呼啸的山间和泥泞的田野,来到奥弗尔以及“伯爵酒廊”(Earl#39;s Bu)考古遗址。据中世纪的《奥克尼伯爵萨迦》(Orkneyinga saga)记载,这个有将近一千年历史的遗址,不仅包括马格努斯的那个残暴的堂兄弟哈孔(Hakon)所建的一座圆形教堂,还有一座宏伟的酒廊,也就是bu。和大多数维京酒廊一样,这里发生过不少暴力事件(离教堂这么近还是有好处的;斗殴者可以溜到隔壁去忏悔他们的酒后行为,涤净灵魂后,回去继续痛饮蜂蜜酒)。可能是因为我们在简朴的游客中心看了一部电影,讲到一句酒后的恶语导致一场酒廊大屠杀的事,或者就是我们看了太多的《权力的游戏》,总之当戴维和我来到一片萧瑟的石头教堂废墟(它的弧形墙壁尚存三分之一)时,我突然提起一把空想的战斧朝他冲了过去。经过一场短暂但按设想应该相当血腥的打斗,我们咯咯笑着瘫倒在草地上。All that Viking history will do that to you. There are similar archaeological sites all over Orkney, so we had plenty of opportunities to perfect our re-enactment skills. At Maeshowe, a grass-covered mound that encases a Neolithic tomb marked up with 12th-century Norse Runes, the sheep that stood between us and the burial chamber fell to our raiding swords. At the Brough of Birsay, accessible only by foot during the few hours when the tides recede, we sweated in the chamber marked the Viking sauna. But there was no fantasy involved at the nearby Barony Mill, where Brian Johnston, the miller, grinds bere, a landrace barley, with a flavor more pronounced than wheat. “Many people think the Vikings brought it here,” Mr. Johnston said as he showed us around the 19th-century mill, which is powered by a water wheel. “And the only other place it grows is in Norway.”这么多的维京历史是会有这种影响的。奥克尼到处都是类似的考古遗址,所以我们有的是机会完善我们的历史重现演技。在绿草遍野的梅肖韦(Maeshowe)地下有一座用12世纪的卢恩文字标出的新石器时代古墓,夹在我们和墓穴之间的那只羊,成为我们两个劫匪的刀下鬼。在只有趁着每天退潮那几个小时步行前往的赛镇(Brough of Birsay),我们在一个标着维京桑拿浴场的洞穴里出了点汗。然而附近的男爵磨坊(Barony Mill)是个没什么幻想的地方,磨坊主布莱恩·约翰斯顿(Brian Johnston)在那里磨bere,一种味道比小麦还要鲜明的地方品种大麦。“很多人认为它是维京人带来的,”带我们参观这座19世纪水车磨坊的约翰斯顿说。“除了这里之外,只有挪威能种这种麦子。”There would be more culinary connections on the Shetland Islands. We landed early in the morning on the main island after an overnight ferry. Waiting for a cafe to open, we prowled the industrial-looking buildings and still-closed sweater shops in Lerwick, the capital and Shetland’s only real town. Once suitably caffeinated, we returned to Jurgen and headed south. Shetland is almost entirely treeless, with a terrain that veers mainly between the barren and the bleak, but is adorably dotted with the tiny ponies that take their name from the place. Rocky soil and near constant wind explain why the local diet is almost entirely lacking in fresh fruit and vegetables. But even that lack can only partly explain the peculiar dish known as reestit mutton.烹饪上的联系,在设得兰群岛上体现得更为明显。经过彻夜的轮渡,我们一大早在主岛登陆。在设得兰的首府、也是唯一的正经城镇勒维克,我们趁着等待一家小餐馆开门的当口,在工业味十足的建筑和还没开门的毛衣店之间闲逛了一会。在摄入适量咖啡因后,我们立刻跟于尔根会合,向南进发。设得兰是个几乎没有树的地方,整个地貌不是贫瘠就是荒凉,但期间点缀着几匹可爱的小马,那是当地特有的设得兰矮种马。多石的土壤和几乎永远不停的风解释了当地的饮食特征——基本上不存在新鲜水果和蔬菜。但即使这种匮乏也不足以完全解释为什么会有“房椽羊肉”(reestit)这么奇怪的菜。“No, you wouldn’t expect to find this in a restaurant,” said Marian Armitage, the author of “Shetland Food and Cooking,” as she sawed off a few rocklike chunks of a fossilized slab of meat in her kitchen, where we had come to learn about the local cuisine. “Unless they were trying to do something quirky.” Through the windows of her enclosed porch, I could just make out the ruined walls of Jarlshof, another Norse settlement, in the distance. Ms. Armitage fried a bit of the mutton in a pan, and explained the process for making it: Raw meat was salted in brine, then hung from the rafters of the house, preferably over a peat fire, so that the smoke seasoned the meat. I put a bite in my mouth: Quirky was definitely one word for it. The mutton was fatty, salty and tasted, well, rotten. “Just what you want,” David said, “after a long day at sea.”“这东西在餐馆里吃不到的,”《设得兰食物与烹饪》(Shetland Food and Cooking)作者玛丽安·阿尔米塔奇(Marian Armitage)一边跟我说,一边在一块化石般的肉上切下几个硬梆梆的肉块,我们到她的厨房来是要学做当地的美食。“除非他们是有了什么离奇的想法。”从她家的包窗门廊往外看,隐约能看到远处的一些断壁残垣,那是雅尔邵夫(Jarlshof),另一座诺尔斯殖民地。阿尔米塔奇把一些羊肉放到锅里煎,并跟我们介绍这种肉的制作工艺:生肉放在海水里腌一下,然后挂在屋内的木椽上,最好下面用泥煤烧火,这样可以给肉加入烟熏味。我吃了一口:说离奇绝对是合适的。肉味肥肥的,很咸,像是……呃……腐烂的味道。“嗯,在海上辛苦了一整天,”戴维说。“回来当然就想吃这个。”Still, I was thrilled to eat it. A couple of years earlier, I had tried something similar in the Faroe Islands, an archipelago in the North Atlantic Ocean, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, where they make raest, which is raw mutton hung to air-dry in open huts for months, without the benefit of smoke or salt. Surely, I asked Armitage, raest and reestit were versions of the same dish, and evidence of a Nordic connection? “Ah no,” she said. “For that you’d be wanting vivda.” It turns out that Shetlanders once ate the exact same preparation — and called it by the Norse word for leg meat— until salt became more widesp in the islands.然而我还是很激动的。几年前在法罗群岛——北大西洋上一个大约在挪威和冰岛中间的地方,我试过一种类似的东西,那里的人会做半干风肉(raest),就是把生羊肉挂在通风的小屋里,在没有烟熏或盐渍的情况下风干几个月。于是我就问阿尔米塔奇,半干肉和房椽肉肯定是同一道菜的两个版本,并且是一种北欧亲缘的据?“不对,”她说。“你说的这个应该是vivda。”原来设得兰人曾经也有完全相同的一种做法——只是用了诺尔斯语“腿肉”一词来称呼它——后来盐在岛上普及起来以后,就不这么吃了。After lunch, we turned around (“Snu rundt,” Jurgen said) and headed back north. We passed helpful signs that translated the islands’ Old Norse geographic names into English (“Tingwall, Field of the Parliament”) and stopped, incongruously enough, at a fjord-side food truck for pulled pork sandwiches. It required two more ferries, but we finally arrived in Unst, the northernmost of the Shetland Islands, and hence, the northernmost in Scotland.午饭后,我们调头(“Snu rundt,”于尔根说)向北行驶。一路上有一些很有帮助的路牌,把岛上那些古诺尔斯语地名翻译成了英语(“Tingwall,议会之地”),最后我们很不合时宜地在峡湾边的一辆小吃车前停了下来,吃了个手撕猪肉三明治。接着我们又乘了两趟轮渡,终于来到设得兰群岛最北端、也就是苏格兰最北端的安斯特岛(Unst)。Unst has a higher density of rural Viking sites than any place else in the world, including Scandinavia, with 60 longhouses on a 46-square-mile island. For our first stop, at Hamar, we skirted some curious sheep and a watchful bull to walk among the low, grass-carpeted walls of one (David was saved from another re-enacted vanquishing only because the preponderance of dung at our feet made things especially messy.) From what would have been the front door, I gazed down the length of the shimmering fjord, before I looked down to find the fragments of a broken beer bottle. The idea that local teenagers might use this ancient home as a hangout for drinking, flirting and communing with their Viking past pleased me.安斯特的维京乡村遗址是全世界——包括斯堪的纳维亚——最密集的,在这个46平方英里的岛上有60座长屋(longhouse)。上岛后的第一站是哈马尔(Hamar),我们绕过一群好奇的羊和一头警惕的公牛,沿着其中一座长屋留下的矮墙走了走,墙上长满了情操(这次戴维躲过了一场被敌人征的历史戏,因为脚下到处是粪便,打起来会很难看。)站在应该是房屋正门的地方,我俯瞰着波光粼粼的峡湾,然后低头,看到一堆啤酒瓶碎片。想到本地的孩子也许把这座古老的宅邸当成了饮酒聊天、调情、和自己的维京过去联络的场所,我感到很欣喜。But at the Skidbladner, a reconstructed Viking ship up the road, the volunteer who showed visitors around had a much more prosaic explanation for how past and present came together: economic necessity. Clad in a woolen dress fastened with brooches that approximated what a Viking woman would have worn once she was back on dry land, the volunteer divided her time between welcoming visitors to the site and doing a bit of nalebinding, a Nordic form of needlework that predates knitting. As she showed us around the Skidbladner, a full-size replica of a ship found in a Norwegian Viking burial mound in the 19th century, she told us about the Royal Air Force base that once formed the basis of Unst’s economy. “But they shut that down some years back, and that left a terrible hole,” she said. “Viking tourism is meant to fill it.”但是在斯基德普拉特尼(Skidbladner)——路边的一艘复刻版维京船,一位志愿导游对往昔与当下的交汇持有一个更乏味的解释:经济所需。志愿者身穿一件羊毛裙,上面扣着饰针,这大概就是回到陆地上的维京女人的打扮,她一边招呼着访客,一边手上还干着针织活,这种北欧式的单针环织是比棒针环织更古老的技艺。她带我们参观了斯基德普拉特尼,这是一艘19世纪在一座挪威维京墓穴中发现的船的全尺寸复制品,她说安斯特的经济基础曾经是皇家空军基地。“但是几年前他们关闭了基地,这就留下了一个可怕的窟窿,”她说。“维京旅游就是打算用来填补它的。”We were back to the same question, with little of Scottish territory left. Luckily, just as we neared Shetland’s northern edge, we spied Valhalla. It looked more like a warehouse than the Norse god Odin’s grand hall for fallen warriors, but that may have been because on Unst at least, Valhalla is a craft brewery. The name wasn’t the founder Sonny Priest’s idea. “The Viking thing has been done to death, so I was dead against it,” he said, but more prescient minds on the regional council prevailed. These days, Mr. Priest sells his Old Scatness (named after a Shetland Viking settlement) and Simmer Din (from the Shetland phrase for summer’s long twilight) ales as far as Glasgow and Oslo.眼看已经快到苏格兰国土的尽头,我们又回到了最初的问题上。幸运的是,就在我们即将到达设得兰北端时,我们发现了瓦尔哈拉(Valhalla)。它看上去更像个仓库,而不是诺尔斯神奥丁为阵亡将士准备的灵堂,不过那可能是因为,至少在安斯特,瓦尔哈拉是一家精酿酒厂。这个名字不是创始人桑尼·普利斯特(Sonny Priest)想出来的。“维京那一套已经被用滥了,所以我是很反对的,”他说,但他输给了地区委员会里的一些比他更有远见的人物。如今普利斯特的Old Scatness(因设得兰一处维京殖民地遗址而得名)和Simmer Din(设得兰人用这个短语形容漫长的夏日暮光)牌爱尔啤酒远销至格拉斯哥和奥斯陆。He wasn’t sure what to make of his ancestors’ past. “When I was a kid, the ties to the Norse felt stronger,” he said as he stopped to stick his nose in a bag of hops. “There were all these words we used, and the whalers would take our men because they knew our seafaring skills went back to them. Now sometimes I think it’s just for the tourists. But everybody in Shetland is still proud of their Viking heritage.”他不知道该如何看待自己祖先的历史。“在我小时候,跟诺尔斯文化感觉要更亲近一些,”他话说一半,低头闻了闻一袋啤酒花。“那时候我们在用很多这种词,捕鲸的会来雇我们的人,因为他们知道,我们的航海技巧是祖上传下来的。现在呢,有时候我觉得只是给游客看的。但是维京传统依然是让每一个设得兰人很自豪的东西。”In the end, neither its Viking past nor its imagined Nordic future would be strong enough to sever Scotland from England. But at our final stop, David and I could see why it came close. After hiking through the heather at Saxa Vord, we arrived at the northernmost cliff on Shetland’s most northerly inhabited island. To the east, some 200 miles in the distance, was Norway; to the north, past the rocky outcrop of Muckle Flugga, was the Arctic. We watched the sun set, then got back in the car. “Reisen slutt,” Jurgen said. It was, as he said, journey’s end.到头来,无论是那段维京岁月,还是想象中的北欧未来,都不足以让苏格兰跟英格兰一刀两断。但是在我们的最后一站,戴维和我终于看到,为什么分裂差一点就成功了。在设得兰群岛中最北的一个有人烟的岛上,我们徒步走过萨克撒-沃德(Saxa Vord)的石楠花丛,来到北边的海崖。往东200英里是挪威;往北越过马克尔-弗拉加(Muckle Flugga)就是北极。我们看了日落,回到车中。“Reisen slutt,”于尔根说。没错,这就是此行的尽头。 /201512/414129

  

  In 2015, there was no shortage of moments that made us grin from ear-to-ear.2015年的确有不少让我们笑得合不拢嘴的时刻。We rounded up some of the year#39;s most feel-good stories that#39;ll make you look back fondly on the past 12 months. From a dog who somehow mastered the public transit system, to a mailman who made one young er#39;s dreams come true, these stories were so moving, we just couldn#39;t help but crack a smile.本文摘录了今年最温暖幸福的六个故事,让我们一同怀念这即将过去的一年。从学会乘公交的小萌犬,到帮少年圆读书梦的邮差,每个故事都是如此温情感人,读来让人不禁莞尔。Check them out below.一起来看看吧。When This Little Boy Couldn#39;t Keep It Together After Meeting His Heroes小男孩见到“男神”喜不自禁Some things in life are just too good to handle.生活中幸福有时来得让人措手不及。Quincy Kroner had that exact feeling on March 13 when he met his heroes -- the neighborhood garbage men, Mark Davis and Eddie Washington. The Cincinnati 2-year-old has been fascinated by the garbage truck “since about the age he could walk,” the toddler’s father, Ollie Kroner, told The Huffington Post. But this was the first time he met the garbage men in person, and it was all too much for him -- resulting in the adorably priceless photo above.3月13日,辛辛那提市的2岁小男孩昆西·克罗纳见到偶像时乐坏了。昆西的偶像是住他家隔壁的垃圾工人马克·戴维斯和埃迪·华盛顿。他父亲奥利·克罗纳对赫芬顿邮报记者提及,昆西蹒跚学步时就对垃圾车十分着迷。但这是昆西第一次亲眼见到垃圾工人,可把他高兴坏了,于是拍下了上面这张无比珍贵的可爱照片。When This Mailman Got The Internet To Come Together For A Boy Who Loves To Read邮差脸书助力男孩阅读梦Twelve-year-old Mathew Flores loves to . But until recently, advertisements were the only ing materials available to the boy.12岁的马修·弗洛雷斯喜欢看书,可是一直以来,广告是他唯一能读到的素材。Flores approached his mailman, Ron Lynch, in a Salt Lake City suburb to ask if he could have any junk mail.在盐湖城市郊,弗洛雷斯找到了邮差罗恩·林奇,问邮差能否给他一些垃圾邮件。Instead, Lynch asked his Facebook friends if they could spare some books for Flores.于是,林奇在脸书(Facebook)上号召网友们把闲置的书籍送给弗洛雷斯。People from around the world, including the UK, Australia and India, sent books to Mathew. Lynch told HuffPost hundreds of books have been delivered to the boy#39;s door.包括英国、澳大利亚、印度等国在内的世界各地的人们纷纷寄书给马修。林奇告诉赫芬顿邮报记者说,他已经把好几百本书送到了马修家中。When This Dog Stunned Everyone With Her Bus-Riding Abilities萌犬会乘公交,惊倒众人Seattle#39;s public transit system has had a ruff go of things lately, and that has riders smiling.西雅图市公交车上近期出现了一位“不速之客”, 得了乘客一笑。You see, of the 120 million riders who used the system last year, at least one of them is a dog.要知道,去年乘坐公交车的1.2亿名乘客中,至少有一名“乘客”是只。Seattle#39;s KOMO-TV reports the 2-year-old black Labrador mix, named Eclipse, has become a regular fixture on the city#39;s D-Line after she figured out how to ride the bus alone to the dog park.西雅图KOMO-TV(注:美国广播电视台第四频道)报道称,自从两岁大的黑色混血拉布拉多犬艾克莉普丝懂得如何独自搭公交去公园后,人们就经常能在城市D线公交车上找到她的身影。When This Orphan Kangaroo Stole Hearts Everywhere With His Teddy Bear去哪儿都抱着泰迪熊的袋鼠孤儿俘获了全世界的心We#39;re just as in love with this little kangaroo as he is with his stuffed teddy bear.一看到这只抱着泰迪熊毛绒玩具的小袋鼠,我们就立马爱上了它。Timothy Beshara, who lives in Tasmania, shared a photo on Twitter this past Tuesday of an orphaned eastern grey kangaroo named ;Doodlebug; -- yes, DOODLEBUG! -- clutching his stuffed teddy bear in New South Wales, Australia.住在澳洲塔斯纳尼亚岛上的蒂莫西·贝莎拉今年七月初在推特(Twitter)上分享了一张拍摄于新南威尔士州的照片,照片上一只父母双亡的澳洲东部灰袋鼠正抱着它的泰迪熊玩偶。这只袋鼠名唤“蚁蛉”(注:一部英国悬疑电影名字)。When This Man Tugged At Our Heartstrings With His Train For Rescue Dogs老人的流浪列车拨动人们的心弦Everyone deserves a little fun in life, even stray dogs.每个人的生活都需要一点乐趣,流浪亦是如此。Eugene Bostick, an 80-year-old retiree and his brother decided to take abandoned dogs in, giving them shelter and food. He also wanted to take them on trips outside the farm.八十岁的退休老人尤金·斯蒂克和弟弟决定收留流浪,为它们提供窝和粮,同时,他还计划带它们到农场外边去溜达溜达。So he put together a makeshift train to take the dogs through the streets, to a nearby forest or creek.于是他组装了一辆临时列车,载着这些流浪,穿街越巷,去附近的小树林或小溪边游玩。;Whenever they hear me hooking the tractor up to it, man, they get so excited,; Bostick told The Dodo. ;They all come running and jump in on their own. They#39;re y to go.;斯蒂克对The Dodo(一个网络社交平台)的记者说:“伙计,你知道吗,一听到发动牵引机的声音,它们就变得特别兴奋,奔跑着冲过来,自己跳上车,就准备好出发了。”When This Teen Made All 1,076 Girls At His School Feel Like A Million Bucks少年为全校1076个女生准备惊喜Wanting every girl at his high school to feel loved on Valentine’s Day, one big-hearted Oklahoma teen decided to surprise all of them with cards and candy this year -- a total of 1,076 girls.在美国俄克拉荷马州,一个慷慨善良的少年想要在情人节那天让学校里的所有女生都感受到爱意,于是他决定给所有女生送上卡片和糖果作为惊喜。他们学校总共可有1076个女生!According to KFOR, Dan Williams, a student at Edmond High School in Edmond, Oklahoma, had to work all summer to raise enough money for the surprise gifts. “To know that someone cares about them, that#39;s the best feeling in the world I think,” he told the news outlet.据KFOR新闻报道,在美国俄克拉荷马州艾德蒙市的艾德蒙高中,有位名叫丹#8226;威廉姆斯的学生整个暑假都在打工赚钱,为了给女生准备惊喜。他告诉媒体说:“知道有人在关心自己,这种感觉是最棒的。” /201601/419612。

  

  5.Immunity To A Brain Disease5.对脑疾病拥有免疫力In case we needed another reason to avoid cannibalism, eating our own kind is not a particularly healthy choice. The Fore people of Papua New Guinea showed us as much in the mid–20th century when their tribe suffered through an epidemic of Kuru—a degenerative and fatal brain disease sp by eating other humans.如果我们要给避免同类相食增加一个理由的话,从健康的角度来看,这不是一个好的选择。巴布亚新几内亚; Fore;族人在20世纪中期流行的库鲁病很好地说明了这一点,他们因同类相食,产生了退化性和致命性的脑疾病。Kuru is a prion disease related to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). Like all prion diseases, kuru decimates the brain, filling it with sponge-like holes. The infected suffers through a decline in memory and intellect, personality changes, and seizures. Sometimes, people can live with a prion disease for years, but in the case of kuru, the afflicted usually die within a year of showing symptoms. It#39;s important to note that, although very rare, a person can inherit a prion disease. However, the illness is most commonly sp by eating an infected person or animal.Initially, anthropologists and medical doctors didn#39;t know why kuru was sping across the Fore tribe. Finally, in the late 1950s, it was discovered that the infection was being transmitted at mortuary feasts, where tribe members would consume their deceased relatives out of respect. Mostly women and young children participated in the cannibalistic ritual. Consequently, they were the ones predominantly affected. Before the funerary practice was banned, some Fore villages had virtually no young women remaining.But not all who were exposed to kuru died from it. Survivors had a novel variation in a gene called G127V that made them immune to the brain disease. Now, the gene is widesp among the Fore and surrounding people, which is surprising because kuru only popped up in the area around 1900. This incident is one of the strongest and most recent examples of natural selection in humans.库鲁病是一种与库兹菲德-雅各氏症和疯牛病有关的朊病毒疾病。和所有朊病毒疾病一样,库鲁病杀死大量脑细胞,使其产生空洞、海绵化。患者会记忆衰退,智力下降,性格改变,产生癫痫等。通常,患有朊病毒疾病的人可以继续生活数年,但是患有库鲁病,则一般在产生症状之后一年内便会死亡。需要注意的是(尽管非常罕见),朊病毒能够遗传。不过,绝大多数患者是因为食用了产生感染的人或动物。最初,人类学家和医生们都不知道为什么库鲁病会在Fore族人中大肆传播。直到20世纪50年代末才发现这类疾病是在太平间盛宴时传染的。因为出于对死去亲人的尊敬,Fore族人会将尸体吃掉。妇女、孩子都参加此种仪式,高峰时该病在女性和儿童中的发病率是在男性中的8至9倍。因为该族人吞食已逝亲属的肉以完成后者的;生命循环;时,由男性先选择所食部分,然后再由女性和儿童打扫剩下的包括脑部在内的人肉,而脑部正是致病朊毒体含量较高的部分。在这种食人习俗被禁止之前, Fore族人的一些村庄几乎连一个年轻妇人都没有。并不是所有患此病的人都会死亡,这些存活下来的幸存者们的G127V基因有了新变化,这使得他们对大脑疾病产生了免疫能力。现在,这种基因遍布Fore族和周围的人。这是令人十分惊奇的现象,因为库鲁病是在1900年才开始爆发的。这个例子是自然在人类身上做出选择的最强和最近的例子。4.Golden Blood4.黄金血Although we#39;re often told that type O blood is a universal blood type that anyone can receive, that#39;s not the case. In fact, the whole system is a bit more complicated than many of us realize.我们都知道O型血是所有人都可以接纳的血液,然而这并不是事实。事实上,血液分类的系统比我们所知道的要复杂得多。While most of us are aware of the eight basic blood types (A, AB, B, and O—each of which can be positive or negative), there are currently 35 known blood group systems, with millions of variations in each system. Blood that doesn#39;t fall into the ABO system is considered rare, and those who have such blood may find it challenging to locate a compatible donor when in need of a transfusion.Still, there#39;s rare blood, and then there#39;s really rare blood. Presently, the most unusual kind of blood is known as ;Rh-null.; As its name suggests, it doesn#39;t contain any antigens in the Rh system. It#39;s not that uncommon for a person to lack some Rh antigens. For instance, people who don#39;t have the Rh D antigen have ;negative; blood (e.g. A-, B-, or O-). Still, it#39;s extremely extraordinary for someone to not have a single Rh antigen. It#39;s so extraordinary, in fact, that researchers have only come across 40 or so individuals on the planet who have Rh-null blood.What makes this blood even more interesting is that it totally beats O blood in terms of being a universal donor, since even O-negative blood isn#39;t always compatible with other types of rare negative blood. Rh-null, however, works with nearly any type of blood. This is because, when receiving a transfusion, our bodies will likely reject any blood that contains antigens we don#39;t possess. And since Rh-null blood has zero Rh, A, or B antigens, it can be given to practically everyone. Unfortunately, there are only about nine donors of this blood in the world, so it#39;s only used in extreme situations. Because of its limited supply and enormous value as a potential lifesaver, some doctors have referred to Rh-null as ;golden; blood. In some cases, they#39;ve even tracked down anonymous donors (a big no-no) to request a sample.Those who have the Rh-null type undoubtedly have a bittersweet existence. They know that their blood is literally a lifesaver for others with rare blood, yet if they themselves need blood, their options are limited to the donations of only nine people.我们都非常了解8种基本的血型(A、B、AB、O,每一血型有正负之分),事实是,现在已经发现的血型系统一共有35个,每一个系统又有上百万种变体。不包括在ABO血型系统的血型被认为是稀有血型,稀有血型的人会发现当他们需要输血的时候,要找到一个适配的血型非常困难。在稀有血型之中,还有极其稀有的血型。比如说,Rhnull血型。正如它的名字所显示的,它在Rh血型中不会产生任何的抗原。某人缺少一些Rh抗原并不奇怪,例如,缺少Rh D抗原的人就是负的血型(A-、B-、O-等)。然而,一个完全没有Rh抗原的人是特别难以找到的。研究者们在整个地球上都仅仅发现40个左右的人拥有Rh-null血型。Rhnull血型之所以如此吸引人们好奇心的是:它比O型血适配血型还广,因为O型血和稀有血型中的负血型并不适配,Rhnull血型却几乎能跟所有血型适配。Rhnull血型之所以如此广泛地适配是有原因的。当接收到输入的血液时,人体会自动排斥它原本不具有的抗原。Rhnull血型没有Rh、A、B型抗原,因此它可以被输送给任何人。不幸的是,整个世界上Rhnull血型的献血者只有9个人,他们的血液因此也只有在极端情况下才会用到。由于Rhnull血型血液的广泛适配性以及它可能被作为拯救生命之血的这种极大潜质,它被某些医生称作;黄金血液;。某些时候医生们甚至会跟踪匿名的Rhnull血型献血者以求能采集到一份样本(当然,这是绝对不可以做的事情)。拥有Rhnull血型的人对于他们自己的血液的感受可以说是喜忧参半。一方面,他们知道自己的血对于别人来说可能是救命神血,但另一方面,如果他们自己病了需要输血的话,他们能够指望的也就只有世界上仅存的那九个Rhnull血型的捐献者。3.Crystal-Clear Underwater Vision3.在水下拥有水晶般透明的视力Most animals#39; eyes are designed for seeing things underwater or in air—not both. The human eye, of course, is adept at seeing things in air. When we try to open our eyes underwater, things look blurry. This is because the water has a similar density to the fluids in our eyes, which limits the amount of refracted light that can pass into the eye. Low refraction equals fuzzy vision.很多动物的眼睛是被设计来看清在水底或者空气中的事物的——不能够兼顾。人类的眼睛擅长于看清空气中的东西。当我们身处水下,试着睁开眼睛,我们便会发现,眼前模糊不清。这是因为水的密度与我们眼睛里液体的密度相当,这限制了眼睛折射光线的数量,从而导致视线模糊不清。That knowledge makes it all the more surprising that a group of people, known as the Moken, have the ability to see clearly underwater, even at depths up to 22 meters (75 ft). The Moken spend eight months of the year on boats or stilt houses. They only return to land to get essential items, which they acquire by bartering foods or shells collected from the ocean. They gather resources from the sea using traditional methods, which means no modern fishing poles, masks, or diving gear. Children are responsible for collecting food, such as clams or sea cucumbers, from the sea floor. Through this repetitive and consistent task, their eyes are now capable of changing shape when underwater to increase light refraction. Thus, they can easily distinguish between edible clams and ordinary rocks even when many meters below water.When tested, the Moken children had underwater vision twice as sharp as European children. However, it seems that this is an adaptation that we might all possess if our environment demanded it, since researchers have trained European children to perform underwater tasks as successfully as the Moken.这就使得当我们得知莫肯人能够在水下(甚至是22米深的水下)将事物看得一清二楚时感到吃惊不已。莫肯人一年中有8个月的时间在船上度过。除了获取一些必备生活用品之外,他们很少返岸。他们用传统的方法在海上捕捞。这意味着他们不使用包括钓竿、面具、潜水装置等一切现代工具。孩子们负责从海底收集蛤和海参等食物。这种工作每日不断重复,最终使得他们的眼睛在水下具备了可以改变形状从而增加光反射的能力。因此,他们能够轻易分别出水下的蛤和石块,获取食物。经过试验,莫肯人孩童的水下视力是欧洲孩童的两倍。不过,这似乎是每个人都能够拥有的能力,只要我们改变环境,同样也会产生相应的变化。研究者们训练欧洲孩童向莫肯人孩童一样在水底不停地作业,最终成功地明了这点。2.Super-Dense Bones2.高密度骨骼Getting old comes with a host of physical problems. A common such issue is osteoporosis, a loss of bone mass and density. This leads to inevitable bone fractures, broken hips, and hunched spines—not a pleasant fate for anyone. Still, it#39;s not all bad news, as a group of people have a unique gene that may hold the secret to curing osteoporosis.变老伴随着一系列身体问题。一个常见的问题就是骨质疏松症,骨质流失和空隙增大。这将会导致骨折、髋部损坏、驼背等。不过,也不全然是坏消息,因为有人拥有特殊的基因能够将其治愈。The gene is found in the Afrikaner population, and it causes people to gain bone mass throughout their lives instead of losing it. More specifically, it#39;s a mutation in the SOST gene, which controls a protein (sclerostin) that regulates bone growth. If an Afrikaner inherits two copies of the mutated gene, they develop the disorder sclerosteosis, which leads to severe bone overgrowth, gigantism, facial distortion, deafness, and early death. Obviously, that disorder is far worse than osteoporosis. However, if they only inherit one copy of the gene, they don#39;t get sclerosteosis and simply have especially dense bones throughout their lives.Although heterozygous carriers of the gene are currently the only ones enjoying the benefits, researchers are studying the DNA of Afrikaners with hopes of finding ways to reverse osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders in the general population. Based on what they#39;ve learned so far, they#39;ve aly started clinical studies on a sclerostin inhibitor that#39;s capable of stimulating bone formation.这种基因在阿非利卡人上发现,它使人们在一生中增加骨量而不是失去。确切地说,它是SOST基因变异,这种基因控制着管理骨头增长的蛋白质。如果阿非利卡人遗传了两对突变基因,那么他们会患上障碍性的硬化性骨化病,这会导致严重的骨质增生、巨人症、口眼歪斜、失聪和早逝。很明显,这个障碍远比骨质疏松症要严重。然而,如果他们只是遗传了一对突变基因,那么他们不会患上骨质疏松症且他们在一生中仅有密质骨。虽然目前仅有该基因的杂合子携带者能从中受益,但研究员已经在研究阿非利卡人的DNA,希望能够找到方法来逆转骨质疏松症和普通人群中的其它骨骼疾病。基于他们现在所掌握到的,他们已经开始了关于可促进骨形成的硬化蛋白抑制剂的临床研究。1.Need Little Sleep1.睡眠需求减少If it ever seems like some people have more hours in their day than you do, it turns out they just might—at least more awake hours. That#39;s because there are unusual individuals who can operate on six or fewer hours of shut-eye a night. And they aren#39;t simply getting by—they thrive on this limited amount of sleep, while many of the rest of us are still dragging ourselves out of bed after snoozing for eight solid hours. These people aren#39;t necessarily tougher than the rest of us, and they haven#39;t trained their bodies to function on less sleep. Instead, they have a rare genetic mutation of the gene DEC2, which causes them to physiologically need less sleep than the average person.If normal sleepers were to stick to six or fewer hours of slumber, they#39;d start experiencing negative impacts almost immediately. Chronic sleep deprivation can even lead to health problems, including serious ones like high blood pressure and heart disease. Those with the DEC2 mutation don#39;t have any of the problems associated with sleep deprivation, despite the limited time their heads are on the pillow. While it might seem odd that a single gene could change what we believe is a basic human need, those studying the DEC2 mutation believe it#39;s helping people to sleep more efficiently with more intense REM states. Apparently, when we have better sleep, we need less of it.This genetic anomaly is exceedingly rare and is only found in less than 1 percent of self-proclaimed short-sleepers. So, chances are, even if you think you have it, you probably don#39;t.如果有些人的一天似乎比你的要长,那么他们可能只是有更多醒着的时间。那是因为有一些独特的人,他们一个晚上只需要六个小时甚至更少的睡眠时间。他们仅靠有限的睡眠时间就可以维持一天,然而,我们当中的许多人在睡了整整八个小时后仍然要挣扎着将自己拖出床外。这些人并不是比我们当中的其他人都更顽强,也没有训练自己的身体去适应更少的睡眠,而是拥有罕见的突变基因DEC2,这种基因能使他们在生理上比普通人需要更少的睡眠。如果普通人要坚持只睡六个或少于六个小时,那么他们几乎是立即就会开始体验到负面影响。长期的睡眠不足甚至会导致一些健康问题,包括一些严重的问题诸如高血压、心脏病。虽然那些携带DEC2突变基因的人睡觉时间有限,但是他们并没有因为睡眠缺失而产生任何问题。单基因能够改变我们所相信的一个人基本的需求,尽管这听起来似乎很奇怪,然而研究者认为DEC2帮助人在快速眼动睡眠状况下睡得更有效率。很显然,我们睡得越好,我们就越不需要它。这种基因异常极其稀有,仅仅在不到百分之一的自称短睡眠者身上发现。所以,即使你认为你有这种基因,你可能并没有。翻译:烟囱、徐杉、欧阳远丽、阿饭、孟庆润 来源:前十网 /201510/404360

  The 2015 state science and technology awards honoring the contributions of 295 research projects and seven foreign experts were bestowed at a ceremony in the Great Hall of the People in Beijing on Friday, but the highest award remained vacant.周五,在北京人民大会堂,国家主席习近平颁发了国家科学技术奖,共有295个科研项目和7个国外专家获此殊荣。The state science and technology awards comprise five award categories, of which the Preeminent Science and Technology Award is the highest.国家科学技术奖包括五大类,其中最高奖项是最高科技奖。The top prize has previously been awarded to 25 scientists, including China#39;s ;father of hybrid rice; Yuan Longping, since it was established in 2000. There were one or two winners each year except 2004, the first time there was no recipient.自2000年设立此奖项以来,先后共有25名科学家获得最高科技奖的殊荣,其中包括“杂交水稻之父”袁隆平先生。每年都会有一两名科学家获得最高奖项,然而备受关注的国家最高科学技术奖继2004年之后,再一次出现空缺。;We can only express regret over the vacancy this year,; an unidentified official from the National Office for Science and Technology Awards, which is in charge of collecting nominations and organizing the voting, was ed by People#39;s Daily as saying.“最高奖项空缺,我们只能表示很惋惜。”国家科学技术办公室中负责收集获奖提名和投票的一名行政官员告诉中国日报。The official said that the country#39;s first Nobel laureate in medicine, Tu Youyou, who won the 2015 Nobel Prize for Medicine in October, was not nominated for this year#39;s prize. The nominations, submitted by more than 130 government agencies, research institutes and individual scientists, were made from early November to mid-December 2014.这名行政人员说道,2015年10月份屠呦呦获得诺贝尔医学奖,然而屠呦呦在国家科学技术奖中并没有被提名。国家科学技术奖提名由130个国家机构,科研机构和科学家个人提名。整个提名过程从11月初一直延续到12月中旬。In other award categories, this year saw a trend in which the average age of principal winners of the State Natural Sciences Award was just 47.6.其他科学技术奖项中,今年我们看到了获奖得主年轻化的这一趋势,平均年龄只有47.6岁。 /201601/421233

  

  If you thought wearing a pair of tights is a simple matter, you#39;d be wrong. A male scientist has devised a mathematical formula to help women choose the perfect pair of tights to keep their legs warm this winter.如果你以为穿一件紧身袜是件简单的事,那你就错了。一位男性科学家设计了一条数学公式,用于帮助女性挑选在冬天为双腿保暖的完美紧身袜。Dr James Hind came up with the equation to determine the most suitable fabric thickness depending on the weather conditions.詹姆斯·欣德(James Hind )士想到根据天气状况,用公式来决定最佳紧身袜纤维材料的厚度。The 39-year-old says the secret to deciding what stockings to pop on the morning all depends on wind speed and temperature. The formula then helps calculate what denier, or thickness, to choose to avoid being too hot or cold throughout the day.39岁的欣德士说,决定早上穿什么袜子的秘密,完全由风速和气温决定。这条公式帮助人们计算,应选择哪种旦尼尔或厚度,从而避免一天下来感到太热或太冷。The mathematician designed the equation after he had to wear green stockings when he worked at the Tales of Robin Hood, a former tourist attraction in Nottingham.这位数学家之所以设计这条公式,是因为他在诺丁汉(Nottingham)曾经很能吸引游人的罗宾逊纪念馆(the Tales of Robin Hood)上班时,不得不穿绿色长袜。He said: #39;I worked in tights day in and day out for a year and I know the value of properly warm tights on a cold day. I worked there 15 years ago in 1997. My 110 denier thick tights saved my life in the winter. I made those tights my basis for the formula because they should see anybody through cold and windy weather, and then when it#39;s lovely and sunny, the denier recommendation reduces.#39;他说:“我每天穿着长裤袜工作已经一年了,因此我知道寒冷天气里,一双刚好够暖的裤袜的重要性。15年前,即1997年,我就在那里工作了。我的110旦尼尔(纤维强度标准,越高表示越结实)厚裤袜,在寒冬里救了我的命。我用我袜子的旦尼尔数作为方程的基数,因为那就够帮任何人度过寒冷且大风的天气了。当天气暖和明媚,建议的旦尼尔数就会减少。”The mathematician claims the complex-looking formula will work across the UK as it takes into consideration local weather conditions.欣德士称,这条看起来很复杂的公式在全英国范围内都有效,因为它考虑了当地的天气状况。His formula builds the temperature (t) and wind speed (w) into a forecast to calculate the thickness of tights most appropriate. The equation uses the sigmoid curve to create a scale to determine the denier or density of fiber needed (d).他的方程将气温(t)和风速(w)构建成一个预测模型,用以计算最合适的裤袜厚度。等式使用函数曲线创造一个模型,来决定裤袜所需的丹尼尔数或纤维密度(d)。It can be altered to allow for warmer southerly winds and colder northerly winds by using kilometers per hour for colder winds and miles per hour for warmer ones.可通过调整,较暖的南风以千米每小时作单位,较冷的北风则以英里每小时作单位,来使方程适应不同的天气。Dr Hind, who lives with science lecturer wife Dr Laurice Fretwell, 33, in Beeston, Nottingham, added: #39;I used the Sigmoid formula here. It took a lot of tinkering and tampering for a few hours at a time but I think it#39;s turned out really well.#39;欣德士,和现年33岁作为科学讲师的妻子劳里斯·弗雷特韦尔(Dr Laurice Fretwell),一同居住于诺丁汉的比斯顿(Beeston)。他补充道:“我就在这里使用这个函数公式。我曾花了好几个小时来修改和修正它,但我觉得它最终表现得很好。” /201510/405791。

  5.Immunity To A Brain Disease5.对脑疾病拥有免疫力In case we needed another reason to avoid cannibalism, eating our own kind is not a particularly healthy choice. The Fore people of Papua New Guinea showed us as much in the mid–20th century when their tribe suffered through an epidemic of Kuru—a degenerative and fatal brain disease sp by eating other humans.如果我们要给避免同类相食增加一个理由的话,从健康的角度来看,这不是一个好的选择。巴布亚新几内亚; Fore;族人在20世纪中期流行的库鲁病很好地说明了这一点,他们因同类相食,产生了退化性和致命性的脑疾病。Kuru is a prion disease related to Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease). Like all prion diseases, kuru decimates the brain, filling it with sponge-like holes. The infected suffers through a decline in memory and intellect, personality changes, and seizures. Sometimes, people can live with a prion disease for years, but in the case of kuru, the afflicted usually die within a year of showing symptoms. It#39;s important to note that, although very rare, a person can inherit a prion disease. However, the illness is most commonly sp by eating an infected person or animal.Initially, anthropologists and medical doctors didn#39;t know why kuru was sping across the Fore tribe. Finally, in the late 1950s, it was discovered that the infection was being transmitted at mortuary feasts, where tribe members would consume their deceased relatives out of respect. Mostly women and young children participated in the cannibalistic ritual. Consequently, they were the ones predominantly affected. Before the funerary practice was banned, some Fore villages had virtually no young women remaining.But not all who were exposed to kuru died from it. Survivors had a novel variation in a gene called G127V that made them immune to the brain disease. Now, the gene is widesp among the Fore and surrounding people, which is surprising because kuru only popped up in the area around 1900. This incident is one of the strongest and most recent examples of natural selection in humans.库鲁病是一种与库兹菲德-雅各氏症和疯牛病有关的朊病毒疾病。和所有朊病毒疾病一样,库鲁病杀死大量脑细胞,使其产生空洞、海绵化。患者会记忆衰退,智力下降,性格改变,产生癫痫等。通常,患有朊病毒疾病的人可以继续生活数年,但是患有库鲁病,则一般在产生症状之后一年内便会死亡。需要注意的是(尽管非常罕见),朊病毒能够遗传。不过,绝大多数患者是因为食用了产生感染的人或动物。最初,人类学家和医生们都不知道为什么库鲁病会在Fore族人中大肆传播。直到20世纪50年代末才发现这类疾病是在太平间盛宴时传染的。因为出于对死去亲人的尊敬,Fore族人会将尸体吃掉。妇女、孩子都参加此种仪式,高峰时该病在女性和儿童中的发病率是在男性中的8至9倍。因为该族人吞食已逝亲属的肉以完成后者的;生命循环;时,由男性先选择所食部分,然后再由女性和儿童打扫剩下的包括脑部在内的人肉,而脑部正是致病朊毒体含量较高的部分。在这种食人习俗被禁止之前, Fore族人的一些村庄几乎连一个年轻妇人都没有。并不是所有患此病的人都会死亡,这些存活下来的幸存者们的G127V基因有了新变化,这使得他们对大脑疾病产生了免疫能力。现在,这种基因遍布Fore族和周围的人。这是令人十分惊奇的现象,因为库鲁病是在1900年才开始爆发的。这个例子是自然在人类身上做出选择的最强和最近的例子。4.Golden Blood4.黄金血Although we#39;re often told that type O blood is a universal blood type that anyone can receive, that#39;s not the case. In fact, the whole system is a bit more complicated than many of us realize.我们都知道O型血是所有人都可以接纳的血液,然而这并不是事实。事实上,血液分类的系统比我们所知道的要复杂得多。While most of us are aware of the eight basic blood types (A, AB, B, and O—each of which can be positive or negative), there are currently 35 known blood group systems, with millions of variations in each system. Blood that doesn#39;t fall into the ABO system is considered rare, and those who have such blood may find it challenging to locate a compatible donor when in need of a transfusion.Still, there#39;s rare blood, and then there#39;s really rare blood. Presently, the most unusual kind of blood is known as ;Rh-null.; As its name suggests, it doesn#39;t contain any antigens in the Rh system. It#39;s not that uncommon for a person to lack some Rh antigens. For instance, people who don#39;t have the Rh D antigen have ;negative; blood (e.g. A-, B-, or O-). Still, it#39;s extremely extraordinary for someone to not have a single Rh antigen. It#39;s so extraordinary, in fact, that researchers have only come across 40 or so individuals on the planet who have Rh-null blood.What makes this blood even more interesting is that it totally beats O blood in terms of being a universal donor, since even O-negative blood isn#39;t always compatible with other types of rare negative blood. Rh-null, however, works with nearly any type of blood. This is because, when receiving a transfusion, our bodies will likely reject any blood that contains antigens we don#39;t possess. And since Rh-null blood has zero Rh, A, or B antigens, it can be given to practically everyone. Unfortunately, there are only about nine donors of this blood in the world, so it#39;s only used in extreme situations. Because of its limited supply and enormous value as a potential lifesaver, some doctors have referred to Rh-null as ;golden; blood. In some cases, they#39;ve even tracked down anonymous donors (a big no-no) to request a sample.Those who have the Rh-null type undoubtedly have a bittersweet existence. They know that their blood is literally a lifesaver for others with rare blood, yet if they themselves need blood, their options are limited to the donations of only nine people.我们都非常了解8种基本的血型(A、B、AB、O,每一血型有正负之分),事实是,现在已经发现的血型系统一共有35个,每一个系统又有上百万种变体。不包括在ABO血型系统的血型被认为是稀有血型,稀有血型的人会发现当他们需要输血的时候,要找到一个适配的血型非常困难。在稀有血型之中,还有极其稀有的血型。比如说,Rhnull血型。正如它的名字所显示的,它在Rh血型中不会产生任何的抗原。某人缺少一些Rh抗原并不奇怪,例如,缺少Rh D抗原的人就是负的血型(A-、B-、O-等)。然而,一个完全没有Rh抗原的人是特别难以找到的。研究者们在整个地球上都仅仅发现40个左右的人拥有Rh-null血型。Rhnull血型之所以如此吸引人们好奇心的是:它比O型血适配血型还广,因为O型血和稀有血型中的负血型并不适配,Rhnull血型却几乎能跟所有血型适配。Rhnull血型之所以如此广泛地适配是有原因的。当接收到输入的血液时,人体会自动排斥它原本不具有的抗原。Rhnull血型没有Rh、A、B型抗原,因此它可以被输送给任何人。不幸的是,整个世界上Rhnull血型的献血者只有9个人,他们的血液因此也只有在极端情况下才会用到。由于Rhnull血型血液的广泛适配性以及它可能被作为拯救生命之血的这种极大潜质,它被某些医生称作;黄金血液;。某些时候医生们甚至会跟踪匿名的Rhnull血型献血者以求能采集到一份样本(当然,这是绝对不可以做的事情)。拥有Rhnull血型的人对于他们自己的血液的感受可以说是喜忧参半。一方面,他们知道自己的血对于别人来说可能是救命神血,但另一方面,如果他们自己病了需要输血的话,他们能够指望的也就只有世界上仅存的那九个Rhnull血型的捐献者。3.Crystal-Clear Underwater Vision3.在水下拥有水晶般透明的视力Most animals#39; eyes are designed for seeing things underwater or in air—not both. The human eye, of course, is adept at seeing things in air. When we try to open our eyes underwater, things look blurry. This is because the water has a similar density to the fluids in our eyes, which limits the amount of refracted light that can pass into the eye. Low refraction equals fuzzy vision.很多动物的眼睛是被设计来看清在水底或者空气中的事物的——不能够兼顾。人类的眼睛擅长于看清空气中的东西。当我们身处水下,试着睁开眼睛,我们便会发现,眼前模糊不清。这是因为水的密度与我们眼睛里液体的密度相当,这限制了眼睛折射光线的数量,从而导致视线模糊不清。That knowledge makes it all the more surprising that a group of people, known as the Moken, have the ability to see clearly underwater, even at depths up to 22 meters (75 ft). The Moken spend eight months of the year on boats or stilt houses. They only return to land to get essential items, which they acquire by bartering foods or shells collected from the ocean. They gather resources from the sea using traditional methods, which means no modern fishing poles, masks, or diving gear. Children are responsible for collecting food, such as clams or sea cucumbers, from the sea floor. Through this repetitive and consistent task, their eyes are now capable of changing shape when underwater to increase light refraction. Thus, they can easily distinguish between edible clams and ordinary rocks even when many meters below water.When tested, the Moken children had underwater vision twice as sharp as European children. However, it seems that this is an adaptation that we might all possess if our environment demanded it, since researchers have trained European children to perform underwater tasks as successfully as the Moken.这就使得当我们得知莫肯人能够在水下(甚至是22米深的水下)将事物看得一清二楚时感到吃惊不已。莫肯人一年中有8个月的时间在船上度过。除了获取一些必备生活用品之外,他们很少返岸。他们用传统的方法在海上捕捞。这意味着他们不使用包括钓竿、面具、潜水装置等一切现代工具。孩子们负责从海底收集蛤和海参等食物。这种工作每日不断重复,最终使得他们的眼睛在水下具备了可以改变形状从而增加光反射的能力。因此,他们能够轻易分别出水下的蛤和石块,获取食物。经过试验,莫肯人孩童的水下视力是欧洲孩童的两倍。不过,这似乎是每个人都能够拥有的能力,只要我们改变环境,同样也会产生相应的变化。研究者们训练欧洲孩童向莫肯人孩童一样在水底不停地作业,最终成功地明了这点。2.Super-Dense Bones2.高密度骨骼Getting old comes with a host of physical problems. A common such issue is osteoporosis, a loss of bone mass and density. This leads to inevitable bone fractures, broken hips, and hunched spines—not a pleasant fate for anyone. Still, it#39;s not all bad news, as a group of people have a unique gene that may hold the secret to curing osteoporosis.变老伴随着一系列身体问题。一个常见的问题就是骨质疏松症,骨质流失和空隙增大。这将会导致骨折、髋部损坏、驼背等。不过,也不全然是坏消息,因为有人拥有特殊的基因能够将其治愈。The gene is found in the Afrikaner population, and it causes people to gain bone mass throughout their lives instead of losing it. More specifically, it#39;s a mutation in the SOST gene, which controls a protein (sclerostin) that regulates bone growth. If an Afrikaner inherits two copies of the mutated gene, they develop the disorder sclerosteosis, which leads to severe bone overgrowth, gigantism, facial distortion, deafness, and early death. Obviously, that disorder is far worse than osteoporosis. However, if they only inherit one copy of the gene, they don#39;t get sclerosteosis and simply have especially dense bones throughout their lives.Although heterozygous carriers of the gene are currently the only ones enjoying the benefits, researchers are studying the DNA of Afrikaners with hopes of finding ways to reverse osteoporosis and other skeletal disorders in the general population. Based on what they#39;ve learned so far, they#39;ve aly started clinical studies on a sclerostin inhibitor that#39;s capable of stimulating bone formation.这种基因在阿非利卡人上发现,它使人们在一生中增加骨量而不是失去。确切地说,它是SOST基因变异,这种基因控制着管理骨头增长的蛋白质。如果阿非利卡人遗传了两对突变基因,那么他们会患上障碍性的硬化性骨化病,这会导致严重的骨质增生、巨人症、口眼歪斜、失聪和早逝。很明显,这个障碍远比骨质疏松症要严重。然而,如果他们只是遗传了一对突变基因,那么他们不会患上骨质疏松症且他们在一生中仅有密质骨。虽然目前仅有该基因的杂合子携带者能从中受益,但研究员已经在研究阿非利卡人的DNA,希望能够找到方法来逆转骨质疏松症和普通人群中的其它骨骼疾病。基于他们现在所掌握到的,他们已经开始了关于可促进骨形成的硬化蛋白抑制剂的临床研究。1.Need Little Sleep1.睡眠需求减少If it ever seems like some people have more hours in their day than you do, it turns out they just might—at least more awake hours. That#39;s because there are unusual individuals who can operate on six or fewer hours of shut-eye a night. And they aren#39;t simply getting by—they thrive on this limited amount of sleep, while many of the rest of us are still dragging ourselves out of bed after snoozing for eight solid hours. These people aren#39;t necessarily tougher than the rest of us, and they haven#39;t trained their bodies to function on less sleep. Instead, they have a rare genetic mutation of the gene DEC2, which causes them to physiologically need less sleep than the average person.If normal sleepers were to stick to six or fewer hours of slumber, they#39;d start experiencing negative impacts almost immediately. Chronic sleep deprivation can even lead to health problems, including serious ones like high blood pressure and heart disease. Those with the DEC2 mutation don#39;t have any of the problems associated with sleep deprivation, despite the limited time their heads are on the pillow. While it might seem odd that a single gene could change what we believe is a basic human need, those studying the DEC2 mutation believe it#39;s helping people to sleep more efficiently with more intense REM states. Apparently, when we have better sleep, we need less of it.This genetic anomaly is exceedingly rare and is only found in less than 1 percent of self-proclaimed short-sleepers. So, chances are, even if you think you have it, you probably don#39;t.如果有些人的一天似乎比你的要长,那么他们可能只是有更多醒着的时间。那是因为有一些独特的人,他们一个晚上只需要六个小时甚至更少的睡眠时间。他们仅靠有限的睡眠时间就可以维持一天,然而,我们当中的许多人在睡了整整八个小时后仍然要挣扎着将自己拖出床外。这些人并不是比我们当中的其他人都更顽强,也没有训练自己的身体去适应更少的睡眠,而是拥有罕见的突变基因DEC2,这种基因能使他们在生理上比普通人需要更少的睡眠。如果普通人要坚持只睡六个或少于六个小时,那么他们几乎是立即就会开始体验到负面影响。长期的睡眠不足甚至会导致一些健康问题,包括一些严重的问题诸如高血压、心脏病。虽然那些携带DEC2突变基因的人睡觉时间有限,但是他们并没有因为睡眠缺失而产生任何问题。单基因能够改变我们所相信的一个人基本的需求,尽管这听起来似乎很奇怪,然而研究者认为DEC2帮助人在快速眼动睡眠状况下睡得更有效率。很显然,我们睡得越好,我们就越不需要它。这种基因异常极其稀有,仅仅在不到百分之一的自称短睡眠者身上发现。所以,即使你认为你有这种基因,你可能并没有。翻译:烟囱、徐杉、欧阳远丽、阿饭、孟庆润 来源:前十网 /201510/404360

  A college student selling Chinese pancake in New York has become Internet hit recently. The pancake stall is owned by a Chinese student surnamed Li, who was born in 1990s. She started to run the pancake stall on Oct. 26 this year. Every day she sells nearly 200 pancakes and gets 1,500 US dollars in return.最近,一名中国女大学生在纽约卖煎饼之事在网络走红。煎饼摊主是位姓李的90后女生。她从今年10月26日开始卖煎饼。每天卖出200张煎饼,收入为1500美元。Starting up the business is not an easy thing. Li receives parking tickets every day from New York Traffic Department.做这个生意并非易事,李同学每天都会收到纽约交通部门的违规罚单。;Their truck is lovely and the food is delicious. Veggie pancake is sold at 7 dollars each. And you need to pay 2.5 dollars for an extra sausage or ham,; said Xu, who is a college student of the New York University.纽约大学的许同学表示,“这个煎饼小车很可爱,煎饼也很美味。素煎饼每个7美元,加香肠或者火腿每个加2.5元。”Li was born and raised in Beijing. She went to the ed States for college. She majored in business and minored in art history. After graduation, she did not like working in the office and came up with the idea of starting up her own business.李同学是个土生土长的北京女孩。她去美国留学,主修商科,辅修艺术历史专业。毕业后,她不想闷在办公室,所以萌生了创业的想法。;I am familiar with Chinese pancake because I grew up in Beijing. I barely saw Chinese pancake in New York so I thought it may have market,; Li said.“因为从小在北京长大,我很熟悉中国煎饼。但是我很少在纽约看到煎饼,所以想到煎饼会很有市场,”李同学表示。To guarantee the quality of the food, Li had her own secret recipe of the sauce and made the crisps all by herself.为了保煎饼质量,李同学自己秘制了调味汁,薄脆也是她自己亲手做的。Since the opening of the pancake stall this October, the business has been good. Sometimes people queue over half an hour for the food. She sells 1,500 US dollars a day. The customers are mainly white collar workers and college students, mostly Chinese students.自十月份煎饼摊开业,生意一直很好。有时候人们会排队半个多小时来买煎饼。李同学每天销售达到1500美元。顾客基本是办公室白领或者来自于中国的学生。 /201512/416382

  If anyone can afford to take the long view on investment, it’s surely the British monarch. Queen Elizabeth II on Wednesday passes Queen Victoria as the longest-reigning British head of state, after 63 years on the throne.要说有谁有条件着眼于长线投资的话,那肯定是英国君主了。周三,英国女王伊丽莎白二世(Queen Elizabeth II)超越维多利亚女王(Queen Victoria),成为在位时间最长的英国国家元首,已在位63年。She has seen 13 prime ministers, 12 US presidents and the invention of modern portfolio theory. Her predilection for horseracing is well known. But how’s her investment strategy? She has little choice in asset allocation. The castles, the crowns, the 3,000-carat Cullinan diamond and much else are held in trust, and cannot be rebalanced into equities. Valuation is tough, too, with 17th century royal headwear even less liquid than junk bond ETFs.她见了13位英国首相、12位美国总统以及现代投资组合理论的诞生。她对赛马的嗜好众所周知。但是,她的投资策略是什么?在资产配置上,她没有多少选择余地。城堡、、那枚3000克拉的“库利南”(Cullinan)钻石以及其他很多资产都由信托机构持有,无法调整为股票投资。估值也很困难,那顶17世纪的王室的流动性甚至还不如投资垃圾债券的交易所交易基金(ETF)。Still, the portfolio has a useful bias towards inflation protection, and assets that appeal to the burgeoning super-rich. There is no index of crown jewels, but the sterling gold price has more than doubled in real terms. Diamonds have turned out to be less flashy, lagging inflation.不过,该投资组合存在抵挡通胀的有用偏好,且其中包含着吸引新兴超级富豪阶层的资产。没有关于宝石的指数,但是,实际金价(以英镑计)已经增长超过一倍。钻石的表现反倒没那么亮眼,跑输通胀。The real jewel in the crown may be the Koh-i-Noor, but the shining light of the Queen’s portfolio is the royal art collection.虽然真正的“上的宝石”是那枚光之山钻石(Koh-I-Noor),但是女王的投资组合中最耀眼的宝贝是皇家收藏的艺术品。Art has been one of the better performing assets of the past century, making 3 per cent a year above inflation, well ahead of bonds. According to Christophe Spaenjers, a finance professor at HEC Paris, the price of art at London sales has risen more than 500-fold in nominal terms since 1952, or 20-fold after inflation. Gilts rose five times after inflation, assuming coupons were reinvested.在过去的一个世纪中,艺术品是表现较好的资产之一,剔除通胀每年收益3%,远高于债券。据巴黎高等商学院(HEC Paris)的金融学教授克里斯托夫斯帕杰尔斯(Christophe Spaenjers)表示,自1952年以来,伦敦售出的艺术品的名义价格已经是当初的逾500倍,剔除通胀后的实际价格是当初的逾20倍。同期英国国债剔除通胀后上涨4倍(假设票息被重新投资于英国国债)。Land has done well too. In this case an Englishwoman’s home really is her castle, but the Queen’s bias towards central London luxury housing (Buckingham Palace) has been a clear source of outperformance recently.土地投资收益也不错。常言道,一个英国女人的家就是她的城堡,而女王的家真的是就是城堡。不过女王对伦敦市中心奢侈住宅——白金汉宫(Buckingham Palace)——的偏爱,近来对她的不凡投资收益有突出贡献。British housing has been a very good investment. The price of older houses matched the capital value of shares (not including dividends), rising 127-fold. Property is expensive to manage and much harder to trade than shares, though, and net rental yields, while not reliably measured, have probably been lower than dividends.英国住宅一直是一项非常好的投资。较老住宅的价格上涨不输于股票市值(不包括股息),上涨了126倍。不过,房地产的管理成本昂贵,而且远比股票难以变现,净房租收益率(尽管衡量方法并不可靠)很可能一直低于股息。Overall, the portfolio is far too concentrated in the UK. Britannia no longer rules the waves, and even the most patriotic investors have long since recognised that diversifying risk means holding foreign assets, too — even if these days royals cannot just send in troops to seize them.总的来说,女王的投资组合太过集中于英国。大不列颠已经不再统治海洋,即便是最爱国的投资者,也早已意识到,只有持有一些境外资产才能分散风险——虽然如今英国王室可以派遣军队没收民众资产的日子已一去不返。 /201509/398208

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