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楼主:时空咨询 时间:2019年12月14日 13:06:16 点击:0 回复:0
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Okay.好了So what is the daf-2 gene?那么daf-2基因到底是什么?Well as you know, genes, which are part of the DNA,正如大家所知,基因是DNA的一部分theyre instructions to make a protein that does something.它们是经编码的指令,用于制造特定功能的蛋白质And the daf-2 gene而daf-2基因的编码encodes a hormone receptor.对应了一类激素受体So what you see in the picture there图片上可以看到的是一个细胞is a cell with a hormone receptor in red以及红色的激素受体punching through the edge of the cell.插在细胞的边缘So part of it is like a baseball glove.受体的一部分就像棒球手套Part of its on the outside,外面的部分伸出去and its catching the hormone as it comes by in green.当绿色的激素靠近的时候抓住这个激素And the other part is on the inside另外的部分在细胞内where it sends signals into the cell.向细胞传递信号Okay, so what is the daf-2 receptor好了,那daf-2受体向细胞里telling the inside of the cell?传了什么样的信号?I just told you that, if you make a mutation in the daf-2 gene cell,我刚刚说过,如果突变细胞里的daf-2基因that you get a receptor that doesnt work as well;就能得到一个功能不太给力的受体the animal lives longer.并且动物的寿命变长So that means that the normal function of this hormone receptor这就意味着这个激素受体的正常功能is to speed up aging.是加速衰老Thats what that arrow means.就是图上箭头的意思It speeds up aging. It makes it go faster.总之会让衰老来得更快So its like the animal has the grim reaper inside of itself,就好像动物的身体里有个死神speeding up aging.一直在加速衰老So this is altogether really, really interesting.总之这个结论就非常有趣了It says that aging is subject to control by the genes,结论就是,衰老是受基因控制的and specifically by hormones.具体讲是受激素控制的So what kind of hormones are these?这些激素又是什么样的激素呢?Theres lots of hormones. Theres testosterone, adrenalin.有很多种激素,比如睾酮和肾上腺素You know about a lot of them.你肯定知道很多These hormones are similar这些激素和我们to hormones that we have in our bodies.身体里的激素差不多The daf-2 hormone receptordaf-2激素受体is very similar to the receptor与胰岛素和IGF-1的受体for the hormone insulin and IGF-1.非常像Now youve all heard of at least insulin.至少大家都听说过胰岛素Insulin is a hormone that promotes the uptake of nutrients胰岛素是一种激素,在饭后促进into your tissues after you eat a meal.身体的组织吸收营养And the hormone IGF-1 promotes growth.而IGF-1这种激素促进生长So these functions were known for these hormones for a long time,这些激素的功能是我们长久以来就知道的but our studies suggested但是我们的研究似乎暗示that maybe they had a third function that nobody knew about --有可能有第三种我们未知的功能--maybe they also affect aging.或许也能影响衰老And its looking like thats the case.而且看起来似乎的确是这样So after we made our discoveries with little C. elegans,所以在我们对秀丽隐杆线虫的小发现之后people who worked on other kinds of animals研究其他动物的研究员提出问题started asking, if we made the same daf-2 mutation,如果在其他动物身上造成同样的daf-2变异the hormone receptor mutation, in other animals,也就是激素受体变异will they live longer?它们也会更长寿吗?And that is the case in flies.在苍蝇身上,是的If you change this hormone pathway in flies, they live longer.如果改变苍蝇体内这种激素的传递方式,它们就会长寿And also in mice -- and mice are mammals like us.在老鼠身上也一样--而老鼠是像我们一样的哺乳动物So its an ancient pathway,所以其实这是一个古老原始的传递方式because it must have arisen a long time ago in evolution一定在很久以前的进化进程中就出现了such that it still works in all these animals.这样才会让所有动物身上都有这样的效应And also, the common precursor also gave rise to people.而且,这些共同的实验前兆也引向到人类的衰老问题上So maybe its working in people the same way.所以或许在人类中也同样适用And there are hints of this.确实有迹象表明这点So for example, there was one study that was done比如,曾有人针对纽约市in a population of Ashkenazi Jews in New York City.阿什肯纳兹犹太人做了研究And just like any population,和其他人群一样most of the people live to be about 70 or 80,大多数人活到70或80岁but some live to be 90 or 100.但是有的人活到了90或100岁And what they found研究人员发现was that people who lived to 90 or 100活到90或100岁的人were more likely to have daf-2 mutations --更有可能有daf-2变异--that is, changes in the gene也就是说,编码了IGF-1受体that encodes the receptor for IGF-1.的那段基因产生了变异And these changes made the gene not act as well这些变异让基因行为与正常基因相比as the normal gene would have acted.效果更弱一些It damaged the gene.相当于基因受损了So those are hints所以这些迹象suggesting that humans are susceptible表明人类对于控制衰老的激素to the effects of the hormones for aging.所带来的效果是很敏感的So the next question, of course, is:所以接下来的问题当然就是Is there any effect on age-related disease?这对与年龄相关的老龄病有影响吗?As you age, youre much more likely因为当年龄变老的时候,我们就更可能to get cancer, Alzheimers disease,患上癌症,老年痴呆症heart disease, all sorts of diseases.心脏病,等等一系列的疾病It turns out that these long-lived mutants结果这些长寿的变异体are more resistant to all these diseases.对于这些疾病更有抵抗能力They hardly get cancer,他们几乎不得癌症and when they do its not as severe.就算得了,也并不如本来应该的那样严重So its really interesting, and it makes sense in a way,所以这很有趣,而且这样想来确实有道理that theyre still young,他们的身体还年轻so why would they be getting diseases of aging until their old?所以为什么只有到老年,他们会得衰老的一些疾病So it suggests这就启发我们that, if we could have a therapeutic or a pill to take如果有疗法或者药片to replicate some of these effects in humans,来对人体复制这些减缓衰老的效应maybe we would have a way也许我们就有办法of combating lots of different age-related diseases一下子抵抗所有种类的all at once.老龄病201508/390452Hi, everybody. Next week marks seven years since a financial crisis on Wall Street that would usher in some hard years for working families on Main Street. Soon after that, I took office. And we set out to rebuild our economy on a new foundation for growth and prosperity by investing in things that grow our middle class – things like jobs, health care, and education. Today, our businesses have created more than 13 million new jobs over the last five and a half years. The unemployment rate is the lowest its been in more than seven years. Another 16 million Americans have gained health insurance. Our high school graduate rate is the highest its ever been, and more people are graduating from college than ever before. We are coming back – and stronger. Still, in an economy thats increasingly based on knowledge and innovation, some higher education is the surest ticket to the middle class. By the end of this decade, two in three job openings will require some higher education. Thats one reason why a degree from a two-year college will earn you ,000 more each year than someone who only finished high school. One study showed that a degree from a four-year university earns you million more over the course of a lifetime. The country with the best-educated workforce in the world is going to win the 21st century economy. I want that to be America. But as college costs and student debt keep rising, the choices that Americans make when searching for and selecting a college have never been more important. Thats why everyone should be able to find clear, reliable, open data on college affordability and value – like whether theyre likely to graduate, find good jobs, and pay off their loans. Right now, however, many existing college rankings reward schools for spending more money and rejecting more students – at a time when America needs our colleges to focus on affordability and supporting all students who enroll. That doesnt make sense, and it has to change. So, today, my Administration is launching a new College Scorecard, designed with input from those who will use it the most – students, families, and counselors. Americans will now have access to reliable data on every institution of higher education. Youll be able to see how much each schools graduates earn, how much debt they graduate with, and what percentage of a schools students can pay back their loans – which will help all of us see which schools do the best job of preparing America for success. And to reach more folks, were working with partners in the academic, non-profit, and private sectors that will help families use this new data to navigate the complicated college process and make informed decisions. The status quo serves some colleges and the companies that rank them just fine. But it doesnt always serve our students well – and that doesnt serve any of us well. There are colleges dedicated to helping students of all backgrounds learn without saddling them with debt. We should hold everybody to that standard. Our economic future depends on it. And this work is just beginning. In the coming weeks and months, well continue to improve the Scorecard based on what we learn from students, parents, counselors, and colleges themselves. The goal is to help everybody whos willing to work for a higher education, search for and select a college that fits their goals. Together, we can make sure that every student has the chance to get a great education and achieve their full potential. Thanks, everybody. And have a great weekend.201509/400607Young men,小伙子们have you spoken up in a conversation when a women was casually degraded or dismissed?在一位女性被随意贬低或忽视的谈话之中 你们有没有挺身而出?How did this affect you? How did this affect the women you stepped up for?这对你有怎样的影响?这对你为之挺身而出的女性有怎样的影响?Businessmen, have you mentored, supported or engaged women in leadership positions?企业家们 你们是否曾经指引 持女性或让女性参与至领导职位?Writers, have you challenged the language and imagery you used to portray women in the media?作家们,你们是否曾经质疑过 你们曾经在媒介之中描绘女性所使用的语言和意象?CEOs, have you implemented the womens empowerment principles in your own company?CEO们,你们是否将保护女性权益的基本方针贯彻实施?What change have you seen?你们在这过程中看到了怎样的改变?HeForShe Are you someone persuading men to become HeForShes and collecting their signatures for our website?你是不是试图说男人们成为并收集他们在我们网站上签名的一员?How many have you got?你收集到了多少呢?We want to know. We want to hear from you.我们想要了解 我们想要听到你们的声音。One of the biggest pieces of feedback Ive had since my speech in that men and women want to help but they arent sure how best to do it.我在演讲之后听到得最多的回应之一,是人们想要做出贡献,却不知怎样做才是最好的。Men say theyve signed the petition. What now?男性朋友们在请愿下签了名,然后呢?The truth is, the ;what now; is down to you.事实上,“然后”如何完全取决于你。What your HeForShe commitment will be is personal, and there is no best way.你对HeForShe事业的贡献具有你的个性 并且没有最好的方法一说。Everything is valid.一切皆可成事。Decide what your commitment is, make it public, and then please report back to us on your progress, so that we can share your story.决定你所要做的贡献,将其公开,然后请你反馈给我们你的进展,这样,我们便能与你分享你的故事。We want to support, guide, and reinforce your efforts.我们希望持和引领大家的努力 并使之更加有效Impact 10x10x10 is about concrete commitments to change, the visibility of these commitments and the measurability of them, too.影响力10x10x10为的是那些对做出改变脚踏实地的贡献,这些贡献能否眼见为实,以及能否被量化。How has the campaign impacted me so far?这项行动至今对我产生了怎样的影响?Ive had my breath taken away when a fan told me that since watching my speech, she has stopped herself being beaten up by her father. Ive been stunned by the amount of men in my life that have contacted me since my speech.令我瞠目结舌的是 一个粉丝告诉我 在看完我的演讲之后,她阻止了其父对她的毒打,我惊异于如此之多的男性朋友在我演讲之后联系我。201601/420953And I was telling them, well, its very simple, my mom went here 我回答说 很简单 因为我妈是那毕业的My mom went to USC 我妈读的就是南加大She started here in 1957 她1957年入学Class of 1961, Joelle Benioff, stand up, right here 1961年毕业 乔艾尔·贝尼奥夫 请起立Mom knows best 妈妈最了解了Congratulations to all these parents of graduates of the class of 2014 祝贺所有2014届毕业生的家长Congratulations to all these great parents 这些家长都很棒Congratulations to my mother 包括我母亲You know I really loved it here at USC 我很热爱南加大I always love being here. I always love being here on this beautiful campus 我很喜欢来这里 来到这个美丽的校园I always love the incredible student body. I always love 我很喜欢这个美妙的学生群体Going out to the all various athletic games 我很喜欢这里的各类体育活动I love being in the fraternity lifestyle 我很喜欢这里的兄弟会生活方式Its fantastic. I love my Marshall School of Business, my entrepreneur program 这很美妙 我很喜欢我的马歇尔商学院及我的企业家项目I love all the great musical programs and dance programs and all the great 我很喜欢这里伟大的音乐和舞蹈活动Things we have at USC that make is so special and unique 这些都让南加大如此特别And Ill tell you I love the student body here 我很喜欢这里的学生群体I love the diversity of it 我喜欢它的多样性I love the meritocracy of it 我喜欢它的优秀I love the spirituality of it 我喜欢它的精神I love that at USC, we have more Catholics than at Notre Dame 我喜欢南加大比圣母大学的天主教徒更多Which I think is a college in the Midwest. Is that right, Max? 我记得圣母大学是中西部的一所大学 对吗 麦克斯And we have more Jews here than Brandeis 这里的犹太教徒也比布兰代斯大学多We have more Hindus than any other university in this great country of ours 这里的印度教徒也比其它大学都多And there is a lot of people like me 肯定有很多人都和我一样Who are just grateful to God for this glorious day 因为这个美妙的今天 对上苍充满了感激201601/422566

Almost three weeks ago in Syria, more than 1,000 innocent people-including hundreds of children-were murdered in the worst chemical weapons attack of the 21st century.大约三个星期前,叙利亚包括数百名儿童在内的超过1000名无辜平民被21世纪最严重的化学武器袭击夺去了生命。And the ed States has presented a powerful case to the world that the Syrian government was responsible for this horrific attack on its own people.美国已经向世界严重申明,叙利亚政府必须为此次针对其人民的残忍袭击负责。This was not only a direct attack on human dignity; it is a serious threat to our national security.这不仅是对人的尊严的直接践踏;也是对我们国家安全的严重威胁。Theres a reason governments representing 98 percent of the worlds people have agreed to ban the use of chemical weapons.代表全世界百分之98人口的各国政府赞同禁止使用化学武器有其理由。Not only because they cause death and destruction in the most indiscriminate and inhumane way possible-but because they can also fall into the hands of terrorist groups who wish to do us harm.不仅因为它们以最不分青红皂白的惨无人道的方式造成死亡和破坏—更因为它们若落入恐怖分子之手将危害到我们的安全。Thats why, last weekend, I announced that, as Commander in Chief, I decided that the ed States should take military action against the Syrian regime.这就是上周末作为最高统帅的我宣布决定美国应该对叙利亚政权采取军事行动的原因。This is not a decision I made lightly.这不是我草率做出的决定。Deciding to use military force is the most solemn decision we can make as a nation.决定采取军事行动是我们国家所能采取的唯一措施。As the leader of the worlds oldest Constitutional democracy, I also know that our country will be stronger if we act together, and our actions will be more effective.作为世界上最早大的民主国家领导人,我清楚只要我们团结一致,我们的国家就会更加强大,我们的行动就能更加有效。Thats why I asked Members of Congress to debate this issue and vote on authorizing the use of force.这就是为什么我请求国会对这一提议进行辩论投票,授权采取军事行动的原因。What we re talking about is not an open-ended intervention.我们所说的并非无休止的介入。This would not be another Iraq or Afghanistan.这不会是另一场伊拉克战争或阿富汗战争。There would be no American boots on the ground.美国军人不会踏进叙利亚领土半步。Any action we take would be limited, both in time and scope-designed to deter the Syrian government from gassing its own people again and degrade its ability to do so.我们采取的任何行动无论是在时间上还是地域上都是有限的,目的就是要对叙利亚政府对其人民使用毒气的行为进行打击,并降低其继续使用毒气的能力。I know that the American people are weary after a decade of war, even as the war in Iraq has ended, and the war in Afghanistan is winding down.我也清楚经过10多年的战争洗礼后人民早已感到厌倦,特别是伊拉克战争趋于结束,阿富汗战争也正在结束的过程中。Thats why were not putting our troops in the middle of somebody elses war.这就是为什么我们不把美国部队派遣到他人战场中间的原因。But we are the ed States of America.但作为美利坚合众国的我们。We cannot turn a blind eye to images like the ones weve seen out of Syria.我们不能对我们亲眼所见发生在叙利亚的情况视而不见。Failing to respond to this outrageous attack would increase the risk that chemical weapons could be used again;对这类残暴的攻击袖手旁观会增加他人再次使用化学武器的风险;that they would fall into the hands of terrorists who might use them against us,它们可能落入恐怖分子之手用于攻击我们,and it would send a horrible signal to other nations that there would be no consequences for their use of these weapons.这会对一些国家发出恐怖的信号,就是他们使用化学武器而不受惩罚。All of which would pose a serious threat to our national security.所有这些都会对我们的国家安全造成严重的威胁。Thats why we cant ignore chemical weapons attacks like this one-even if they happen halfway around the world.这就是为什么我们不能无视类似这样的化学武器攻击—尽管它们发生在遥远的地球另一端。And thats why I call on Members of Congress, from both parties, to come together and stand up for the kind of world we want to live in; the kind of world we want to leave our children and future generations.这就是为什么我号召国会的两党议员们为我们生存的世界,为将子孙后代留下的世界团结行动起来的原因。Thank you.谢谢大家。201309/256484

Tomorrow, in a very real sense, your life--the life you author from scratch on your own--begins.明天,非常现实地说,你们的人生——你们从零塑造自己的人生——即将开启。How will you use your gifts? What choices will you make?你们将如何运用自己的天赋?你们又将做出怎样的抉择?Will inertia be your guide, or will you follow your passions?你们是被惯性所引导,还是追随自己内心的?Will you follow dogma, or will you be original?你们会墨守成规,还是勇于创新?Will you choose a life of ease, or a life of service and adventure?你们会选择安逸的生活,还是选择一个奉献与冒险的生活?Will you wilt under criticism, or will you follow your convictions?你们会屈从于批评,还是会坚守信念?Will you bluff it out when youre wrong, or will you apologize?你们会掩饰错误,还是会坦诚道歉?Will you guard your heart against rejection, or will you act when you fall in love?你们会因害怕被拒绝而掩饰内心,还是会在面对爱情时勇往直前?Will you play it safe, or will you be a little bit swashbuckling?你们想要波澜不惊,还是想要搏击风浪?When its tough, will you give up, or will you be relentless?你们会在严峻的现实之下选择放弃,还是会义无反顾地前行?Will you be a cynic, or will you be a builder?你们要做愤世嫉俗者,还是踏实的建设者?Will you be clever at the expense of others, or will you be kind?你们要不计一切代价地展示聪明,还是选择善良?I will hazard a prediction. When you are 80 years old, and in a quiet moment of reflection narrating for only yourself the most personal version of your life story, the telling that will be most compact and meaningful will be the series of choices you have made. In the end, we are our choices. Build yourself a great story. Thank you and good luck!我要冒险做一个预测。当你们在80岁时只有你一个人静静对内心诉说着自己的人生故事时,其中最为充实、最有意义的那段讲述,会被你们做出的一系列决定所填满。最终,是选择塑造了我们的人生。为你自己塑造一个伟大的人生故事。谢谢,祝你们好运! /201309/258654

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