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来源:爱中文    发布时间:2019年06月19日 10:19:54    编辑:admin         

Famous lingerie brand Victoria#39;s Secret is opening its first store in China that will actually offer its iconic bras and panties, an employee of the ed States-based company#39;s China office confirmed to China Daily.近日,总部位于美国的著名内衣品牌;维多利亚的秘密;的一名中国办事处员工向中国日报透露称,该公司将在华开设首家出售其标志性文胸和内裤的零售店。The lingerie store will open in a 1,475-square-meter space at Lippo Plaza that formerly housed one of Louis Vuitton#39;s retail spaces in Shanghai.据悉,该内衣门店整体面积1475平米,位于上海力宝广场。在此前,这里曾是路易威登在上海的零售商店。The store is expected to open by the end of this year, though the exact date isn#39;t known as it mainly depends on when the lingerie collections clear customs, according to the employee, who spoke on the condition of anonymity.根据一位不愿透露姓名的员工透露称,尽管准确日期还不能确定,因为它主要取决于内衣集合办理报关手续,但是可以确定的是,该门店预计在今年年底前开业。Since the beginning of 2015, L Brands, Victoria Secret#39;s parent company, has opened and operated 20 stores in Chinese mainland cities such Shanghai, Chengdu and Guangzhou. But they are all marketed as ;Victoria#39;s Secret concept stores; selling only accessories and beauty products such as perfumes, shampoos and canvas bags.自2015年年初,维秘母公司L Brands已在上海、成都和广州等内地城市开设和经营了20家门店。但这些门店都作为;概念店;进行推广,只销售香水、洗发水和帆布包等配饰和美容产品。L Brands will continue to expand the concept stores in more Chinese cities, while remaining cautious about selling its core products, the employee said.该员工表示,L Brands将会继续在更多的中国城市推出“概念店”,同时依旧会保持谨慎的态度出售其核心产品。While China#39;s luxury market is trapped with sluggish sales amid the central government#39;s strict ban on gifting, the lingerie industry has been on the upswing, with a double-digit growth rate.尽管中国的奢侈品市场因为中央政府的严格禁止而陷入销售低迷的窘境,但是内衣产业则已经以两位数的增长率一路上升。Consulting firm Frost and Sullivan estimated that by the end of the year, China#39;s lingerie market was valued at 0 billion.弗若斯特沙利文咨询公司作出评估,预计在今年年底,中国的内衣市场价值将会达到2400亿美元The country#39;s increasingly sophisticated middle class is spurring the growth. Observers say the group is y to spend large sums on intimate apparel, not just bags and shoes, to show off their new wealth.中国日益复杂的中产阶级正在刺激着这一市场的增长。观察家们表示,这一群体不仅在包包和鞋子上准备花大量的钱,还会在贴身衣上砸钱来炫耀他们的财富。 /201603/429787。

McDonald#39;s Corp (MCD.N) plans to launch in China this year 150 outlets where clients can customize burgers to suit their tastes, as the world#39;s top restaurant chain aims to grow sales in the country after being hit by a fast-food scandal in 2014.麦当劳公司计划年内在中国开设150家概念餐厅,在这些餐厅里,顾客可以根据自己的口味自创汉堡。而作为世界顶级快餐连锁公司的麦当劳,在经历了2014年食品安全问题的沉重打击后,决心在中国提升销售额。The U.S. burger chain currently has 11 such outlets on the mainland, including in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Beijing, Regina Hui, senior director of communications for McDonald#39;s China said in an email received late on Thursday, in which she also disclosed the plans for the 150 restaurants.麦当劳中国区新闻发言人Regina Hui在周四的一封邮件中公布,麦当劳现在在中国内地共有11家类似的概念餐厅,分别位于上海、广州、深圳以及北京,未来计划在全中国新增150家自助概念餐厅。McDonald#39;s beat analyst forecasts for quarterly same-restaurant sales this week, adding momentum to a global recovery for the chain as demand picked up in China.麦当劳公司这星期公布的四季度同店销售额超出了分析师的预测。中国市场的快速恢复为该公司全球销售力的恢复提供了强有力的动力。Its same-store sales in China rose 4 percent in the fourth quarter of 2015, the second straight quarter of growth after four quarters of falling sales.在2015年的第四季度,麦当劳在中国的同店销售额增长了4%,是继连续四季度销售额下降之后,连续第二季度上涨。McDonald#39;s and Yum Brands Inc (YUM.N), the parent of KFC and Pizza Hut, are slowly turning things around in China, although same-restaurant sales for both firms remain below pre-scandal levels, according to a Reuters analysis of available data.根据路透社对已有数据的分析,尽管相比2014年食品安全事件曝出之前,麦当劳和百胜公司(肯德基和必胜客的母公司)的同店销售额仍然要低很多,但两家公司在中国的业绩正在慢慢好好转。The so-called #39;Create Your Taste#39; outlets allow customers to build customized burgers from a wide selection of ingredients.麦当劳所谓的“自创口味”指的是,顾客可以从各式各样的配菜中,搭配出符合自己口味的汉堡。Hui said the chain had seen ;very positive feedback; from local diners, who analysts say are increasingly tough to win over due to greater health awareness and a boom in the range of available dining options.Regina Hui表示,他们已经从当地食客中收到了非常积极的反馈,而分析师认为,由于较高的健康意识和多样的就餐选择,通常来说,这些人非常难以取悦。 /201602/425365。

Guo Moruo (1892~1978), originally named Guo Kaizhen, literary name Shangwu, alias Dingtang, was born in Leshan of Sichuan Province.郭沫若(1892~1978),原名郭开贞,号尚武,别号鼎堂,四川乐山人。He was the representative poet and playwright of chronicle play of the great May Fourth period of enlightenment, the prophet-poet of new China.是现代文学史上足以代表一个时代的诗人与历史剧作家,是鲁迅热切呼唤的罗诗人,新中国的预言诗人。He was the Satanical poet whose appearance was fervently summoned by Lu Xun. His rebellious idiosyncrasy of being unrestricted and capricious, optimistic and progressive contributed to his writing style, which was vigorous and unconventional.他的自由任性、放荡不羁、乐观向上的叛逆型人格特质,形成了他充满青春活力、敢于标新立异、尽情张扬个性的创作风格。His first poetry anthology The Goddess gave free rein to the powerful imagination through which he could transform things in the universe into poetic beings that served as animated objects of his emotional response. In expressing the desire to break out of the confines of feudalism, in voicing strong demands for social reform and in emitting boundless enthusiasm for the commendation and pursuit of high ideals. The Goddess distinctly reflected the characteristics of the May Fourth Movement. Indeed, in poetic terms it was the strongest voice of this period. An image was created with the passionate yearning for light and the pursuit of ideals. In the poem the outpourings of the heart and the rapid tempo of poetic melody fully demonstrated the poet#39;s hurricane-like creative power at work. The Goddess was steeped in revolutionary romanticism. The poems, artistically characterized by their strong colors, passionate tone and quick tempo, amply revealed the poet#39;s galloping imagination, boldness of expression and great powers of conception. By freeing himself from the fetters of the old poetry, Guo Moruo created a new world for the post-May Fourth freeverse. Its influence could not be overstated in paving the way for poets of the new poetry. The poetry of Guo Moruo with its overflowing revolutionary romanticism opened a new chapter in the history of modern Chinese poetry.郭沫若的第一本诗集《女神》,以汪洋恣肆、雄奇瑰丽的想象力,创造了一个热烈地追求精神自由和个性解放的白我抒情的主人公形象;诗化了五四狂飙突进的时代精神,以崭新的内容和形式,开一代诗风,堪称中国现代新诗的奠基之作。His achievement in the writing of historical plays was outstanding. The representative works included Qu Yuan, Zhuo Wenjun, Wang Zhaojun, The Tiger Tally, The Gall Bladder of the Peacock, The Twin Flowers, etc, in which he ;used the past to explain the present;.郭沫若的历史剧创作之早、数量之多、质量之高、影响之大,几乎无人与之匹敌,代表作有《屈原》、《卓文君》、《王昭君》、《虎符》、《孔雀胆》、《棠棣之花》等。He grasped the essence of history and, in accordance with the laws of art and the development of plot, incorporated his own hopes and ideals in what he wrote. Boldly he experimented, aiming to achieve ;resemblance through omission of certain facts;.他创作历史剧的动机是“古为今用”,借古喻今、讽今,本着“失事求似”的原则对历史进行合理的艺术虚构,表现出崇高的悲剧美。His historical dramas had sublime tragic beauty, incisive historical opinions and passionate personal emotions, which reflected his strong sense of social responsibility and political participation.他的历史剧含有精辟的史识与强烈的主观抒情色,具有明显的指导性和战斗性,体现了作者强烈的社会责任感和政治参与意识。In addition, Guo Moruo#39;s achievements in the study of history, archaeology and paleography were also most impressive.另外,郭沫若在历史学、考古学和占文字学方面的研究,也具有当时一流的水平。 /201602/427434。

Question: What is the best exercise to control high blood pressure?提问:控制血压的最佳锻炼方式是什么?Answer: Take your pick, as the best exercise to control high blood pressure seems to be virtually any exercise, like walking or cycling or light weight training, especially if your workouts are sp throughout the day.回答:任何锻炼都好,几乎所有运动对控制血压都非常有效,比如步行、骑车或是轻的负重练习,全天式的锻炼会让减压效果更好。“Even standing might work,” says Glenn Gaesser, the director of the Healthy Lifestyles Research Center at Arizona State University and an expert on exercise and hypertension.亚利桑那州立大学健康生活方式研究中心的主任格林·盖瑟尔是位锻炼与高血压方面的专家,他认为“哪怕站着也会有帮助。”Exercise lowers blood pressure in large part by altering blood vessel stiffness so blood flows more freely. This effect occurs during and immediately after a workout, so the blood-pressure benefits from exercise are most pronounced right after you work out.锻炼降低血压的原因,主要是因为运动可以改善血管硬度使得血流更加通畅。这样的效果在锻炼中和锻炼后都会马上显现,因而在刚刚运动完其降压效果尤其明显。As a result, the best way to fight hypertension may be to divvy up your workout into bite-size pieces. In a 2012 study by Dr. Gaesser, three 10-minute walks sp throughout the day were better at preventing subsequent spikes in blood pressure — which can indicate worsening blood pressure control — than one 30-minute walk. And if even a 10-minute walk sounds daunting, try standing more often. In another study led by Dr. Gaesser and published in August, overweight volunteers with blood pressure problems were asked to sit continuously during an eight-hour workday while their blood pressure was monitored. The ings were, as expected, unhealthy.结论就是最好的对抗高血压的方式,是类似少食多餐那样进行少量多次的运动。在盖瑟尔2012年发表的一篇报告中,他建议将一天运动量均分为3个时长为10分钟的步行,这样比一次步行30分钟相比可以更好预防血压出现峰值,血压峰值出现往往意味着控压恶化。甚至说如果10分钟步行听着都有些吓人的话,那就多站站。盖瑟尔士主导过另一项研究并将成果于8月出版,研究要求一些超重并有高血压问题的志愿者在8小时的工作日里一直坐在座位上,同时监测其血压,结果发现血压读书如预料的一样非常不健康。But when, during another workday, those volunteers stood up every hour for at least 10 minutes, their blood pressure ings improved substantially.但在另一个工作日,当要求这些志愿者每小时至少站立10分钟后,他们的血压读数显著改善。The ings were even better when, on additional workdays, the volunteers strolled at a pokey 1-mile-per-hour pace at tmill desks for at least 10 minutes every hour or pedaled under-desk exercise bikes for the same number of minutes every hour.接着在另外一个工作,这些志愿者需要每小时用带跑步机的书桌慢速走10分钟(配速为每小时1英里/1.6公里)、或者用桌下型蹬车器每小时练习10分钟,锻炼后的血压读数改善的更为显著。“Exercise intensity does not appear to play any significant role” in helping people control blood pressure, Dr. Gaesser says. Movement is what matters. So go for a stroll a few times during the day or simply stand up more often to develop healthier blood pressure.盖瑟尔士称就辅助人们控制血压方面来说,“锻炼强度起不到什么作用。”运动起来才是关键。所以每天多走几步或多站几次来打造健康血压吧。 /201510/402091。

A treatment that uses “molecular scissors” to edit genes has been used for the first time by UK medics successfully to treat a one-year-old girl with an “incurable” form of leukaemia.英国医生第一次依靠使用“分子剪刀”修改基因的疗法,成功地治愈了一名患有“无法治愈的”白血病的1岁女孩。The case at Great Ormond Street Hospital in London involved the creation of “designer immune cells” programmed to hunt and kill the disease. The girl, called Layla, is now cancer free and doing well, according to the hospital.伦敦大奥蒙德街医院(Great Ormond Street Hospital)的这一病例,生成经过设计的“人工培育的免疫细胞”去捕捉并治疗疾病。医院称,这个名叫“莱拉”(Layla)的女孩目前摆脱了癌症,身体状况很不错。The breakthrough will add to excitement over the fast-emerging field of gene-editing — a type of genetic engineering in which DNA is inserted, replaced or removed from genes to fix faults or fight disease.这次突破将令人对基因编辑这一快速发展的新兴领域感到更加兴奋。基因编辑是基因工程的一种,向基因中插入DNA,替换或取下其中的DNA,从而修复缺陷或战胜疾病。Gene-editing has caused controversy because of its potential to be used in ethically dubious ways, such as the creation of “designer babies”. However, the London success helps show why many scientists are so enthusiastic about the technology.基因编辑引发了争议,因为它可能导致令人产生道德疑虑的用法,比如生成“设计婴儿”。然而,这家伦敦医院的成功也明,为何很多科学家那么热衷于这项技术。The so-called UCART19 cells used at Great Ormond Street had shown promise in animals but had never been used in humans before they were administered as a last-ditch attempt to save Layla after other drugs failed.大奥蒙德街医院使用的所谓UCART19细胞在动物身上已显出良好前景,但除了此次为救活莱拉而做的最后努力之前,该细胞从未应用于人体。此前在莱拉身上使用的其他药物全部失败了。The treatment, developed by a French biotech company called Cellectis, consisted of 1ml of UCART19 cells injected into Layla’s bloodstream. After several weeks it was clear the leukaemia cells were disappearing.这一疗法是由法国生物科技公司Cellectis开发出来的,把1毫升的UCART19细胞注入了莱拉的血流中。几周后,白血病细胞明显开始消失。The treatment is similar to cancer therapies in development using modified T-cells from companies including Novartis of Switzerland and Juno and Kite of the US. However, whereas others use cells extracted from the patient’s own blood, UCART19 cells come from healthy donors.该疗法类似于瑞士的诺华制药(Novartis)以及美国的Juno和Kite等公司开发的使用修饰T细胞治疗癌症的办法。然而,其他疗法使用从病人自身血液中提取的细胞,而UCART19细胞则来自于健康的捐献者。This overcomes the problem of many leukaemia patients not having enough healthy T-cells — a type of white blood cell that fights off disease — to be harvested after chemotherapy.这就克了从化疗后的许多白血病患者体内难以提取到足量健康T细胞的难题。T细胞是一种能够对抗疾病的白血细胞。A further possible advantage is that donor cells can be mass produced for use in any patient, making them potentially more affordable than rival treatments that must be personalised for each individual. High costs are viewed as one of the biggest drawbacks of the so-called CAR-T therapies under development by Novartis, Juno and Kite.一个更有可能的优势在于,捐赠细胞可以大规模生产,并用于任何患者,与因患者而异的其他疗法相比,在成本上更低。诺华制药、Juno和Kite正在研制中的所谓CAR-T疗法的最大缺点之一,就是被认为价格太高。 /201511/408543。

Qin Shi Huang longed for longevity, so he sent his ministers to go on quests seeking for an elixir of immortality.秦始皇想长生不老,于是派人去寻找可以让人长生不老的仙丹。However, death claimed him before he could find success on that matter.可是还没等找到仙丹,他的末日就到了。In 210 B. C. , the First Emperor died unexpectedly on his inspection tour.公元前210年,秦始皇在巡游途中突然驾崩。The eunuch Zhao Gao and chancellor Li Si conspired to forge the emperor ’ s will,declaring that the emperor ordered Fusu, the crown prince, to commit suicide, and his younger brother Hu Hai, the emperor#39;s favorite, to succeed to the throne.太监赵高和丞相李斯合谋篡改遗诏,声称秦始皇命太子扶苏自尽,由其弟胡亥继位。Therefore, Hu Hai was installed as the Second Emperor.后胡亥登基,即秦二世。With the worsened exploitation and oppression, the contradictions were intensified, and a large-scale peasant uprising was on the verge of breaking out.随着剥削和压迫的加重,社会矛盾更加激化,大规模的农民起义已经到一触即发的地步。在农民酝酿反秦的时候,六国旧贵族残余势力也在伺机进行分裂活动。When peasants were fermenting rebellion, the remaining aristocratic forces of the former six states were also waiting for their chances to carry out splitting activees.陈胜、吴广大泽乡起义:公元前209年,秦二世继位仅10个月爆发了陈胜、吴广领导的农民起义。The uprising led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang in Daze Township:In 209 B. C. , when the Second Emperor got into the throne only 10 months, the Peasant Uprising led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang broke out .7月,一队开赴渔阳(今北京密云)戍边士卒900人,遇雨停留 在大泽乡(今安徽宿县境),不能如期赶到戍地。In July, a band of 900 conscripted peasants heading for Yuyang ( modern Miyun County, Beijing) for guard duties were delayed by heavy rain in Daze Township (part of Suxian County in Anhui Province), and it was impossible for them to arrive on time.秦法规定,戍卒误期当斩。According to the law of Qin, those who failed to report should be executed.他们面临着死刑的威胁。于是,在陈胜、吴广的领导下,在大泽乡举起了中国历史上第一次大规模农民起义的旗帜。Faced with the menace of death, they raised the first banner of a large-scale peasant insurrection at the head of Chen Sheng and Wu Guang. The insurgent army captured Daze Township and Qi County successively.他们先后攻占大泽乡、蕲县,在攻下楚的故都陈县(今 河南淮阳)时,已有战士数万人。When they took Chen County, the old capital of the state Chu( present Huaiyang, Henan), the number of the forces had reached up to tens of thousands. Consequently, they established the first revolutionary regime of peasants—Zhangchu, and Chen Sheng was made the king, and Chen County the capital.起义军推举陈胜为王,在陈县建立了中国历史上的第一个农民政权——张楚政权。The rebellious forces quickly grew into a large army with several hundred thousands of soldiers. They broke up into three forces to attack Qin.起义军的队伍迅速壮大到几十万人,分三路攻秦。When the branch led by Zhou Wen besieged Xianyang, the capital of Qin, the Second Emperor became panic-stricken and mustered his troops in various parts of the country to launch a counter defence.当周文率领的队伍攻至秦的首都咸阳城下时,秦二世惊慌失措,速调集各地军队镇压起义军。Being lack of military training and war experience, the branch was defeated by the overwhelming Qin army.由于缺乏训练,没有作战经验,加之寡不敌众,义军被秦军击溃。Meanwhile, because of the split in its own side, Wu Guang was killed by his subordinates, and Chen Sheng was also assassinated.与此同时,由于内部发生分裂,吴广被其属下杀死,而陈胜也遭暗杀。Thus, the insurgence led by Chen Sheng and Wu Guang failed.至此,陈 胜、吴广领导的农民起义失败。The Battle of Julu : On the uprising of Chen Sheng, Xiang Liang and his nephew Xiang Yu rose up in Wu Zhong (modern Suzhou, Jiangsu Province), together with Liu Bang in Pei (present Pei County in Jiangsu Province).项羽巨鹿之战:陈胜起义后,项梁、项羽和刘邦相继在吴中(今江苏苏州)、沛县聚众起义。The old nobles of the six states also took opportunity to rebel, attempting to revive their countries.六国旧贵族也乘机起兵,企图恢复旧国。After the death of Chen Sheng, Xiang Liang made the grandson of King Huai of Chu, Mi Xin, the Prince of Chu for the sake of commending the public in 208 B. C.在陈胜死后,项梁于前208年立楚怀王之孙芈心为楚王,以为号召。At that time, Xiangs became two important leaders of the peasants.项梁,项羽叔侄成为当时农民起义军的领袖。When Qin general ,Zhang Han launched a sudden attack on Xiang Liang at Dingtao (in modern Shandong Province), Xiang Liang was killed in the battle, and the insurrectionary army suffered an utter defeat.可就在这时,秦将章邯突袭项梁军于定陶(今属山东),项梁战死,起义军大败。After the success, Zhang Han led his troops northward to attack the state of Zhao.定陶之战后,章邯移师北上,攻打赵国。The Prince Xie of Zhao was compelled to abandon the capital Handan (in modern city of Handan in Hebei), and retreated to Julu (in modern Xingtai, Hebei).赵王歇被迫放弃都城邯郸(现河北省邯郸市),退守巨鹿(今河北邢台)。Zhang Han followed up the victory with a hot pursuit, ordering the general Wang Li, his assistant, to besiege the city.章邯乘胜追击,命王离围困巨鹿(今邢台)。King of Zhao sent for reinforcements throughout the country.赵主派人向各地求援。Prince of Chu, sent Xiang Yu as the second-in-command to Song Yi in an ex-peditory force to relieve Zhao.楚怀王命宋义为上将、项羽为次将率兵北上救赵。After arriving at Anyang (in modern Henan Province) ,Song Yi didnM proceed any further for forty-six days fear of Qin.大军抵达安阳后宋义即畏缩不前,一连驻扎了46天。Xiang Yu persuaded him to move, collaborating with the Zhao army to conquer the Qin forces at one stroke.项羽劝他迅速进兵,同赵军里应外合,一举击败秦军。However, Song intended to save strength, waiting for Qin and Zhao forces to wear out each other,so refused Xiang’s proposal.宋义却想保存实力,乘秦、赵相斗,坐收渔利,故拒绝了项羽的建议。Xiang took extreme measures and assassinated Song later. The other generals offered SongJ s command to him, and Prince Huai of Chu was forced to retroactively approve it.后项羽杀宋义,诸将拥戴其为将军。楚怀王见事已如此,便命项羽率军救赵。The relief forces sent by other rebel principalities built fortresses and fortifications ,but dared not engage in warfare with Qin army, while Xiang Yu was an exception ,who decided to fight it out with Qin.各路反秦义军来救援赵者都筑垒壁守,不敢与秦军接战。唯有项羽决心与秦军决一雌雄。At first, he shut off the supply lines of Qin forces, and cut off the connection between Wang Li and Zhang Han.他先切断秦军运粮的甬道,分割王、章两军的联系。Then, he led his troops cross the river, having all the boats and cooking vessels destroyed and ordered his soldiers to carry enough grain rations for only three days to make it clear that no one could return unless they won.后亲自率楚军渡 河,并下令全军破釜沉舟,规定每人只带三日口粮,以显示与秦军决一死战尚决心。He directed his forces to launch successive attacks on Qin. After nine engagements, the imperial army was routed, Wang Li was captured, and Zhang Han fled south. The siege of Julu was released eventually.项羽指挥楚军连续作战,九战九捷,大破秦军,王离被虏,章邯南逃,解巨鹿之围。This victory virtually annihilated the military strength of the Qin Dynasty, turned the war situations and created a favorable condition for overthrowing the reactive rule of Qin.这场大战的胜利,基本上消灭了秦王朝赖以存在的军队,扭转了整个战局,为最后推翻秦王朝的反动统治创造了极有利的条件。When the Qin army besieged Julu, Prince Huai of Chu made an agreement with Xiang Yu and Liu Bang that whoever got to Guanzhong first would be made the King of Guanzhong.秦军围攻巨鹿时,楚怀王与项羽、刘邦约定,谁先人关灭秦,谁为“关中王”。When Xiang Yu was engaged in the battle of Julu, Liu Bang in command of another expeditory force attacked Qin from the west.在项羽救巨鹿时,刘邦奉命由西击秦。In a year’s devious march, his troops took wuguan Pass, gateway to the heartland of the Qin regime, threatening the capital city of Xlanyang in August 207 B. C.经过一年的迂回进军,于公元前207年八月,攻人武关,直逼咸阳。It was during this period that the fight between factions started within the Qin ruling clique.当时秦的统治集团内部发生了火并。Initially, Li Si, the prime minister, died at the hand of Zhao Gao and the Second Emperor.起初是赵高与秦二世勾结,杀掉李斯。Shortly, Zhao Gao forced Huhai to commit suicide and replaced him with his nephew, Ziying. The title of Emperor was abolished and what Ziying assumed was “King of Qin”.不久,赵高又杀掉秦二世,取消皇帝称号,另立二世之侄子婴为秦王。Before long, Ziying killed Zhao Gao and surendered to Liu Bang when Liu arrived at Bashang (now the east of Xi#39;an Shaanxi) in October 207 , thus the Qin Dynasty came to an end.子婴又杀赵高。10月刘邦军至霸上(今陕西西安市东),子婴投降,秦亡。Liu Bang proclaimed himself the King of Guanzhong and won acclaim by instituting three regulations :Let those who kill be executed, those who inflict be injured or rob others be punished.刘邦宣布自己为“关中王”,同时约法三章:“杀人者死,伤人及盗抵罪”,深得秦人拥护。The Qin Dynasty was short-lived, but particularly important.秦朝是短暂的朝代,但又是极重要的朝代。The First Emperor (Qin Shi Huang) was a tyrant, whereas he also made great contribution to the development of Chinese history.秦始皇是暴虐的皇帝,但又是对历史有巨大贡献的皇帝。In a word, Qin devastated culture, yet it was a pioneer in certain aspects.秦是文化的摧残者,但在某些方面又是先进者。The war between Chu and Han: Xiang Yu was furious at the news of Liu Bang’s entrance to Guanzhong. In December, he arrived at Hangu Pass with an army of 400 000. Only having 100 000 men, Liu Bang was forced to sue for peace.楚汉战争:项羽听说刘邦已先入关,大怒,也率军于同年12月入函谷关。这时,项羽有士卒40万人,刘邦只有10万人,刘邦被迫求和。After overbearing Liu Bang, Xiang Yu entered Xianyang where he killed Ziying, burnt palaces, slaughtered and plundered wantonly.项羽入咸阳,杀子婴, 烧秦宫,大肆杀掠。Then, he proclaimed himself the Hegemonic King of Western Chu and made Pengcheng the capita! of his domain. He also granted fiefdoms to eighteen princes.后自立为西楚霸王,建都彭城(今江苏铜山县),封十八王。With regard to Liu Bang, he gave him the title of Prince of Han with a fief covering Hanzhong, and Bashu.刘邦为汉王,居巴蜀汉中。The allocations of Xiang Yu aggravated the separatist vassal regime. Qi soon rose in revolt, and the tangled warfare among vassals broke out again.项羽的这一做法使诸侯割据的局面更为恶化。不久齐国首先发难,诸侯混战再次爆发。Liu Bang availed this opportunity to take possession of Guanzhong, then marched east from it, and unfolded a fight against Xiang Yu, contending for supremacy.刘邦乘机迅速占领关中,又东向出关,与项羽展开争夺天下的斗争。From 206 B. C. to 202 B. C. , Liu Bang and Xiang Yu were at war for many times.公元前206年至前202年,刘邦与项羽多次交战。Suffering from a series of defeat, Liu Bang became strong gradually. Then the two men reached an agreement that Honggou Canal (modern Jialu River in Henan) be made the demarcation line, with the territory on the east going to Chu and on the west to Han.经过一系列失败后,刘邦的势力逐渐强 大起来,于是二人达成协议“中分天下”,以鸿沟(今河南贾鲁河)为界,河东属于楚,河西属于汉。In December 202 B. C. , Liu Bang joined forces with Han Xin at Gaixia( modern Guzhen, in Anhui) and surrounded Xiang Yu.公元前202年12月,刘邦、韩信在垓下(今安徽固镇)会师,包围了项羽。However, he managed to collect eight hundred cavalrymen and fight his way to Wujiang (in modern Hexian County, Anhui Province), where he committed suicide.项羽率800骑兵突围,逃至乌江(今和县境)自杀。With his chief rival wiped out, Liu Bang unified China and built his dynasty—the Western Han.刘邦统一中国,建立西汉王朝。He ascended the throne to become known as Emperor Gao Zu of the Han Dynasty.刘邦即汉高祖。The peasant uprising at the end of the Qin Dynasty is the first rebellion countrywide in Chinese history, which not only pulled down the ruthless ruling clique of Qin, but pushed forward the social development as well.秦末农民大起义是我国历史上第一次全国范围的农民大起义,推翻了贪婪残暴的秦统治集团,使社会得以前进。The battle between Chund Han was originated from it.而楚汉之战则是由秦末农民战争直接演化而来的。Though the peasant revolution succeeded in overthrowing the rule of the Qin Dynasty, the former leaders, Liu Bang and Xiang Yu transformed into rivals contending for sovereignty.农民战争虽然胜利地推翻了秦朝,但曾经是农民战争领袖的刘邦和项羽,却逐步转化为封建统治权的角逐者。Apart from his great achievements that were actually the base for the foundation of the Han empire , the First Emperor was blamed to heave burned books and buried alive Confucian scholars.秦始皇创立的伟业虽为汉朝的建立奠定了基础,但他亦背负着焚书坑儒的罪名。The only books that were not forbidden are writings about medicine, herbs, divining and agriculture, however, arts and thinking were still going on under the First Emperor and prepared for the great flourishing of literature and philosophy in the Han Dynasty.尽管只有有关医学、草药、占卜和农业的书籍被保存了下来,但在秦始皇统治时期,艺术和思想文化仍在继续发展,为汉时的文学与哲学的极大繁荣做好了准备。Although the practical policy of the Qin rulers was legist, thus severe, bureaucratic and austere, the inscriptions in the steles the First Emperor had erected,also show that Confucian thinking like filial p卜 ety, humanity and righteousness of the ruler was still there.秦朝的统治者以法家思想治国,实行专制、严厉的统治政策,然而秦始皇所立石碑的碑文却反映出忠孝仁义等儒家思想。The emperor himself was very interested in Daoist practices to prolong his life or to gain immortality. He sent out an expedition to search for the islands of immortality called Penglai.秦始皇对道教有极大的兴趣,修道以求长生不老,还曾派人去寻找蓬莱仙岛。After the proclamation as the First Emperor, he changed the official colors to black according to the theory of the Five Elementsand their cosmic influence.秦始皇称帝后便按五行之术将官方使用的颜色改为黑色。Meteors, flood and drought were a heavenly hint to him as well as it had been to the former Zhou kings.像周王一样,他认为流星、洪水以及旱灾均是上天的旨意。A comprehensive anthology of philosophical thinking around 250 is the Lushi Chunqiu , compiled by the chancellor Lu Buwei.公元前250年,吕不韦著《呂氏春秋》,这是一部内容广泛的哲学著作。 /201511/411322。