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来源:华龙养生    发布时间:2019年09月20日 10:08:12    编辑:admin         

Russian hackers are using Twitter as an ultra-stealthy way of concealing their intrusions into sensitive Western government computer systems — a new surveillance technique that blends cutting edge digital engineering with old-fashioned spy tradecraft.俄罗斯黑客正把Twitter用作一种超级隐秘的方式,隐藏其入侵西方政府敏感电脑系统的行为,这种新的监视技术将先进的数字工程技术与老式的谍报技术结合在一起。The hackers use images uploaded to the social media site to send messages and directions to malware — or malicious software — with which they have infected target computers.黑客利用上传至Twitter的图片向植入到目标电脑中的恶意程序传递信息和指令。The value of using Twitter as a means to control the malware — which may direct computers to steal files or other unintended operations — is that it is virtually invisible to most detection systems, appearing instead like myriad other visits users make to the social networking site.把Twitter用作控制这种恶意程序的方法,其好处在于,多数侦测系统几乎无法察觉,看上去像是用户在大量访问这家社交网站。这种恶意软件可能会命令电脑盗取文件或进行其他意想不到的任务。A new report from the cyber security firm FireEye released on Wednesday identifies the new malware for the first time publicly, which it has nicknamed “Hammertoss”.网络安全机构FireEye周三发布的一份最新报告首次公开确认了这种新的恶意程序,绰号为“Hammertoss”。FireEye says it has “high confidence” that Russian agents are behind the project.FireEye表示,“高度怀疑”俄罗斯特工是该计划的持者。“It’s really an example of how innovative and thoughtful threat groups are becoming,” said Jen Weedon, manager at FireEye’s threat intelligence group. “They are leveraging all of these credentials and services. It’s artistry. This is clearly not malware that is being built without thought.”“这确实表明这些组织变成了多么创新且经过精心设计的威胁,”FireEye威胁情报组织经理詹威登(Jen Weedon)表示,“他们正利用所有这些资历和务。这需要高超的技巧。这显然不是没有经过思考就建立起来的。”For all its digital sophistication, the principles behind Hammertoss are reminiscent of the low-tech spy signals of the Cold War — chalk marks on trees or dead-letter boxes. In essence, the social media site allows Russia’s cyber warriors to communicate with their agents in plain sight and under the noses of those on the look out for unusual behaviour or communications.尽管Hammertoss需要复杂的数字技巧,但其背后的原则让人想起冷战(Cold War)时期科技含量较低的间谍信号:树上的粉笔记号或者废弃的信箱。大体而言,Twitter使得俄罗斯网络间谍得以在光天化日之下与他们的特工联系,而且就在那些监视不寻常行为或信息交流的机构的眼皮底下。The malware, once embedded, performs a daily check for a specific Twitter account, the unique name of which is generated on each occasion by an inbuilt secret algorithm.一旦植入这种恶意程序,它将每日查看具体某个Twitter账号,内置的秘密算法会每次生成独一无二的名字。Hammertoss’s controllers, by possessing an identical algorithm, are able to know the name of the Twitter account the malware will look for each day. If they wish to issue a command to Hammertoss, they set up the account and post a tweet.Hammertoss的控制者通过处理同样的算法,就能知晓这种恶意软件将每天寻找的Twitter账号的名字。如果他们想向Hammertoss发布命令,他们就建立一个账号,发布消息。The tweet may look innocuous, but it will contain a link to an image. The image has a secret message for Hammertoss encoded within it — another Cold War technique known as steganography.这些消息可能看上去毫无恶意,但将在图片中隐藏一个链接。图片中含有加密的秘密信息,这是冷战中的另一种谍报技术:“隐写术”。Another Russian malware family, known as MiniDuke also used Twitter for certain command and control operations, but unlike Hammertoss, was limited to communications with a limited number of specific, pre-established accounts.俄罗斯的另一个恶意程序家族名为MiniDuke,它也利用Twitter传递特定命令和控制任务,但与Hammertoss不同的是,它限于与有限数量的提前设置的特定账户的信息沟通。 /201507/389611。

The development of computer programs that can beat humans at games has a long history — from the mastery of noughts and crosses in the 1950s to Deep Blue’s celebrated defeat of world chess champion Garry Kasparov in 1997. 能够在游戏中击败人类高手的计算机程序有着悠久的发展历史——从上世纪50年代掌握“井字棋”制胜之道,到1997年“深蓝”(Deep Blue;IBM研发的计算机——译者注)击败国际象棋世界冠军加里#8226;卡斯帕罗夫(Garry Kasparov)。 In recent years, however, the pace of advance has quickened. Data-crunching devices routinely notch up previously unthinkable victories. Computers can triumph in quiz games, as IBM’s Watson proved when it won the TV show Jeopardy in 2011. They also mimic human aptitudes with ever greater facility. For instance, machines play arcade games simply by observing the movement of objects on the screen. 然而,近年来进步速度加快了。能够运算海量数据的设备经常取得以往不可想象的胜利。计算机能够在智力竞赛中取胜,IBM的“沃森”(Watson)在2011年赢得电视节目《危险边缘》(Jeopardy)就是例。它们还能以越来越强大的“悟性”模仿人的天赋。例如,机器通过观察屏幕上物体的运动,就能学会玩街机游戏。 Even so, the triumph of the AlphaGo computer over the South Korean world champion Lee Se-dol in the first of a five-match series in the ancient Chinese board game of Go marks more than just a new notch on the computerised honours board. Mr Lee had been confident of victory and proclaimed himself “shocked” by his defeat. 即便如此,AlphaGo电脑在古老的中国棋盘游戏——围棋的对垒中击败韩国九段棋手李世石(Lee Sedol),在五局“人机对战”中首战告捷,不仅标志着电脑荣誉板上的一个新档次。赛前对胜利信心满满的李世石,在落败后坦承“震惊”。 Go is a little like a version of chess, only vastly more complicated. Indeed the possible moves within a game exceed the number of atoms within the universe. This is a challenge that would defeat traditional programmes. Indeed it can only be mastered by computers assembled into neural networks that teach themselves through observation and practice — abilities that remain at the frontiers of computer science. 围棋有点像国际象棋的变体,只是复杂程度高得多。的确,其棋局的变数比宇宙中的原子数量还要多。这个挑战会挫败传统的程序。事实上,只有多台计算机组成神经网络,通过观察和实践来“自学”(这些能力仍处于计算机科学的前沿),才能驾驭这种高难度挑战。 Demis Hassabis and his team at DeepMind, the UK-based artificial intelligence (AI) arm of Alphabet, deserve credit for the speed at which they have mastered this undertaking. True, AlphaGo, a formidable piece of IT, could be described as a computerised sledgehammer aimed at a recreational nut. Its victory, however, is a reminder of how fast the world is overcoming the obstacles in the way of AI, and its deployment in the world about us. 杰米斯#8226;哈萨比斯(Demis Hassabis)以及他在DeepMind(Alphabet旗下英国人工智能部门)的团队以如此快的速度掌握围棋制胜之道,这一点值得赞赏。没错,作为一件具有强大能力的信息技术设备,AlphaGo可以被形容为一把计算机化的大锤,其用途是敲开一个消遣的坚果。然而,它的胜利提醒世人,世界正在快速攻克人工智能及其实际部署所面临的障碍。 That is largely due to the huge amount of cash being poured into AI research by US and Chinese companies. These are poaching some of the brightest computer scientists from universities, giving them the capacity and tools to pursue their heart’s desire. 这在很大程度上归功于美国和中国企业对人工智能研究的巨大投入。这些企业从高校挖走一些最优秀的计算机科学家,并提供资源和工具,让这些科学家从事内心渴望的研究。 According to a recent survey, half of the world’s AI experts believe human level machine intelligence will be achieved by 2040. This opens up huge possibilities for the enrichment of mankind, from tackling climate change and treating disease to labour-saving devices. It also raises ethical questions every bit as profound as those posed by genetics. AI experts talk about the possibility of the human brain being reverse-engineered. Physicist Stephen Hawking last year warned that unless we take care, board games might be the least of it: AI could ultimately “outsmart us all”. 根据最近的一项调查,全球半数人工智能专家相信,人类水平的机器智能到2040年就能成为现实。这为增进人类福祉开启巨大可能性——从应对气候变化、治疗疾病,到节省劳动力的设备。这也引发种种道德问题,其深刻性丝毫不亚于遗传学所构成的道德问题。人工智能专家谈到人脑被“逆向工程”的可能性。物理学家史蒂芬#8226;霍金(Stephen Hawking)去年曾警告,除非我们小心,否则棋盘游戏可能是最无关紧要的问题:人工智能最终可能“比我们所有人更聪明”。 One does not have to believe in some future tech dystopia to believe that governments and wider society should take the implications of these developments seriously. Google, Facebook and other companies rushing into AI point out that they are establishing ethics panels to consider appropriate uses for these technologies. These are unlikely to be immune from commercial interests or indeed from the gung-ho enthusiasm of the researchers. 人们不一定非要相信未来将出现某种科技“敌托邦”才会认为,政府和整个社会应该认真对待这些发展的潜在影响。竞相进军人工智能领域的谷歌(Google)、Facebook等公司指出,他们正在成立伦理小组以考量这些技术的适当用途。这些小组不太可能对商业利益以及研究人员的热忱无动于衷。 Some external scrutiny akin to that supplied in the case of genetics by the UK’s Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority is needed to protect the public from developments that may threaten more than the amour-propre of a South Korean Go champion. Granted, there may yet be no evidence that computers will ever shrug off their human masters but we should still treat these developments with the humility and caution they deserve. 需要进行一些外部监督,类似于遗传学领域的英国人类受精和胚胎学(HFEA),以保护公众免受相关发展的威胁,这些威胁所牵涉的不只是韩国围棋高手的自尊。当然,目前也许还没有据表明计算机有朝一日将踢开他们的人类主人,但我们仍应该对这些发展给予应有的谦卑和审慎。 /201603/431097。

The number of jobs lost to more efficient machines is only part of the problem...In the past, new industries hired far more people than those they put out of business. But this is not true of many of today’s new industries.”“更高效机器造成的工作流失数量只是问题的一部分……过去,新行业聘用的员工数量远远超过这些行业砸掉的饭碗。但如今很多新行业却并非如此。”This sentiment, from Time magazine, dates from the early weeks of John Kennedy’s presidency. Yet it would slot nicely into many a contemporary political speech. Like any self-respecting remorseless killer robot from the future, our techno-anxiety just keeps coming back.来自《时代周刊》杂志(Time)的这种观点可回溯到约翰肯尼迪(John Kennedy)担任总统最初几周。然而,把它放进当今许多政治演讲中也丝毫不会显得突兀。与所有来自未来的那些有自尊心、冷酷无情的杀人机器人一样,我们对科技的担忧也隔一段时间就又回来。Arnold Schwarzenegger’s Terminator was science fiction — but so, too, is the idea that robots and software algorithms are guzzling jobs faster than they can be created. There is an astonishing mismatch between our fear of automation and the reality so far.阿诺德施瓦辛格(Arnold Schwarzenegger)主演的《终结者》(Terminator)是科幻电影,而这种看法也是科幻、而非现实:机器人和软件算法葬送就业的速度快于创造就业的速度。我们对于自动化的担忧与目前的现实出现了惊人的不符。How can this be? The highways of Silicon Valley are sprinkled with self-driving cars. Visit the cinema, the supermarket or the bank and the most prominent staff you will see are the security guards, who are presumably there to prevent you stealing valuable machines. Your computer once contented itself with correcting your spelling; now it will translate your prose into Mandarin. Given all this, surely the robots must have stolen a job or two by now?怎么会这样?硅谷的高速公路上行驶着不少无人驾驶汽车。去影院、超市或者的时候,你看到的最显眼的员工将是保安,他们存在的原因大概是为了防止你偷窃价值高昂的机器。你的电脑曾经满足于纠正你的拼写;如今电脑会把你写的文章翻译成普通话。鉴于这一切,这些机器人现在肯定已经窃取了一两份工作了吧?Of course, the answer is that automation has been destroying particular jobs in particular industries for a long time, which is why most westerners who weave clothes or cultivate and harvest crops by hand do so for fun. In the past that process made us richer.当然,是长期以来,自动化一直在摧毁某些特定行业的某些特定工作,这就是为什么如今多数西方人亲手织布或种植和收割农作物是为了好玩。过去,做这些能为我们带来收入。The worry now is that, with computers making jobs redundant faster than we can generate new ones, the result is widesp unemployment, leaving a privileged class of robot-owning rentiers and highly paid workers with robot-compatible skills.现在人们担心,考虑到电脑葬送就业的速度快于我们创造新就业的速度,会出现大规模失业,造就一个由拥有机器人的食利者以及拥有兼容机器人技能的高薪员工组成的特权阶级。This idea is superficially plausible: we are surrounded by cheap, powerful computers; many people have lost their jobs in the past decade; and inequality has risen in the past 30 years.表面上看来,这种观点是合理的:我们被廉价且强大的电脑包围;过去10年,很多人失业;过去30年,不平等程度一直上升。But the theory can be put to a very simple test: how fast is productivity growing? The usual measure of productivity is output per hour worked — by a human. Robots can produce economic output without any hours of human labour at all, so a sudden onslaught of robot workers should cause a sudden acceleration in productivity.但我们可以用一个非常简单的测试来检验这一理论:生产率增速有多快?衡量生产率的通常标准是一个人类的每小时产出。机器人可以在丝毫不增加人类劳动时间的情况下创造经济产出,因此机器人劳动者的大量侵袭应会带来生产率增长的突然提速。Instead, productivity has been disappointing. In the US, labour productivity growth averaged an impressive 2.8 per cent per year from 1948 to 1973. The result was mass affluence rather than mass joblessness. Productivity then slumped for a generation and perked up in the late 1990s but has now sagged again. The picture is little better in the UK, where labour productivity is notoriously low compared with the other G7 leading economies, and it has been falling further behind since 2007.然而,事实上生产率一直令人失望。在美国,1948年至1973年,劳动生产率增速平均为每年2.8%,这很了不起。结果是大规模富裕,而非大规模失业。接着,生产率下滑了一代人时间,在上世纪90年代末回升,如今又再次陷入低迷。英国的情况也没有好到哪里去,众所周知,英国的劳动生产率低于七国集团(G7)其他成员国,自2007年以来双方差距还一直在拉大。Taking a 40-year perspective, the impact of this long productivity malaise on typical workers in rich countries is greater than that of the rise in inequality, or of the financial crisis of 2008. In an age peppered with economic disappointments, the worst has been the stubborn failure of the robots to take our jobs. Then why is so much commentary dedicated to the opposite view? Some of this is a simple error: it has been a tough decade, economically speaking, and it is easy to blame robots for woes that should be laid at the door of others, such as bankers, austerity enthusiasts and eurozone politicians.以40年的时间段来看,富国普通劳动者生产率长期低迷的影响要超过不平等程度上升或者2008年的金融危机。在经济领域诸多事情令人失望之际,最令人失望的事情就是机器人一直未能夺走我们的工作。那么,为何有如此多言论致力于论述相反的观点?部分原因在于一个简单的错误:从经济的角度来看,过去这十年是艰难的十年,我们很容易将本应怪罪于其他人(比如业人士、极力主张紧缩的人士以及欧元区政治界人士)的困境归咎于机器人。It is also true that robotics is making impressive strides. Gill Pratt, a robotics expert, recently described a “Cambrian explosion” for robotics in the Journal of Economic Perspectives. While robots have done little to cause mass unemployment in the recent past, that may change in future.机器人产业正取得不俗进展,这也是事实。机器人专家吉尔渠拉特(Gill Pratt)最近在《经济展望期刊》(Journal of Economic Perspectives)中写道机器人科学出现“寒武纪大爆发”。尽管最近机器人几乎没有造成大规模失业,但未来这点可能会发生变化。Automation has also undoubtedly changed the shape of the job market — economist David Autor, writing in the same journal, documents a rise in demand for low-skilled jobs and highly skilled jobs, and a hollowing out of jobs in the middle. There are signs that the hollow is moving further and further up the spectrum of skills. The robots may not be taking our jobs, but they are certainly shuffling them around.此外,自动化无疑改变了就业市场的状况,经济学家戴维攠塙尔(David Autor)在同一份期刊中记录了低技能和高技能工作需求的上升以及中等技能岗位的流失。有迹象表明,岗位流失现象正愈发向更高技能的岗位蔓延。机器人或许没有夺走我们的工作,但它们肯定正对我们的工作重新洗牌。Yet Mr Autor also points to striking statistic: private investment in computers and software in the US has been falling almost continuously for 15 years. That is hard to square with the story of a robotic job-ocalypse. Surely we should expect to see a surge in IT investment as all those machines are installed?然而,奥托尔还指出惊人的数据:美国电脑和软件领域的私人投资已几乎持续地下滑了15年。如果说机器人会带来就业末日的话,这很难说得通。既然那么多机器已经就位,我们肯定会预计IT投资会飙升,不是吗?Instead, in the wake of the great recession, managers have noted an ample supply of cheap human labour and have done without the machines for now. Perhaps there is some vast underground dormitory somewhere, all steel and sparks and dormant androids. In a corner, a chromium-plated robo-hack is tapping away at a column lamenting the fact that the humans have taken all the robots’ jobs.然而,在大萧条之后,管理者注意到廉价人类劳动力供应充足,一直满足于暂时不使用机器人。或许,在地下某个地方有一个巨大的宿舍,里面都是闪着金属光泽、处于休眠状态的钢铁机器人。在一个角落里,一个镀铬的机器人雇工正在敲打键盘撰写一篇专栏,哀叹人类已夺走所有机器人的工作。 /201508/395824。

SEVENTY years ago, the ed Nations was formed as the expression of a simple choice: cooperation instead of war. Humanity would stand as one against conflict, poverty and disease. All the world’s voices would be heard.70年前,联合国的建立表明,人类做出了一个简单的选择:合作而非战争。全人类应该团结起来,应对冲突、贫穷和疾病。世界上所有人的声音都应被听到。At least, that was the plan.至少,那时是这样计划的。We’ve come a long way. We’ve halted and reversed the sp of killer diseases, extended life expectancy and raised incomes. We’ve even walked ourselves back from the edge of some global conflicts and catastrophes. But progress has not been evenly distributed. Too many people have been left outside of a mostly urban, mostly Northern success story.我们一路走来取得了极大的进展。我们遏制和扭转了致命疾病的传播,延长了预期寿命,提高了收入水平。我们甚至将自己从一些全球性冲突和灾难的边缘拉了回来。但是人类的进步并不均衡。成功的故事主要在城市、在北半球,而太多的人被遗忘在这些成功故事之外。Seeing that, world leaders put forth a new set of global goals in New York last week. If we want to build a world where not just some but all get to live in security and prosperity, there’s a lot still to do, as the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development signed off on by ed Nations member states shows.目睹这些现象,世界各国领导人上周在纽约提出了一系列新的全球目标。如果我们希望构建一个不仅让一部分人,而是让全体人都可以生活在安全与繁荣中的世界,我们仍有很多工作要做。联合国成员国签署的《2030年可持续发展议程》就体现了这一点。It lists 17 goals and 169 targets, and one of these, 9(c), is a target that we believe is crucial to accelerate realization of all the others: a commitment to provide Internet connectivity for all by 2020.议程中列出17项总体目标和169项具体目标。我们相信其中一项目标,即编号9(c)的目标,对促成其他所有目标的实现是至关重要的:承诺到2020年,让全世界所有人接入互联网。Today over half the people on this planet don’t have access. That is not good for anyone — not for the disempowered and disconnected, and not for the other half, whose commerce and security depend on having stable societies.今天,我们这个星球上超过半数的人无法接入网络。这对任何人来说都不是好事——对那些处于劣势、未能连入网络的人并非好事,对另外一半也一样,因为后者的利益和安全都依托于社会的稳定。An unprecedented array of technologists and activists — from Mo Ibrahim to Bill and Melinda Gates, action/2015, Ushahidi and Sahara Reporters have come together to support a global Connectivity Declaration, pledging their support for the new global goals and connecting the world to opportunity. This needs to become a global movement.从穆·易卜拉欣(Mo Ibrahim)到比尔和梅琳达·盖茨(Bill and Melinda Gates),从“行动/2015”(action/2015)到“见者”(Ushahidi),再到“撒哈拉记者”(Sahara Reporters),一系列科技界人士和活动人士史无前例地联合起来,持一项全球“互连宣言”。他们承诺会持新的全球目标,让全世界与机遇相连。这需要成为一项全球性的运动。In this century, global development and global connectivity are closely linked. If you want to help people feed, heal, educate and employ themselves around the world, we need to connect the world as well. The Internet should not belong to only three billion people, as it does today. It should be seen as a necessity for development, and a tool that makes larger things possible.这个世纪,全球发展与全球网络互联是密切相关的。想要协助世界各地的人得到饱足、医疗、教育并自力更生,我们也需要让全世界接入网络。互联网不应该像今天这样,只属于30亿人口。它应该被视为发展的必需品,一个用来成就更远大目标的工具。In Ethiopia and Tanzania, for example, farmers connect to get better prices, track inventory and make mobile insurance payments in case of bad weather. In Nigeria, citizens use BudgIT, a mobile app, to assess whether governments keep their spending promises. The opportunity is especially great for women. Men have significantly more access to the web, but when women get connected, they use technology as a pathway to better education, health, economic status and security. In Guatemala, cellphones inform mothers how to have healthy pregnancies. In Kenya, women receive financial services via their cellphones thanks to the brilliant M-Pesa microfinance scheme.以埃塞俄比亚和坦桑尼亚为例,当地的农民可利用网络争取较高的售价、追踪库存、通过移动设备付保险费用,以防天有不测风云。尼日利亚公民可以利用BudgIT这个手机app,来监督政府是否遵守承诺运用开。对女性来说这尤其是个大好机会。虽然男性连线上网的机会要多得多,不过如果女性也能使用网络,她们就能借助科技手段,寻求更好的教育、健康、经济地位与人身安全。危地马拉的准妈妈能使用手机学习如何在期保持健康。而在肯尼亚,借助M-Pesa这个出色的微型贷款计划,妇女们能够通过手机获得金融务。In the last few weeks, we’ve watched desperate refugees seek shelter on the frontiers of Europe. Smartphones have made it possible for those left behind to communicate with loved ones across checkpoints and razor wire. The Internet connected our world in shared grief as a Syrian child’s death on a beach in Turkey came to symbolize every refugee. Social media carried the message and changed not just popular opinion but public policy.过去几周,我们看到许多难民铤而走险,在欧洲边境寻求庇护。智能手机使得那些留在当地的难民,得以与跨过了检查站和铁丝网的亲人保持连系。网络使全世界人,共同为一个死在土耳其海滩上的叙利亚男童哀悼,使他成为了每位难民的共同象征。社交网络不只传递了信息,同时也促成了公众意见与公共政策的改变。It’s one thing to say we should connect the world. The real trick is how.然而用网络连结全世界说来容易,做起来难。There’s no simple solution or silicon bullet.并不存在简便的解决方案,或者一蹴而就的技术工具。In many places, increasing connectivity will have to start with extending access to energy. Nine out of 10 rural Africans don’t have electricity. Governments can make the difference. This is why we support initiatives like President Obama’s Power Africa plan and the bipartisan Electrify Africa Act in Congress, as well as the African Development Bank’s investments in renewable energy.在许多地方,想普及网络连接,得先从普及能源供应开始着手。非洲农村地区的民众十分之九没有电力可用,政府当局可以在这个方面带来改变。这就是我们为什么要持奥巴马总统提出的“电力非洲计划”(Power Africa)、两党在国会共同提出的《非洲电气化法案》(Electrify Africa Act),以及非洲开发(African Development Bank)对可再生能源的投资。Where governments lay the foundation, the private sector can build. Promising efforts are underway to bridge the digital divide. But we know the global community can, and must, do more — and urgently. The Intel Foundation’s work in STEM education, Microsoft’s use of technology to advance the Millennium Development Goals and Google’s Project Loon to connect remote locations illustrate how technology leaders are prioritizing this effort, as is Internet.org, Facebook’s contribution to meeting the challenge.政府打下基础之后,私营部门就能继续建设。我们为缩小数字鸿沟所付出的努力前景可期。不过我们也很清楚,世界各国可以也应该作出更多贡献,而这是刻不容缓的。英特尔基金会(Intel Foundation)为理工和数学教育所做的工作,微软利用科技推进千年发展目标(Millennium Development Goals)的努力,以及谷歌为偏远地区提供网络接入的热气球计划(Project Loon),都显示出科技巨头将此视为当务之急。Facebook旗下的Internet.org也为应对挑战做出了贡献。More technology companies and entrepreneurs must take more responsibility. Silicon Valley should look beyond itself and act more on issues like education, health care and the refugee crisis. We challenge the tech industry to do far more for those most marginalized, those trapped in poverty, and those beyond or on the edge of the network.需要有更多科技公司与企业家承担起更多责任。硅谷不只应该关注自身,还应该采取更多行动,应对教育、医疗及难民危机等议题。我们想对科技产业提出挑战,替那些最边缘化、为贫穷所困,还有那些网络所不能及的人群,付出更大努力。All the global goals must be scored — but the goal of connectivity for everyone everywhere will surely hurry this game-that’s-not-a-game to its successful conclusion. Hurry being the operative word here.所有的全球目标都必须达成,然而让世界各地的所有人都接入互联网的目标,肯定能加速这场并非儿戏的赛跑。“加速”理当成为我们的行动方针。 /201510/401921。

Apple is expected to unveil its latest device, the iPhone 6s (or 7), on September 9 in what should be a sigh of relief for investors, who have had a tough ride this week. Despite CEO Tim Cook’s assurance that China’s economic difficulties should not adversely impact the tech giant’s sales, the company’s stock is still trading below its 5 a share level just a few weeks ago, even after the robust market rally on Thursday, and far below its 52-week high of 4.54 a share.苹果公司预计将于9月9日发布最新款手机iPhone 6s(或iPhone 7),在过去一周经历股价震荡的投资者们理应松一口气。尽管首席执行官蒂姆錠克信誓旦旦地声称,中国的经济困境不会对这家科技巨头的销量造成负面影响,但就在几周前,苹果股价依然低于115美元,即便是在上周四股市强劲反弹之后依然如此,远低于52周以来的最高点134.54美元。At least some of the market punishment seems unique to Apple. Investors are worried about the company for many reasons, including competition from low-cost Chinese smartphone makers and only modest traction for Apple Music and Apple Pay.至少,来自市场的某些惩罚似乎就是专门冲着苹果来的。投资者有许多理由为这家公司担心,比如中国智能手机厂商的低价竞争,Apple Music和Apple Pay的吸引力十分有限,等等。Which is why the new iPhone is crucial for Apple to restore investors’ confidence, and there’s a good chance it will for several reasons.有鉴于此,投资者能否重拾信心,新款iPhone的表现至关重要。基于以下几个原因,它很可能会不负所望。The phone will have a 12 megapixel camera, a big increase from previous versions; 4k recording; faster processing speed; longer battery life, which many users consider to be an extremely important feature, according to multiple studies cited by Tech Insider; animated wallpaper like the Apple Watch and Android phones; the ability to detect when a Wi-Fi network is weak and automatically switch to cellular; and Wi-Fi calling over ATamp;T, previously limited to T-Mobile.这款手机拥有远超前几代产品的1200万像素摄像头、4K视频录制功能、更快的处理速度、更长的电池续航时间(据Tech Insider引用的多项调研显示,用户认为这一点极为重要)、类似Apple Watch和安卓手机的动态墙纸。这款手机能识别较差的Wi-Fi网络信号,并在这类环境中自动切换至蜂窝网络。这代手机的Wi-Fi通话功能还持ATamp;T的网络,此前仅限于T-Mobile。But what’s expected to be the most important new feature of all: force touch, a technology that enables a device to distinguish between light and strong taps by a user and assign different functions to them, as it currently does on the Apple Watch and MacBooks. Applied to the iPhone, this could potentially be the killer feature that solidly differentiates the new iPhone from its predecessors by enhancing ease-of-use and utility.不过该手机最重要的新特色还是压感触控(force touch),这项技术能让设备识别用户的轻度和重度触屏,并为它们分配不同的功能。它目前已经在Apple Watch和Macbook上实现了。一旦该技术应用于新款iPhone上,就可能成为一项王牌特色,使其在操作简便性和功能实用性方面远远甩开前几代产品。An improvement to the user experience has always been at the heart of Apple’s success with new models and the force touch feature can provide this. Force touch is also new enough to encourage buyers to replace their existing phones, a major driver of sales in in China, one of Apple’s key markets. Force Touch should also help Apple maintain its position in the Asian market, where competitor Huawei is reportedly introducing a similar feature to its smartphones.增强用户体验一直是苹果成功的不二法门,而新款机型和压感触控特色就能做到这一点。压感触控这项技术足够新颖,能让用户有动力替换现有机型,在苹果的重要市场中国,这是提高销量的一大因素。压感触控还能帮助苹果维持其在亚洲市场的地位,据说中国的竞争对手华为即将在智能手机上推出类似功能。Another factor working in Apple’s favor is that while the company may have a hard time outdoing its blockbuster sales for the iPhone 6, new equipment installment plans from wireless carriers might encourage adoption for the new iPhone by consumers. An increasing percentage of ATamp;T and Verizon customers have been opting for these plans, which don’t tie them down to two-year contracts and allow them to upgrade early.另一个因素也可能成为苹果一大利好。诚然,在iPhone 6大获成功之后,苹果公司的业绩或许很难再上一层楼。不过,无线网络运营商提供的新设备分期付款计划也许会鼓励用户购买新iPhone。越来越多的ATamp;T和威瑞森的顾客都开始选择这类计划。这些计划不会把他们束缚在两年的合约中,可以让他们尽早升级手机。Sanford C. Bernstein analyst Toni Sacconaghi estimates that about 14.9 million U.S. customers will be eligible for upgrades at the end of this year, compared to 5.3 million last fall when the iPhone 6 launched, according to The Wall Street Journal.斯坦福伯恩斯坦公司分析师托尼萨克纳西预计,大约有1490万美国用户可以在今年年底前升级手机。而据《华尔街日报》所述,去年秋天iPhone 6发布时,这一数值是530万。Finally, even though Apple continues to trail Samsung in terms of worldwide smartphone sales, which fell in the second quarter of 2015, Apple’s market share rose to 14.6% from 12.2% a year ago, while Samsung’s declined to 21.9% from 26.2%, according to research firm Gartner. In China, too, Apple’s iPhone sales grew by 68% last quarter to 11.9 million units, indicating that the company is making inroads in that market despite its challenges. “It’s a big brand and people really associate that with their status and it’s kind of an aspirational brand so many of the consumers in China expect to own an iPhone at some point of time,” says Gartner research director Anshul Gupta.最后,尽管苹果在全球智能手机销量上仍然不及三星,后者的销量在2015年第二季度有所下滑。研究公司高德纳的数据显示,苹果的市场占有率从去年的12.2%上升到14.6%,而三星从26.2%下降到21.5%。在中国,苹果的iPhone销量上季度大涨68%,达到1190万部。这充分明,尽管中国市场充满挑战,苹果依然能够披荆斩棘,高歌猛进。高德纳研究总监安舒尔古普塔表示:“苹果是一个大品牌,人们真的很认同它的地位。这也是一个让许多人梦寐以求的品牌,很多中国顾客都希望有朝一日能拥有一部iPhone。”Some words of caution here. Apple’s new product launches are always surrounded by hype and predictions that don’t always come true. It remains to be seen how good the final product will be and, of course, how many people will buy it. In addition, analyst expectations could be inflated, as they were last quarter, setting Apple up to disappoint Wall Street even with a great smartphone.不过这里也要提个醒。苹果的新产品总是被吹得天花乱坠,但这些预言并不是总能实现。最终发布的产品究竟有多好,以及有多少人愿意买单,还需拭目以待。此外,就想上个季度一样,分析师的预计也可能过高,华尔街最终可能以失望告终。Nonetheless, given the importance of the new iPhone as investors add pressure on Apple’s stock, it’s a safe bet that the company is going take this particular launch very seriously. Stay tuned for September 9th.尽管如此,由于投资者不断对苹果股价施压,新款iPhone的重要性不言而喻,我们可以肯定苹果会严肃对待这次特别的发布会。9月9日的确是令人期待的一天。 /201509/397951。

It is sometimes cited as proof of Silicon Valley’s “no-holds” war for talent, but America’s technology heartland has evolved a working culture that is simultaneously relaxed and permissive.硅谷已发展出一种轻松宽容的职场文化,它有时被援引为这个美国科技中心 “不择手段”争抢人才的据。Famously, Google offers engineers the freedom to pursue their own projects for up to 20 per cent of their working time. Meanwhile, Netflix allows its staff the unheard-of-in-America privilege of unlimited vacations. The streaming firm also hit the news earlier this month when it offered new parents fully-paid leave for a year after birth or adoption.其中著名的是,谷歌(Google)允许工程师利用他们至多20%的工作时间来自由从事自己的项目。与此同时,Netflix给予其员工在美国闻所未闻的无限休假的特权。这家视频流媒体公司还在本月初上了新闻头条——它允许新晋为父母的员工在生产或是领养孩子后享受一年的全薪休假。It is an approach that seems designed to appeal to a particular type of individualist cum self-starter. Or, as the Harvard Business Review succinctly put it: “Only fully formed adults need apply.”这种方式似乎旨在吸引特殊类型的个人以及积极主动型人才。或者,正如《哈佛商业》(Harvard Business Review)简单说的那样:“只有完全定型的成年人才应该适用。”But dispensing vacation perks along with the air hockey tables is not the only way to run a tech company. A few hundred miles up the west coast in Seattle, a very different style prevails. Where Silicon Valley celebrates the laid-back culture of its pioneering 1960s and 1970s, Amazon has a flavour more evocative of ancient Sparta.但给出特殊的休假福利并提供空气曲棍球桌,并非是运营科技公司的唯一方式。在美国西海岸位于硅谷以北数百英里的西雅图(亚马逊(Amazon)总部所在地),一种截然不同的风格盛行。硅谷标榜自己开创性的上世纪六七十年代留下的轻松文化,但亚马逊的风格更令人想起古代的斯巴达。Criticisms of its approach are not new and were aired in Brad Stone’s 2013 book, The Everything Store. But they have now been given a fresh outing in a lengthy expose in the New York Times, citing scores of interviews with present and past employees.对亚马逊管理方式的批评并非首次出现,布拉德斯通(Brad Stone)在2013年的著作《一网打尽》(The Everything Store)中就提到过。但现在《纽约时报》(New York Times)在一篇长篇报道中援引对该公司现任及前任员工的数十次采访,对其管理风格进行了全新的揭露。People who do well are said to be those who thrive in an adversarial environment with constant friction. The online retailer’s founder, Jeff Bezos, apparently abhors what he calls “social cohesion”. He prefers the idea of his staff duking it out, using data and the power of argument. And according to the New York Times, employees are encouraged to report each other using a management tool designed to give anonymised feedback both to the individual criticised and their boss.干得好的员工据说是那些能在冲突不断的对抗性环境中平步青云的人。这家在线零售商的创始人杰夫贝索斯(Jeff Bezos)似乎憎恶自己口中的“社会凝聚力”。他喜欢让员工以数据和辩论为武器彼此争斗。根据《纽约时报》的报道,亚马逊员工被鼓励使用一个旨在向被批评员工及其老板发送匿名反馈的管理工具互打报告。Mr Bezos has given a measured response. While declaring the article “doesn’t describe the Amazon I know or the caring Amazonians I work with”, he also urges workers to come forward and contact him directly if they are aware of such practices. Given the gravity of some of the allegations, it leaves an equivocal impression; one he could have dispelled by promising to examine his own company records.贝索斯做出了慎重的回应。在宣称该文“所描述的并非我了解的亚马逊,亦非每天与我一起工作的有爱心的亚马逊人”的同时,他还敦促员工如果知道此类做法,就可以提出来,并直接与他联系。鉴于其中一些指控非常严重,这种回应给人一种模棱两可的感觉;他本可以承诺检查自己公司的记录来消除这种感觉。There is, of course, no excuse for unfair treatment. But when it comes to Amazon’s overall style, it is less clear what Mr Bezos has to justify. Amazon’s employees are not slaves. Many of its managers and engineers are highly employable elsewhere. Nor has its approach damaged the retailer. Now valued at 0bn, the 21-year-old company recently overtook Walmart as the world’s biggest general retailing group. It does not obviously lack for computing or management talent. Indeed it is constructing an enormous campus in Seattle where it plans to bring tens of thousands of them in one place.当然,任何借口都不能用来进行不公平的待遇。但就亚马逊的整体风格而言,看不出有什么是贝索斯必须明合理的。亚马逊的员工并非奴隶。它的许多经理和工程师在其他地方很容易找到工作。这种管理风格也没有对这家零售商造成伤害。现在这家成立21年之久的公司的市值为2500亿美元,最近超过沃尔玛(Walmart),成为全球最大的综合类零售集团。它看起来并不急缺计算或管理人才。实际上,该公司正在西雅图修建一座庞大的园区,计划将数万人才汇聚在一起。People often see the tech world as in some way unique. But there is no reason that it requires a management approach any more homogenised than industries that flourished before the world wide web. Not every investment bank has the work ethic of Goldman Sachs, nor management consultancy the culture of a McKinsey. Employees do not just work for a company because its bosses smile. They do so because they believe in its business model, or think they will derive fulfilment from sharing in its success.人们通常认为科技世界在某种程度上是独特的,但没有理由要求该行业拥有比在万维网出现之前蓬勃发展的行业更为同质化的管理方式。并非每家投行都有高盛(Goldman Sachs)的职业准则,并非每家管理咨询公司都有麦肯锡(McKinsey)的文化。雇员不会仅仅因为老板微笑就为一家公司工作。他们为公司工作是因为他们相信其业务模式,或者认为他们将从分享该公司的成功中获得成就感。Mr Bezos is at the hard-nosed end of US entrepreneurship. But until there is further evidence that his approach is deterring vital staff from joining Amazon, or driving customers to competitors, he is unlikely to change — and there seems little reason why he should.贝索斯属于美国创业家中的强硬派。但在有进一步的据表明,他的做法吓阻了关键员工加入亚马逊,或者促使客户转向竞争对手之前,他不太可能做出改变——他似乎也没有应该改变的理由。 /201508/394834。