原标题: 潍坊人流费用导医分享
The new iPhone is sure to shatter previous sales records. It may also prove the moment to dump Apple shares. 新iPhone一定会打破之前的销售纪录。除此之外,它也提醒我们,可能到了卖出苹果(Apple)股票的时候了。 Each new iPhone has sold as many units as all previous generations combined, Apple executives have joked internally according to recent trial testimony. And it isn#39;t crazy to believe exponential growth can continue for at least one more. Combine pent-up demand among existing iPhone users looking to upgrade, with the possibility that the new model will finally be compatible with the world#39;s largest carrier, China Mobile, and investors can expect explosive results. 据前不久的庭审词显示,苹果高管在公司内部开玩笑时曾说,每款新iPhone的销量都是之前所有几代产品的销量之和。认为至少另一款iPhone的销量也将呈现出这种增长模式并非不切实际的想法。那些想让手里iPhone更新换代的用户具有潜在需求,再加上新机型可能最终将与全球最大无线运营商中国移动(China Mobile)的网络兼容,基于这两个因素,投资者可以期待新iPhone异常火爆的销售情况。 But the device setting those records is itself likely to be just an incremental upgrade over its predecessor, the iPhone 4S. Indeed, if the latest version of Apple#39;s mobile operating system is any guide, the newest iPhone may not look that much different from smartphones Apple sold over three years ago. Granted, the screen is expected to be larger and the device thinner. But the actual user experience isn#39;t expected to be very different. 但创造这项纪录的新款iPhone本身却可能只是iPhone 4S的“增量升级”版。实际上,如果从苹果最新版移动操作系统来判断的话,那么新款iPhone可能与苹果过去三年来售出的智能手机并无太大差别。当然,预计屏幕会变大,机身会变薄,但实际用户体验可能不会有太大不同。 In one sense, that is good since a reason the iPhone is so popular is that #39;it just works,#39; notes analyst Neil Mawston of research firm Strategy Analytics. The hardware, software and Apple services like iTunes are tightly integrated and easy to use, making the device appealing to a huge swath of non-techie users. That is opposed to, say, devices running Google#39;s Android operating system, where the ability to customize can complicate the user experience. 市场研究公司Strategy Analytics的分析师莫斯顿(Neil Mawston)指出,从某种意义上说,这是件好事,因为iPhone如此受欢迎的原因之一是它很好用。iPhone的硬件、软件和苹果iTunes等务融为一体,使用方便,因此大量并非热衷电子产品的用户也为之着迷。与之形成对比的是搭载谷歌(Google)安卓(Android)操作系统的手机,这些产品的定制功能可能会使用户体验复杂化。 In another sense, sticking to the iPhone#39;s traditional design is a problem, giving rivals a chance to jump ahead with new features. The Windows Phone operating system that Nokia uses has #39;live tiles#39; that display useful information or photos directly on the device#39;s home screen, not just dummy icons you have to touch to launch apps. The camera technology in Nokia#39;s latest device is also likely to be superior to Apple#39;s. And Nokia is showing its engineering prowess with, for instance, a touch screen that should work for users wearing winter gloves. Such subtle improvements have typically been the hallmark of devices designed under Steve Jobs. 从另一个层面来看,iPhone在设计上坚持走传统路线也有问题,这会给竞争对手一个推出新功能并领先苹果的机会。诺基亚(Nokia)使用的Windows Phone操作系统有可直接在手机主屏上显示有用信息或图片的“活动瓷片”(live tiles),而不仅仅是必须通过碰触才能启动应用程序的一个个图标。诺基亚最新手机采用的相机技术可能也比苹果先进。而且诺基亚目前正在展示其设计实力,如用户带着防寒手套也能用的触摸屏等。这类细微之处的改进历来都是乔布斯(Steve Jobs)生前在任时苹果产品所具有的特色。 Apple has other powerful advantages, including a huge ecosystem of apps. Android also has plenty, but Windows Phone lags far behind. Users that have downloaded lots of apps, not to mention other media from the iTunes store, may find themselves locked into using an iPhone. But if rivals surpass the iPhone in other crucial respects, it becomes harder for Apple to justify the price premium it charges wireless carriers to sell its devices. 此外,苹果也有其它强大的优势,包括巨大的应用生态系统。安卓也有很多应用软件,但Windows Phone在这方面则远远落后。那些下载了很多应用软件(更不必说从iTunes商店下载其它媒体内容)的用户可能会发现自己已离不开iPhone了。但如果竞争对手在其它关键领域超越iPhone,苹果向无线运营商明其高价位属于合理范畴的难度就会增大。 Not long ago, Nokia and BlackBerry looked nearly as impregnable as Apple does today. Apple#39;s dominant ecosystem should prevent it ever suffering a similar decline. Yet the fact that it finds itself in a hit-driven business is perhaps good reason its shares trade for just 12 times earnings for the fiscal year ending September 2013 despite growing faster than any other company in the Samp;P 500 in 2011, ex-acquisitions. 不久以前,诺基亚和黑莓(BlackBerry)也曾与如今的苹果一样,有着看似几乎固若金汤的地位。苹果所主导的应用生态系统应该会防止它重蹈黑莓的覆辙。不过,苹果从事的是一个需要大量人气的行业,这也许就很好地解释了为何该公司根据截至2013年9月财年预期收益计算的市盈率仅为12倍,尽管苹果的增长速度超过2011年标普500指数(Samp;P 500)任何一家成分股公司(不包括发生收购的公司)。 Once upon a time, Apple revolutionized cellphones by turning them into hand-held computers. Resorting to evolutionary design changes would give rivals an opening. 曾几何时,苹果革命性地将手机转变为掌上电脑。而在设计方面采取“增量式改变”将让苹果的竞争对手有机可乘。 The next iPhone should again propel Apple#39;s stock and its sales. That may be the time for Apple shareholders to take their money off the table. 下一款iPhone应该会推动苹果股票及销售再上新台阶,或许这也是苹果股东揣好赚到的钱走路的时候了。 /201209/199147Klout#39;s new business dashboard, rolling out today, will offer a granular using at which social networks brands are seeing the most (and least) traction.Klout近日推出全新企业仪表板,提供细化信息,帮助企业了解自身品牌在哪个社交网站最具人气、在哪个网站最不具吸引力。Klout, the analytics startup that aims to measure users#39; influence across their social networks, is going after businesses. The San Francisco-based venture, which launched in 2008, is launching Klout for Business, a portal intended to be used by big-name brands to better understand their online audiences.社交影响力分析网站Klout致力于衡量用户在自身社交网络中的影响力,现在它开始争取企业用户。这家2008年于旧金山成立的初创企业目前推出了企业版Klout(Klout for Business),即一个旨在帮助各大品牌了解自身在线受众的门户网站。Today, Klout is making available a free analytics dashboard for companies with features that allow them to learn how influential their fans and followers are, which social networks the brand resonates most (or least) with, which social networks they should use more, which topics about the brand are most popular, and which ;moments;—a Tweet or Facebook (FB) update, for example—get the most attention.日前,Klout发布了针对企业的免费分析工具,帮助各公司了解自己的粉丝和追随者的影响力,自己的品牌与哪个社交网站最有共鸣,又与哪个最格格不入,自己应该多利用哪个社交网络,关于自身品牌的什么话题最受欢迎,以及哪个“时刻”——比如Tweet或Facebook上的一条更新——最受关注。Later this spring, the company will also introduce a Groups feature. Klout Groups will operate somewhat similarly to Facebook Groups, although they will only include the most influential people on social networks like Twitter and Instagram. The feature will allow companies to know, broadly, in which social networks members are particularly influential. Pricing will vary on a case by case basis. Klout currently draws the lion#39;s share of its revenues from Klout Perks, a rewards program that encourages social media influencers to share information about brands. Klout CEO Joe Fernandez told Fortune he expects these to flip next year once Groups get off the ground.Klout将于一季度末推出新功能群组。Klout群组和Facebook群组有些类似。不过,前者的成员范围要窄得多,仅包括Twitter和Instagram等社交网站上最具影响力的人物。借助这项功能,公司能大体了解自己在哪个社交网站上特别具有影响力。这项功能的价格将根据公司而有所变化。Klout目前最大的收入来源是Klout奖励。顾名思义,这个奖励计划鼓励社交网站上的知名人士积极分享有关各大品牌的信息。Klout首席执行官乔?费尔南德斯告诉《财富》(Fortune)杂志,一旦群组功能步入正轨,将有望在明年成为Klout的柱业务。The third part of Klout#39;s business strategy will include tools so brands can interact and engage directly with their influencers, from polls to targeted perks. At this year#39;s South by Southwest, Cirque du Soleil and Klout provided users who downloaded the mobile app and were at the festival various prizes.Klout还准备了第三项业务。它计划推出多种工具,帮助各大品牌与社交大号互动,或是直接对他们给予激励。这些工具涵盖了从投票调查到精准奖励的多种功能。今年的西南偏南音乐节(South by Southwest)期间,太阳马戏团(Cirque du Soleil)和Klout就向那些亲临音乐节,同时下载了该移动应用程序的用户发放了各种奖品。Will it work? That remains to be seen. Klout is no stranger to controversy. The company#39;s very launch generated much discussion of the importance of measuring influence on the growing social Web. Later, controversy then shifted to Klout scores themselves. Because outsiders were unsure of how scores were achieved, they questioned their validity. (Indeed, at one point, President Obama ranked lower than tech influencer Robert Scoble. Wait, what?) That issue was allayed thanks a major redesign late last year that offered a more accurate calculation of scores as well as transparency into how they are measured.效果究竟如何?目前还不得而知。Klout是一家备受争议的公司。诞生伊始,人们就竞相热议,在高速发展的社交网络圈,制定一套影响力评分标准究竟有无必要。随后,大家的注意力转移到Klout的打分上。因为人们不认可Klout评分方法,质疑它在暗箱操作。(确实,奥巴马总统的分数竟然要低于科技界名人罗伯特?斯科布。这怎么可能?)迫于压力,Klout在去年年底对评分系统进行了大幅调整,分数计算更加精确,打分过程也更加透明。大家的怨气终于稍稍平息。Since then, Klout has matured and gained more acceptance among consumers, thanks in part to a partnership with Microsoft#39;s (MSFT) Bing search engine. The company tripled revenue last year and expects to make in the low double-digit millions this year. There#39;s a hitch, however. ;A friend came in and told me that 10 out of 10 CMO#39;s [chief marketing officers] that I talk to know what Klout is—so we have brand recognition—but 0 out of 10 know you do anything for brands,; says Matt Thomson, Klout#39;s VP of Business Development and Platform. Today#39;s announcements are intended to address this.此后,Klout慢慢成熟,并深得消费者的认可,一定程度上是因为它与微软必应(Bing)搜索引擎的合作伙伴关系。Klout的收入在去年增长了两倍,并有望在今年实现年入千万美元。但有一个小问题。Klout负责业务拓展和平台的副总裁马特?汤姆森表示:“有位朋友对我说,他遇见过的首席市场官没人不知道Klout,所以我们的品牌认知度很高。但是,没有哪位首席市场官清楚,Klout究竟为品牌做了什么贡献。”而Klout日前的宣告正是为了解决这一问题。 /201303/231607The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (Isis) is the first terrorist group whose members have grown up on the internet. They are exploiting the power of the web to create a jihadi threat with near-global reach. The challenge to governments and their intelligence agencies is huge – and it can only be met with greater co-operation from technology companies.“伊拉克和黎凡特伊斯兰国”(ISIS)是第一个成员在网络时代长大的恐怖组织。利用网络的力量,他们几乎在全球范围内制造圣战威胁。各国政府和情报机构面对的挑战是巨大的,只有与科技企业展开更深入的合作,才能解决这个挑战。Terrorists have long made use of the internet. But Isis’s approach is different in two important areas. Where al-Qaeda and its affiliates saw the internet as a place to disseminate material anonymously or meet in “dark spaces”, Isis has embraced the web as a noisy channel in which to promote itself, intimidate people, and radicalise new recruits.恐怖分子早就会利用网络了。但在两个重要的方面,ISIS的策略和此前的恐怖组织不同。基地组织(al-Qaeda)及其附属组织将网络看成匿名散播材料或者暗中集会的场所,而ISIS把网络当成传播大量消息的渠道,借助它宣传自身、恐吓民众、让新成员变得更为激进。The extremists of Isis use messaging and social media services such as Twitter, Facebook and WhatsApp, and a language their peers understand. The s they post of themselves attacking towns, firing weapons or detonating explosives have a self-conscious online gaming quality. Their use of the World Cup and Ebola hashtags to insert the Isis message into a wider news feed, and their ability to send 40,000 tweets a day during the advance on Mosul without triggering spam controls, illustrates their ease with new media. There is no need for today’s would-be jihadis to seek out restricted websites with secret passwords: they can follow other young people posting their adventures in Syria as they would anywhere else.ISIS的极端分子使用Twitter、Facebook和WhatsApp等消息和社交媒体务,并且使用他们的同龄人理解的语言。他们发布视频,展示他们攻击城镇、射击或者引爆炸弹的画面,并刻意把视频制作成网络游戏的样子。他们使用世界杯(World Cup)和埃拉(Ebola)作为话题标签,将ISIS的讯息嵌入范围更广的消息源中。在向苏尔城进发的途中,ISIS成员每天发送4万条tweet消息,并且没有触发垃圾消息管控,这表明他们能自如地运用新媒体。今天,想成为圣战分子的人无需寻找访问受限、需要密码的网站:他们可以关注ISIS分子,像任何其他地方的年轻人那样,ISIS分子也会发布自己在叙利亚的“冒险”经历。The Isis leadership understands the power this gives them with a new generation. The grotesque s of beheadings were remarkable not just for their merciless brutality, which we have seen before from al-Qaeda in Iraq, but for what Isis has learnt from that experience. This time the “production values” were high and the s stopped short of showing the actual beheading. They have realised that too much graphic violence can be counter-productive in their target audience and that by self-censoring they can stay just the right side of the rules of social media sites, capitalising on western freedom of expression.ISIS的领导层了解,在新一代恐怖分子身上,网络赋予他们什么力量。ISIS发布的可怕斩首视频之所以不同寻常,不仅是因为内容残忍无情(我们在伊拉克的基地组织中也看到过这种残忍无情),还因为ISIS吸取了基地组织的经验。这一次,视频的“生产价值”很高,在展现真正的斩首画面前就停止了。他们已经意识到,太多暴力画面可能对他们的目标受众产生反效果。通过自我审查,他们能够恰巧保不触犯社交媒体网站的规则,利用西方的言论自由。Isis also differs from its predecessors in the security of its communications. This presents an even greater challenge to agencies such as GCHQ. Terrorists have always found ways of hiding their operations. But today mobile technology and smartphones have increased the options available exponentially. Techniques for encrypting messages or making them anonymous which were once the preserve of the most sophisticated criminals or nation states now come as standard. These are supplemented by freely available programs and apps adding extra layers of security, many of them proudly advertising that they are “Snowden approved”. There is no doubt that young foreign fighters have learnt and benefited from the leaks of the past two years.在通信安全方面,ISIS和以前的恐怖组织也不同。这给英国政府通信总部(GCHQ)这样的机构造成了更大的挑战。恐怖分子总是有各种方法来隐蔽自己的行动。但今天的移动科技和智能手机让可供选择的方法成倍增加。一度只有最老练的犯罪分子或者国家才能掌握给信息加密或者使信息匿名的技术,如今这些技术已成家常便饭。还有一些免费程序和应用可为他们提供额外的安全保护,其中许多在广告中自豪地宣称获得“斯诺登认”。毫无疑问,这些年轻的外国战斗人员已从过去一年多的斯诺登爆料中学习并受益。GCHQ and its sister agencies, MI5 and the Secret Intelligence Service, cannot tackle these challenges at scale without greater support from the private sector, including the largest US technology companies which dominate the web. I understand why they have an uneasy relationship with governments. They aspire to be neutral conduits of data and to sit outside or above politics. But increasingly their services not only host the material of violent extremism or child exploitation, but are the routes for the facilitation of crime and terrorism. However much they may dislike it, they have become the command-and-control networks of choice for terrorists and criminals, who find their services as transformational as the rest of us. If they are to meet this challenge, it means coming up with better arrangements for facilitating lawful investigation by security and law enforcement agencies than we have now.GCHQ及其姊机构军情五处(MI5)和秘密情报局(SIS,英国国内及海外情报机构)如果得不到私营部门更大的持,包括从主导互联网的美国各大科技公司得到这样的持,就无法大规模地应对这些挑战。我理解为什么这些公司与政府的关系比较紧张。它们希望成为中立的数据中转站,立于政治之外、或者政治之上。但它们的务不仅日益成为暴力极端主义或者儿童剥削相关材料传播的温床,也成为向犯罪和恐怖主义提供便利的渠道。无论它们多么不愿意承认,它们都已成为恐怖分子和犯罪分子首选的指挥和控制网络。就像我们其余人一样,那些不法分子也发现它们的务可以带来巨大改变。如果这些企业要应对这些挑战,就应该做出比现在更好的安排,为安全和执法机构进行合法调查提供便利。For our part, intelligence agencies such as GCHQ need to enter the public debate about privacy. I think we have a good story to tell. We need to show how we are accountable for the data we use to protect people, just as the private sector is increasingly under pressure to show how it filters and sells its customers’ data. GCHQ is happy to be part of a mature debate on privacy in the digital age. But privacy has never been an absolute right and the debate about this should not become a reason for postponing urgent and difficult decisions.就我们自身而言,GCHQ这样的情报机构需要参与公众对隐私的辩论。我认为我们有一些合情合理的事情可以告诉公众。我们需要展现,在调用数据以保护民众时,我们如何对所用数据负责,正如私营部门也面临越来越大的压力,展示它们如何过滤和出售用户数据那样。GCHQ乐于参与关于数字时代隐私的成熟辩论。但隐私从来都不是一项绝对的权利,相关的辩论也不应成为推迟一些紧迫而且困难的抉择的理由。To those of us who have to tackle the depressing end of human behaviour on the internet, it can seem that some technology companies are in denial about its misuse. I suspect most ordinary users of the internet are ahead of them: they have strong views on the ethics of companies, whether on taxation, child protection or privacy; they do not want the media platforms they use with their friends and families to facilitate murder or child abuse. They know the internet grew out of the values of western democracy, not vice versa. I think those customers would be comfortable with a better, more sustainable relationship between the agencies and the technology companies. As we celebrate the 25th anniversary of the spectacular creation that is the world wide web, we need a new deal between democratic governments and the technology companies in the area of protecting our citizens. It should be a deal rooted in the democratic values we share. That means addressing some uncomfortable truths. Better to do it now than in the aftermath of greater violence.我们这些人有责任应对互联网上的一些令人沮丧的行为,在我们看来,一些科技企业似乎在否认互联网存在被滥用的情况。我怀疑,绝大多数普通的互联网用户已经走在了它们的前面:他们对企业道德有鲜明的看法,无论是在税务、儿童保护或者隐私方面;他们不希望他们和他们的家人朋友使用的媒体平台为谋杀或者虐待儿童提供便利。他们知道互联网源于西方民主价值,而不是相反。我认为,这些互联网用户对情报机构与科技企业之间保持更好、更可持续的关系不会有意见。当我们庆祝万维网(World Wide Web)这个伟大的创造诞生25周年时,民主政府和科技企业需要在公民保护领域达成新的协议。这项协议应该基于我们共同的民主价值观。这意味着面对一些令人不安的实情。我们最好现在就采取行动,而不是等到更严重的暴力事件发生以后。 /201411/340984

While Samsung Electronics unveiled its new Gear 2 smartwatch to much fanfare, China#39;s Huawei Technologies also made its own foray into the wearable device market this weekend.在三星电子(Samsung Electronics)隆重推出其新款Gear 2智能手表之际,中国的华为技术有限公司(Huawei Technologies)上个周末也开始进军可穿戴设备市场。Huawei#39;s TalkBand B1, unveiled at Mobile World Congress in Spain, is similar to most other smart bands worn around the wrist, keeping time and offering health-tracking features. But Huawei adds a little twist by making the device act as a Bluetooth headset for wireless phone calls.华为在西班牙举行的世界移动通信大会(Mobile World Congress)上发布了智能手环TalkBand B1。与大多数腕式智能设备一样,TalkBand具有时钟和健康追踪功能。但略显不同的是,该智能手环配备了蓝牙耳机,可持无线通话。Part of the wristband-like device comes off and turns into a earpiece, allowing users to make calls without taking their phones out of their pockets or bags. Huawei says the new device is compatible with both Android and Apple#39;s iOS operating systems.这款智能手环的一部分可以取下来当作耳机,用户不用将手机从口袋或包里掏出来就可以拨打电话。华为称,这款新设备可以兼容安卓(Android)和苹果(Apple)的iOS操作系统。The Shenzhen-based company, whose mainstay business is supplying telecommunications networking gear to carriers, is the latest company to enter the fledgling market for wearables. Ahead of the World Mobile Congress in Barcelona, Huawei, still little-known as a consumer brand, was teasing its first wearable device on Chinese social media sites.华为是最新一家进军新兴可穿戴设备市场的公司,这家总部位于深圳的公司的主营业务是向运营商提供电信网络设备。在巴塞罗那的世界移动通信大会开幕前,华为就已经在中国社交媒体网站?其首款可穿戴设备造势。不过,作为一个消费者品牌,华为还没有什么知名度。The market for smartwatches and smart bands is getting increasingly crowded and competitive, even though many consumers are still not convinced that they need yet another connected device in addition to smartphones and tablets. A person familiar with the situation told The Wall Street Journal Sunday that Google is preparing an Android smartwatch with LG Electronics.越来越多的公司正涌入智能手表和智能手环市场,使得竞争不断加剧,哪怕许多消费者仍不确定除了智能手机和平板电脑之外他们是否还需要另外的连接设备。一位知情人士周日向《华尔街日报》(The Wall Street Journal Sunday)透露,谷歌(Google)准备与LG电子(LG Electronics)合作推出一款安卓智能手表。Huawei says the TalkBand will become available in China next month, and then in Western Europe, the Middle East, Russia and Japan in the second quarter. In Europe, the suggested retail price is EUR99 (6).华为表示,TalkBand下个月将在中国市场发售,第二季度将登陆西欧、中东、俄罗斯和日本市场。在欧洲,这款智能手环的建议零售价为99欧元(合136美元)。The price isn#39;t very low compared to more fitness-oriented smart bands. Nike#39;s FuelBand SE, for example, sells for 9 on the company#39;s online store.与其他更注重健康功能的智能手环相比,TalkBand的价格算不上很低廉。以耐克(Nike)的FuelBand SE为例,其官网售价为149美元。Other than the wireless calling function, Huawei says the TalkBand#39;s podometer-like feature counts your steps and calculates how many calories you have burned. The company also claims that the device can keeps track of the duration and quality of your sleep.华为表示,除了无线通话功能,TalkBand还可以计步、记录卡路里燃烧量。该公司称,这款设备还可以监测用户的睡眠时间和质量。 /201402/277268

Ebola sounds like the stuff of nightmares. Bird flu and SARS also send shivers down my spine. But I’ll tell you what scares me most: artificial intelligence.埃拉病毒听起来像噩梦。禽流感和SARS也让我脊背发凉。但是我告诉你什么让我最害怕:人工智能。The first three, with enough resources, humans can stop. The last, which humans are creating, could soon become unstoppable.如果有足够的资源,人类能阻止前三项疾病的传播。但最后一项是由人类所创造,它很快将变得无法阻挡。Before we get into what could possibly go wrong, let me first explain what artificial intelligence is. Actually, skip that. I’ll let someone else explain it: Grab an iPhone and ask Siri about the weather or stocks. Or tell her “I’m drunk.” Her answers are artificially intelligent.在我们探讨可能出现什么问题之前,让我先解释一下什么是人工智能。实际上不用我解释。我让别人来解释一下。你拿起iPhone,问问Siri天气和股票情况。或者对她说“我喝醉了”,她的回答就是人工智能的结果。Right now these artificially intelligent machines are pretty cute and innocent, but as they are given more power in society, these machines may not take long to spiral out of control.现在,这些人工智能机器非常可爱、无辜,但是随着它们在社会上被赋予更多权力,用不了多久它们就会失控。In the beginning, the glitches will be small but eventful. Maybe a rogue computer momentarily derails the stock market, causing billions in damage. Or a driverless car freezes on the highway because a software update goes awry.一开始只是些小毛病,但是它们意义重大。比如,一台出现故障的电脑瞬间让股市崩溃,导致数十亿美元的损失。或者一辆无人驾驶汽车因软件升级错误在高速公路上突然静止不动。But the upheavals can escalate quickly and become scarier and even cataclysmic. Imagine how a medical robot, originally programmed to rid cancer, could conclude that the best way to obliterate cancer is to exterminate humans who are genetically prone to the disease.但是这些骚乱能快速升级,变得非常可怕,甚至变成大灾难。想像一下,一个最初用来对抗癌症的医用机器人可能得出这样的结论:消灭癌症的最佳方法是消灭那些从基因角度讲易于患病的人。Nick Bostrom, author of the book “Superintelligence,” lays out a number of petrifying doomsday settings. One envisions self-replicating nanobots, which are microscopic robots designed to make copies of themselves. In a positive situation, these bots could fight diseases in the human body or eat radioactive material on the planet. But, Mr. Bostrom says, a “person of malicious intent in possession of this technology might cause the extinction of intelligent life on Earth.”《超级智能》(Superintelligence)一书的作者尼克·斯特罗姆(Nick Bostrom)描述了几种会导致人类灭绝的可怕情况。一种是能自我复制的纳米机器人。在理想情态下,这些机器人能在人体内战胜疾病,或者消除地球上的放射性物质。但斯特罗姆说,“如果有邪恶企图的人掌握了这种技术,那可能导致地球上智能生命的灭绝。”Artificial-intelligence proponents argue that these things would never happen and that programmers are going to build safeguards. But let’s be realistic: It took nearly a half-century for programmers to stop computers from crashing every time you wanted to check your email. What makes them think they can manage armies of quasi-intelligent robots?人工智能持者们辩称,这些事情永远都不会发生,程序员们会设置一些防护措施。但是让我们现实一点:程序员们花了近半个世纪才能让你在每次想查看邮件时电脑不崩溃。是什么让他们认为自己能够驾驭这些准智能机器人大军?I’m not alone in my fear. Silicon Valley’s resident futurist, Elon Musk, recently said artificial intelligence is “potentially more dangerous than nukes.” And Stephen Hawking, one of the smartest people on earth, wrote that successful A. I. “would be the biggest event in human history. Unfortunately, it might also be the last.” There is a long list of computer experts and science fiction writers also fearful of a rogue robot-infested future.不是只有我一个人有这样的担心。硅谷的常驻未来主义者埃隆·马斯克(Elon Musk)最近说,人工智能“可能比核武器还危险”。斯蒂芬·霍金(Stephen Hawking)是地球上最聪明的人之一。他写道,成功的人工智能“会是人类历史上最重大的事件。不幸的是,它也可能会是最后一个大事件”。还有很多计算机专家和科幻小说作家担心未来的世界充满故障机器人。Two main problems with artificial intelligence lead people like Mr. Musk and Mr. Hawking to worry. The first, more near-future fear, is that we are starting to create machines that can make decisions like humans, but these machines don’t have morality and likely never will.人工智能有两个主要问题让马斯克和霍金等人担忧。离我们较近的一个问题是,我们正在创造一些能像人类一样做决定的机器人,但这些机器没有道德观念,而且很可能永远也不会有。The second, which is a longer way off, is that once we build systems that are as intelligent as humans, these intelligent machines will be able to build smarter machines, often referred to as superintelligence. That, experts say, is when things could really spiral out of control as the rate of growth and expansion of machines would increase exponentially. We can’t build safeguards into something that we haven’t built ourselves.第二个问题离我们较远。那就是,一旦我们创造出和人一样智能的系统,这些智能机器将能够建造更智能的机器,后者通常被称为超级智能。专家们说,到那时,事情真的会迅速失控,因为机器的增长和膨胀速度将是迅猛的。我们不可能在自己尚未建立的系统中设置防护措施。“We humans steer the future not because we’re the strongest beings on the planet, or the fastest, but because we are the smartest,” said James Barrat, author of “Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era.” “So when there is something smarter than us on the planet, it will rule over us on the planet.”“我们人类掌控未来不是因为我们是地球上最强壮或最快的生物,而是因为我们是最智能的,”《我们的终极发明:人工智能和人类时代的终结》(Our Final Invention: Artificial Intelligence and the End of the Human Era)的作者詹姆斯·巴拉(James Barrat)说,“所以当这个星球上有比我们更智能的东西时,它将统治地球。”What makes it harder to comprehend is that we don’t actually know what superintelligent machines will look or act like. “Can a submarine swim? Yes, but it doesn’t swim like a fish,” Mr. Barrat said. “Does an airplane fly? Yes, but not like a bird. Artificial intelligence won’t be like us, but it will be the ultimate intellectual version of us.”更难理解的是,我们并不确切知道超级智能机器的外形或行为方式。“潜水艇会游泳吗?会,但它的游泳方式跟鱼不同,”巴拉说,“飞机会飞吗?会,但它的飞行方式跟鸟不同。人工智能不会跟我们一模一样,但它将是我们的终极智能版本。”Perhaps the scariest setting is how these technologies will be used by the military. It’s not hard to imagine countries engaged in an arms race to build machines that can kill.也许最可怕的是这些技术将会如何被军队利用。不难想像那些正在进行军备竞赛的国家会制造能杀人的机器。Bonnie Docherty, a lecturer on law at Harvard University and a senior researcher at Human Rights Watch, said that the race to build autonomous weapons with artificial intelligence — which is aly underway — is reminiscent of the early days of the race to build nuclear weapons, and that treaties should be put in place now before we get to a point where machines are killing people on the battlefield.邦妮·多彻蒂(Bonnie Docherty)是哈佛大学的法律讲师,也是人权观察组织的高级研究员。她说,人工智能自主武器的军备竞赛正在进行,这让人想起了核武器竞赛的初期;在这些机器人上战场杀人之前,我们必须先订好条约。“If this type of technology is not stopped now, it will lead to an arms race,” said Ms. Docherty, who has written several reports on the dangers of killer robots. “If one state develops it, then another state will develop it. And machines that lack morality and mortally should not be given power to kill.”“如果现在不制止这种技术,它将会导致军备竞赛,”多彻蒂说。她写过几个报告,讲述杀手机器人的危险。“如果一个国家在开发它,那另一个国家也会开发。这些致命的机器缺乏道德观念,不应该被赋予杀人权力。”So how do we ensure that all these doomsday situations don’t come to fruition? In some instances, we likely won’t be able to stop them.那么我们如何保所有这些世界末日的情形不会成为现实?在某些情况下,我们很可能无法阻止它们。But we can hinder some of the potential chaos by following the lead of Google. Earlier this year when the search-engine giant acquired DeepMind, a neuroscience-inspired, artificial intelligence company based in London, the two companies put together an artificial intelligence safety and ethics board that aims to ensure these technologies are developed safely.但是在谷歌的领导下,我们能阻止某些可能出现的混乱。今年年初,这个搜索引擎巨头收购了DeepMind公司,后者是伦敦的一家以神经系统科学为基础的人工智能公司。这两家公司建立了一个人工智能安全伦理委员会,旨在保这些技术安全发展。Demis Hassabis, founder and chief executive of DeepMind, said in a interview that anyone building artificial intelligence, including governments and companies, should do the same thing. “They should definitely be thinking about the ethical consequences of what they do,” Dr. Hassabis said. “Way ahead of time.”DeepMind的创始人、首席执行官杰米斯·哈萨比斯(Demis Hassabis)在一次视频采访中说,所有开发人工智能的机构,包括政府和公司,都应该这样做。“他们一定要考虑自己的所作所为会带来的伦理后果,”哈萨比斯说,“而且一定要早早考虑。” /201411/342616Larry Page is the face of Google Inc., GOOG +1.09% but the chief executive has had trouble being its voice. On Tuesday, Mr. Page broke his silence as to why.佩奇(Larry Page)是谷歌(Google Inc.)的形象代表,但这名首席执行长(CEO)却难以为公司发声。周二,佩奇打破沉默,解释了其中的原因。In a post on the company#39;s Google+ social networking service, the 40-year-old CEO wrote that he had been diagnosed with a #39;very rare#39; case of vocal-chord paralysis. After a bad cold 14 years ago, Mr. Page said that one of his vocal chords became paralyzed and his voice never fully recovered as doctors failed to find a cause.这名40岁的CEO在公司旗下Google+社交网站上的一篇帖子中写道,他被诊断患有一种非常罕见的声带麻痹症。佩奇说,14年前的一场重感冒之后,他的一根声带开始出现麻痹,声音一直没有完全恢复,医生也未能找到病因,。Mr. Page added that his condition took a turn for the worse last year when another cold brought problems to his second vocal chord. Since then, however, his condition has improved, he said.佩奇补充说,去年的一次感冒让他的第二根声带也出了问题,病情因此恶化。他说,不过在此之后,他的情况已经好转。Today, Mr. Page said #39;I#39;m fully able to do all I need to at home and at work, though my voice is softer than before.#39; He joked that fellow Google co-founder Sergey Brin #39;says I#39;m probably a better CEO because I choose my words more carefully.#39;佩奇说,佩奇说,虽然我的声音比以前轻了,但我现在完全有能力完成工作和生活中需要做的事。他开玩笑说,谷歌的联合创始人布林(Sergey Brin)说我可能成为一个更好的CEO,因为我在说话时更加谨慎。The revelation caps what had been a mystery over Mr. Page#39;s health. Mr. Page missed Google#39;s annual shareholder meeting in June and other events after the Mountain View, Calif., company said he #39;lost his voice,#39; though he continued to run the company. The lack of details surrounding the matter prompted speculation on Wall Street and elsewhere about whether Mr. Page may have had a serious medical condition.这个消息解开了关于佩奇健康状况的谜团。佩奇缺席了去年6月的谷歌年度股东大会以及一些其他活动,此前,这家总部位于加州山景城(Mountain View)的公司说他“失声”了,不过,他仍在运营这家公司。由于此事的相关细节太少,华尔街和其他一些方面猜测,佩奇是否出现了严重的健康问题。Mr. Page subsequently told Google employees by email that there was #39;nothing seriously wrong with me,#39; people familiar with the matter have said. Mr. Page#39;s voice has continued to sound hoarse and raspy during earnings conference calls with investors.知情人士说,佩奇随后通过邮件告诉谷歌的员工,我的身体状况没有出现严重问题。在与投资者召开的财报电话会议上,佩奇的声音听起来仍然沙哑而刺耳。Mr. Page#39;s comments come one day before the start of Google#39;s annual conference in San Francisco for software developers who create applications for Google#39;s Android and Chrome computer-operating systems.佩奇发表上述言论前一天,谷歌在旧金山召开了年度软件开发人员大会。这些开发人员是为谷歌旗下的安卓(Android)操作系统和Chrome电脑操作系统开发应用程序的。Corporate governance experts said Mr. Page#39;s disclosure was a responsible gesture to investors. Jeffrey Sonnenfeld, a senior associate dean at Yale School of Management, said Mr. Page#39;s post stands #39;in sharp contrast with [former Apple Inc. AAPL -2.39% CEO] Steve Jobs#39;s denials and efforts to disguise the truth for a fair bit of time.#39;企业治理专家们说,佩奇披露上述消息是对投资者的负责任之举。耶鲁大学管理学院(Yale School of Management)资深副院长索诺菲德(Jeffrey Sonnenfeld)说,佩奇发布的帖子与前苹果(Apple Inc.)CEO乔布斯(Steve Jobs)在很长时间内否认和试图掩盖真相的做法形成了鲜明对比。Mr. Jobs died in 2011 at the age of 56 after suffering from pancreatic cancer. Apple#39;s few disclosures about his health were criticized at times for providing minimal details about his condition.乔布斯于2011年因胰腺癌去世,终年56岁。苹果对他健康状况的为数不多的披露因为极其缺少细节而受到批评。People in such high-profile jobs at public companies have a #39;responsibility to the public#39; to disclose their condition because they are so #39;central to the strategic value of the business,#39; Mr. Sonnenfeld said.索诺菲德说,在上市公司担任这样重要职位的人有责任向公众披露健康状况,因为他们在企业战略价值中处于核心位置。In his post, Mr. Page offered more details on how his vocal chord paralysis has rippled out to other aspects of his health, including that his ability to exercise at #39;peak aerobic capacity is somewhat reduced#39; because of the vocal chord#39;s effect on his breathing.佩奇提供了更多关于声带麻痹如何影响了他其他方面健康状况的详细信息。例如,由于声带影响了他的呼吸,他的有氧代谢能力最高值可能有所下降。He also said that his vocal chord issues have affected his thyroid gland and that he was diagnosed with Hashimoto#39;s thyroiditis in 2003, though he added that it was #39;a fairly common benign inflammatory condition of the thyroid which causes me no problems.#39;他还说,他的声带问题已经影响了他的甲状腺,他2003年被诊断为桥本氏甲状腺炎,不过他补充说,那是一个很常见的良性甲状腺炎,没有大碍。Mr. Page added that he was funding a research program at the Voice Health Institute that will be led by Steven Zeitels of Harvard Medical School.佩奇补充说,他在声音健康研究院(Voice Health Institute)资助了一个研究项目,该项目将由哈佛大学医学院(Harvard Medical School)的柴特斯(Steven Zeitels)领导。Google declined to make Mr. Page available for an interview and the company had no further comment.#39;Overall over the last year there has been some improvement with people telling me they think I sound better,#39; Mr. Page wrote. Despite that, Google declined to make Mr. Page available for an interview and the company had no further comment.佩奇写道,整体来说,过去一年出现了一些好转,人们告诉我说,他们觉得我的声音听起来有起色。尽管如此,谷歌拒绝让佩奇接受采访,公司也没有进一步置评。 /201305/240422

Apple issued an update for its OS X software for Mac computers to patch a security risk first spotted in its mobile operating system.苹果公司发布了Mac电脑所用OS X软件的更新版本,对旗下移动操作系统中出现的首个安全隐患打上了补丁。The company said the software addresses a flaw that allows a would-be attacker to intercept data to or from a Mac computer, such as email. Last week, Apple issued a similar security fix for its iOS software that runs on the iPhone, iPad and iPod Touch.该公司称,更新后的软件消除了一个缺陷,这个缺陷允许潜在攻击者拦截Mac电脑发出或接收的数据,比如电子邮件。上周,苹果针对iPhone、iPad和iPod Touch运行的iOS软件发布了类似的安全补丁。At the time, it said that it was aware that the Mac operating system had a similar security risk and that it was working on a fix.当时苹果公司称,已了解Mac操作系统存在类似的安全隐患,公司正着手开发补丁。In addition to the security fix, the latest OS X update also adds the ability to make audio calls on Apple#39;s FaceTime service as well as other improvements to its Mail software and Safari browser.除了安全补丁之外,最新更新的OS X操作系统也增添了使用苹果公司FaceTime务进行语音通话的功能,同时还对苹果Mail软件和Safari浏览器进行了完善。Even as Apple released the fixes, security firm FireEye said it has discovered a way that a hacker could monitor activity on Apple#39;s mobile software. FireEye said it has created a proof-of-concept monitoring app for iOS 7 devices that can record whatever a user touches on the screen, similar to the way some programs log keystrokes on a computer. FireEye said it is collaborating with Apple to address the issue.尽管苹果发布了补丁,但安全公司FireEye表示,已经发现黑客能使用一种方法来监控苹果移动软件的活动。FireEye称,公司已经针对iOS 7设备创建了一个概念验型监控应用,可以记录用户在屏幕上触碰的任何东西,其方式类似于一些程序记录电脑按键信息的方式。FireEye称,公司正与苹果开展合作以解决相关问题。An Apple spokeswoman declined to comment on FireEye#39;s claim.苹果公司发言人对FireEye的说法不予置评。 /201402/277636NEW YORK — Airbnb, the pioneering home rental service, presents itself as useful and virtuous, but the reality is far less benign, according to a report that Eric T. Schneiderman, the New York attorney general, released on Thursday.纽约——家庭房屋出租务先驱者Airbnb给自己打造了一个既有用又善良的形象,但从纽约检察长埃里克·T·施耐德曼(Eric T. Schneiderman)本周四发布的一份报告来看,实际情况远远谈不上良好宜人。The report will say nearly three-quarters of all Airbnb rentals in the city are illegal, violating zoning or other laws. Commercial operators, not hard-luck residents, supply more than a third of the units and generate more than a third of the revenue. At least a handful of landlords are running what amount to illegal hostels.该报告将称,纽约市四分之三的Airbnb出租屋都是非法的,违反了行政区划法规或其他法律。商业经营者,而不是背运的居民,提供了逾三分之一的出租屋,获取了逾三分之一的收入。至少还有少量屋主在做相当于开非法旅馆的事情。Property owners on Airbnb are indeed making money, but it is not being sp around. Most rentals are in three high-profile Manhattan neighborhoods. Queens, the Bronx and Staten Island barely figure.Airbnb上的屋主确实在赚钱,但范围有限。大多数出租屋都位于三个知名的曼哈顿居住区。而皇后区、布朗克斯区和史坦顿岛的出租屋则很少。Airbnb declined to aggressively dispute the numbers in the report, which draws on four years of data it provided to the attorney general after a court fight.该报告使用了四年的数据,它们是Airbnb在经过一场法庭纷争之后,提交给检察长的。Airbnb没有对这份报告中的数字进行激烈争辩。“We need to move forward,” an Airbnb spokesman, Nick Papas, said. “We need to work together on some sensible rules that stop bad actors and protect regular people who simply want to share the home in which they live.”“我们需要前进,”Airbnb的发言人尼克·帕帕斯(Nick Papas)说。“我们需要合作拟定一些合理规则,以便阻止不良行为,保护那些只想出租自住居所的普通人。”Airbnb, which is most likely contemplating a public offering in the next few years, seemed eager to avoid another fight. Its latest round of fund-raising put its valuation at billion.Airbnb很可能正在考虑在未来的几年里开始公开募股,因此似乎力图避免另一次争端。它在最新一轮融资中的估值为100亿美元(约合人民币610亿元)。The housing broker and its imitators, like the taxi service Uber and its clones, have been prompting upheaval just about everywhere they go.这个房屋经纪务以及模仿它的务,比如租车务Uber和跟风者,在它所到的几乎所有地方都掀起了波澜。Admirers say these stars of the so-called sharing economy are breaking up monopolies that have grown greedy and lazy. They are empowering individuals. Critics say that the start-ups are unsavory efforts to avoid regulation and taxes, and that the very term “sharing economy” is ridiculous.持者称,这些参与“分享型经济”(sharing economy)的明星公司,打破了已经变得贪婪和懒惰的垄断务。它们正在赋权于个人。批评者称,这些初创公司令人讨厌,它们逃避监管和税收,而且“分享型经济”这个词本来就很荒谬。In some contentious spots, like San Francisco, where the local government endorsed a plan last week to essentially legalize Airbnb, a resolution may be in sight. But in New York, where real estate is often viewed as a blood sport, the battle is only deepening.一些存在争议的地区,可能不久就会做出相关决议,比如在旧金山,政府上周批准了一项计划,基本上是将Airbnb合法化。但在纽约,房地产通常是一个斗争相当残酷的领域,这种纷争只会愈演愈烈。Mr. Schneiderman and city regulators will also announce Thursday a joint enforcement initiative to shut down illegal hotels. Various regulators will investigate violations of building and safety codes and tax regulations.本周四,施奈德曼和城市监管部门还宣布开展联合执法行动,查封非法旅馆。各监管机构将对违反建筑安全和税收法规的情况进行调查。“Anyone operating an illegal hotel should be on notice that the state and city will take aggressive enforcement actions in this area,” said Mr. Schneiderman. “A slick advertising campaign doesn’t change the fact that this is illegal activity.”“在此通知所有非法旅馆经营者,纽约州和纽约市将在这方面采取积极主动的执法行动,”施奈德曼说。“诱人的广告宣传不能改变其违法的事实。”He was careful, however, to speak of “illegal hotels” rather than “illegal rentals.” Airbnb is aly too popular to dislodge completely, no matter what the housing laws say. It also delights travelers, who get a cheaper and usually more interesting place to stay.但是,他的措辞很谨慎,说的是“非法旅馆”,而不是“非法出租”。Airbnb的人气已经非常高,无法全盘否定它,无论住房法律有怎样的规定。旅行者也很喜欢Airbnb,因为可以通过它找到更便宜、通常也更有趣的住宿。“Most of our hosts are regular New Yorkers, and the overwhelming majority live outside of Manhattan,” Mr. Papas said.“我们大部分出租者都是普通的纽约人,绝大多数都不住在曼哈顿,”帕帕斯说。As for the 72 percent of listings that Mr. Schneiderman said were illegal, Mr. Papas said it was hard to tell what was going on.至于施奈德曼说有72%的房源是是非法的,帕帕斯回应说,具体情况很难讲。“Every single home, apartment, co-op and living space in New York is subject to a myriad of rules, so it’s impossible to make this kind of blanket statement,” the spokesman said. “That kind of uncertainty and lack of clarity is exactly why we’re advocating for clear, fair rules for home sharing.”“在纽约,每一处家宅、公寓、共管公寓和住所,都有无数规则来约束,所以采用这种一刀切的说法是不可能的,”发言人说。“这种不确定性和不清晰性,也正是我们在家庭房屋共享上倡导明确、公平规则的原因。”The report, Airbnb in the City, draws on anonymized data on 497,322 private stays in 35,354 unique places that were for less than 30 days and did not involve a shared room.该报告名为《纽约市Airbnb状况》(Airbnb in the City),它使用的匿名数据包含30天内35354个不同地方的497322次私人住宿,不涉及共享一个房间的情况。The report said the service was dominated by large-scale operators, finding that 6 percent of the hosts made 37 percent of the revenue — or 8 million. The number of units they administered ranged from three to 272. The individual with those 272 units charged an average of 8.19 a night, yielding .8 million, the report says.该报告称这些务是由大型运营者主导的,因为6%的出租者获得了37%的收入——约1.68亿美元。该报告说,他们管理的住宿单元数目介于3至272个之间。拥有272个住宿单元的那个人,收取的价格平均为358.19美元一晚,总共收入为680万美元。Some of these operators may be gone aly. In April, in the midst of Airbnb’s negotiations with Mr. Schneiderman over turning over its data, the company said it was expelling hosts with 2,000 listings in New York because they “weren’t providing a quality, local experience to guests.”有些运营者可能已经消失了。今年4月,在Airbnb与施奈德曼协商提交数据的过程中,该公司说,它封杀了在纽约登记2000个房源的屋主,因为他们“没有为客人提供优质的本地住宿体验”。A Quinnipiac poll last month revealed sharp divisions among New Yorkers about companies like Airbnb. Asked whether city residents should be able to rent rooms to strangers like a hotel, 56 percent of the respondents said yes and 36 percent said no.昆尼皮亚克大学(Quinnipiac University)上月进行的民意调查显示,对于Airbnb这样的公司,纽约人的看法分歧严重。当被问及城市居民是否应该有权像宾馆一样,向陌生人出租房间时,56%的受访者说应该,36%的人说不应该。“Airbnb allows longtime residents to stay in their homes by earning just a little extra money to help make ends meet,” the company states in its promotions. It stresses that only 18 percent of its New York rentals are “where the hotels are,” which it defines as Midtown. The other 82 percent are “outside of traditional tourist zones.”“Airbnb可以帮助长期居民赚点额外收入,帮补家用,保住房子,”该公司在其促销宣传中称。它强调说,在纽约的Airbnb出租屋中,只有18%位于“酒店所在地”,Airbnb把这种地区定义为市中心。其他的82%都“不在传统旅游区内”。But the attorney general’s report says rentals in three areas in Manhattan — Lower East Side/Chinatown, Chelsea/Hell’s Kitchen and Greenwich Village/SoHo — accounted for 40 percent of private stay revenue, or 7 million.但检察长的报告显示,曼哈顿的三个地方——下东城/华埠,切尔西/地狱厨房,以及格林威治村/苏荷区——的出租屋,占私人住宿收入的40%,合1.87亿美元。Reservations in Queens, Staten Island and the Bronx accounted for only 3 percent, or million.在皇后区、史泰登岛和布朗克斯的订房仅占3%,合1200万美元。The report also indicates that an increasing number of units were being rented out on a more or less permanent basis. While still small in absolute numbers — about 2,000 units are rented for six months of the year or more — affordable-housing advocates have warned that this trend could push up prices for long-term residents as units disappear from the housing stock.该报告还指出,长租的住宿单元数目越来越多。虽然绝对数字还小——约2000个单元,在一年之中出租六个月或更多时间——经济适用住房的倡导者们警告说,这种趋势可能会推高长期居民的居住成本,因为这些住宿单元从住房供应总量中消失了。A dozen buildings had 60 percent or more of their units used as rentals for at least half the year, “suggesting that the buildings were operating as de facto hotels,” the report says.在十几栋建筑物中,有60%或更多单元被用于出租至少半年时间,“表明这些建筑物实际上在像酒店那样经营,”报告说。 /201410/336836The default background for Microsoft#39;s Windows XP operating system -- a perfect blue sky full of cotton-candy clouds above rolling hills with impeccably trimmed grass and daffodils -- is the spring day we wish could last forever. 微软公司(Microsoft) Windows XP操作系统的默认背景是一副春日景象――湛蓝的天空上漂浮着棉花糖般的朵朵白云,绿草茵茵、水仙成簇的山丘连绵起伏――真希望这幅景象可以一直持续下去。And fittingly, many people wish the operating system would last just as long. Introduced in 2001, Windows XP became so successful that Microsoft extended its support for an industry record of 12 years. Yet come April 8, XP#39;s sunny day is over. 同样的,对于Windows XP操作系统,很多人也希望它可以一直运行下去。由于Windows XP操作系统在2001年推出后大受欢迎,微软公司将对该系统的持延长至了创业界记录的12年。然而,随着4月8日即将到来,XP系统的艳阳天将不复存在。At that time, Microsoft will cut off all user support and halt security updates, leaving the software vulnerable to newly discovered attacks. XP computers will still work, but the #39;Bliss#39; background image will just be a facade. The operating system will no longer be a safe place to work or play. 届时,微软公司将不再向Windows XP的用户提供持,并不再提供安全更新,这将令Windows XP上搭载的软件易于受到新型病毒的攻击。使用XP系统的电脑仍可工作,但是“春光明媚”的背景图片将成为假象。不管对工作还是而言,XP系统都不再安全。#39;Our guidance is that you need to get off XP. It#39;s really that black and white,#39; says Tom Murphy, Microsoft#39;s spokesman handling the end of XP support. The company#39;s party line is that Windows 8.1 -- the latest in Microsoft#39;s foray into touch-friendly interfaces -- is a #39;fully modern operating system.#39; 微软公司负责结束XP系统持的新闻发言人汤姆#12539;墨菲(Tom Murphy)表示:“我们的建议是,你应该放弃XP。这是毫无疑问的。”微软公司宣称,Windows 8.1是一款“非常时尚的操作系统”。 Windows 8.1是微软公司在触控界面领域的最新力作。Since Windows XP first gained popularity, other alternatives have arisen. There#39;s Windows 7, of course, and offerings from Microsoft#39;s rivals, Apple and Google. Where is the best place for an XP refugee to go? I#39;ve been weighing each option. 自从Windows XP开始风靡以后,其他的操作系统也不断地涌现了出来。目前在市面上除了Windows 7以外,还有微软公司的竞争对手苹果公司(Apple)和谷歌(Google)研发的操作系统产品。XP系统的原有用户应该何去何从呢?我权衡了每一种可能的方案。Moving to Windows 8.1 升级至Windows 8.1If you have any doubt that Microsoft wants everyone to move to Windows 8.1, just visit amirunningxp.com. Designed to detect if users are running Windows XP, the site immediately suggests XP users upgrade to Windows 8.1 or buy a new Windows 8.1 computer. 如果你对微软希望每名用户都升级至Windows 8.1的意图持怀疑态度的话,那么你可以访问网站amirunningxp.com。该网站能够对用户是否安装了Windows XP进行检测,它会马上建议XP系统的用户升级至Windows 8.1或者购买全新的Windows 8.1电脑。Lots of computers from the age of XP can technically run the latest version of Windows. You just need a 1 GHz processor, 1 GB of RAM and 16 GB of hard drive storage. The biggest catch is your display has to have 1024 x 768 resolution. You can download the Windows Upgrade assistant to see if your system meets the requirements. 从技术上讲,在XP系统诞生之际购买的很多电脑都能运行Windows系统的最新版本。你只需要1 GHz的处理器、1 GB的内存和16 GB的硬盘存储空间。最大的问题在于你需要拥有一台分辨率为1024 x 768的显示器。你可以下载Windows升级助手来查看你的电脑是否满足XP的系统需求。The Windows 8.1 upgrade DVD costs 0, and Microsoft has teamed up with a backup service called Laplink to offer a free and easy way to transfer files. Windows 8.1的升级DVD售价120美元,微软已经与一个名为Laplink的持务团队联手,推出了免费进行文件转移的务。If you don#39;t meet the system requirement, or view the upgrade process as a hassle, you could, of course, buy a new machine. But I am ambivalent to recommend Windows 8.1 to XP users. Microsoft revamped Windows, replacing the beloved classic desktop with a Start Screen of tiles that point to programs, files and services. You can still get to the desktop (there#39;s a Desktop icon), but there#39;s no Start in the corner. 如果你的电脑未能满足系统要求,或者你不愿为系统升级之事费心,你当然可以购买一台新电脑。但是,我对向XP用户推荐Windows 8.1颇感犹豫不决。微软对Windows系统进行了大刀阔斧的改革,把深受用户欢迎的传统桌面换成了由不同颜色的磁贴构成的开始界面,这些磁贴代表的是不同的程序、文件和务。你仍然可以回归到传统桌面(按桌面键),但是“开始”菜单已经不在传统桌面上了。Windows 8.1 is better than the original Windows 8 when it comes to the mouse and keyboard, and a forthcoming update will bring even more mouse-friendly enhancements, such as a close-window button inside apps. Ed Bott, Microsoft watcher and author of many Windows guides, says people should make the jump to 8.1, and that the next updates will make the system more similar to Windows 7. 在鼠标和键盘的使用感受上,Windows 8.1的表现要好于Windows 8,并且即将推出的更新版本还将带来更友好的鼠标使用体验,比如应用程序内的系统关闭按键等。微软监察员、多款Windows指南的作者艾德#12539;特(Ed Bott)表示,用户应该直接升级至Windows 8.1,今后的更新将令系统越来越像Windows 7。Moving to Windows 7 升级至Windows 7系统Still, Windows 8.1 may be a radical change of pace for old-school Windows lovers, which is why I think Windows 7 makes a lot more sense for XP exiles. 然而,对于守旧派的Windows粉丝来说,Windows 8.1带来的变化可能太大了,这也是为什么我认为Windows 7对XP的原有用户来说更合适。Despite Microsoft#39;s arguments that 8.1 is faster, safer and more reliable than Windows 7, everything in 7 is mostly in the same place as it was in Windows XP. You#39;ll find the traditional desktop, the trusty Recycle Bin and the Start Menu. 尽管微软声称,Windows 8.1比Windows 7更更安全、更可靠,但是Windows 7的大多数功能都与Windows XP处于相同的位置上。你能够在Windows 7中看到传统桌面、值得信赖的回收站和开始菜单。The problem is that, in its Windows 8 push, Microsoft has made Windows 7 harder to come by. But there still are two main ways to get it. The first and best choice is to buy a Windows 7 laptop or desktop from select manufacturer websites, including Acer, Dell, Hewlett-Packard and Lenovo. They aren#39;t featured prominently, but go digging in the business-products sections of the companies#39; sites and you#39;ll find them. Microsoft and the PC makers still provide support, too. Dell#39;s Latitude 330 and Acer#39;s Aspire V3 are both good choices under 0. 问题在于,在微软推广Windows 8的过程中,Windows 7越来越难觅踪迹了。但是,仍然有两个方法可以获取Windows 7。第一个方法―也是最好的方法―就是从电脑厂商的官网上购买一台Windows 7台式电脑或笔记本电脑,这些厂商包括宏基(Acer)、戴尔(Dell)、惠普(Hewlett-Packard)和联想(Lenovo)。电脑厂商并未对Windows 7电脑进行大张旗鼓的宣传,但是通过搜寻电脑厂商的销售官网,你一定可以找到这些产品。微软和上述电脑厂商也仍将为Windows 7提供持。戴尔的Latitude 3330和宏基的Aspire V3都是售价在700美元以下的不错选择。If you don#39;t want to buy new hardware, things get trickier. Microsoft doesn#39;t sell box copies of Windows 7 anymore. And if you buy the .99 version sold by online computer suppliers like Newegg, you don#39;t get Microsoft support. You will get security updates until 2020, however. 如果你不想购买新的硬件,事情就棘手多了。微软不向任何人出售盒装的Windows 7操作系统光盘。如果你从新蛋网(Newegg)等电脑产品网络销售商那里购买99.99美元的Windows 7版本的话,你不会得到微软的技术持。不过,在2020年前,你都会获得安全更新。Moving to a Non-Microsoft Camp 转移到非微软阵营Of course, there are other places to go if you venture outside of the world of Microsoft. 当然,如果你想走出微软世界,外面的天地也很精。If you#39;re willing to spend more money than the average Windows PC, there are Apple#39;s Mac computers, which run OS X. That system will take some learning, but once you get the hang of it, it has a ton of great features. Apple also offers free classes for new Mac users at its stores. 如果你愿意付比一般Windows电脑更高的价钱,那么你可以选择苹果公司搭载了OS X系统的Mac电脑。你需要学习才能掌握OS X系统,但一旦你熟悉了该系统,你会发现它拥有很多很好的功能。苹果公司还向新Mac用户提供免费的店内课程。Chromebooks tend to be cheap since they just run Google#39;s browser. If you just need email and the Web, Acer#39;s C720 Chromebook is plenty powerful -- and only costs 0. Chromebook更便宜些,因为这款笔记本只能运行谷歌的浏览器。如果你只需要阅读邮件、浏览网页的话,那么宏基的C720型Chromebook就非常强大了,并且它的售价只有200美元。For the extreme computer literate, there are Linux options like Ubuntu, which run fine on older Windows XP computers. However, installing Linux requires patience and many popular programs won#39;t work there. 对于电脑高手来说,他们可以选择Linux操作系统Ubuntu,该操作系统可以在更老的Windows XP电脑上良好地运行。然而,安装Linux系统需要一定的耐心,并且很多热门的程序无法在该系统上运行。You#39;re best bet is to buy a Windows 7 computer. Whatever path you do choose, don#39;t be sad: You can always bring that perfect spring day wallpaper with you. 你最好的选择就是购买一台Windows 7电脑。无论你选择哪种办法,都不要悲伤:你总是可以将春光明媚的背景用作电脑桌面。 /201403/282977

With the U.S. consumer clearly having left the ;Crackberry; days behind, BlackBerry (BBRY) is looking to establish a stronger foothold in emerging markets, starting in Indonesia, according to reports.随着美国消费者的“疯狂黑莓”时代逝去,日前有报道称黑莓公司( BlackBerry)正在寻求从印尼等新兴市场获得更强的立足点。The embattled Canadian company announced the new low-cost BlackBerry Z3 at an event in Jakarta Tuesday. The New York Times reported that it was a flashy affair, with hip-hop dancing and, of course, a laser light show.上周,这家陷入困境的加拿大公司在雅加达推出了新的低成本黑莓Z3手机。《纽约时报》(New York Times)的报道称,这是一个时尚秀场,有新潮hip-hop街舞,当然也有激光红毯秀。The firm hasn#39;t had much to dance about lately, with the one-time cellphone king#39;s market share having dipped to just 3.1% in the U.S., according to data released earlier this year.这家公司最近没什么值得庆祝的事情。今年早些时候发布的数据显示,手机市场这位曾经的王者在美国市场的份额已经下降到了3.1%。The new low-cost touchscreen phone was designed especially for Indonesia, one of BlackBerry#39;s largest markets globally. It will sell for the equivalent of 0. BlackBerry plans to release it in other Asian countries as well, and plans to sell ;millions; of units, according to the Times story.这款新型低成本触屏手机专为印尼市场设计,而印尼也是黑莓全球最大的市场之一。这款手机售价约合190美元。据《纽约时报》报道,黑莓计划在亚洲其他国家也推出这款手机,目标销售“几百万”部。The phone includes a halal food directory -- a useful feature in a majority Muslim country like Indonesia.这款手机内置清真食物目录,这对于像印尼这样的以穆斯林为主的国家是非常有用的一项功能。 /201405/299863You have twade through thick paragraphs of wheedling, flattery, product assessment and unabashed self-aggrandizement tget there, but buried in Carl Icahn’s rambling 4,200-word “letter tTim Cook” is his justification for the highest Apple price target on Wall Street — nearly twice the current consensus.卡尔·伊坎在长达4,200字的《致蒂姆o库克的一封信》中,解释了他为什么给苹果(Apple)估出了目前整个华尔街最高的目标股价——几乎是当下股价的两倍。尽管你得耐着性子读完大段的甜言蜜语、谄媚讨好、产品评估和毫不害臊的自我夸耀之后,才能了解到这一点。His argument takes some wild leaps — he likes tcompare P/Es in the hand with P/Es in the bush — but the math is there for anyone tsee: (I e)他的论述非常跳跃——他喜欢比较当下和预期的市盈率(P/E)——不过其他人都可以看看他的计算方法:(引用如下)Apple, adjusting for net cash, currently sells at a P/E (price tearnings per share ratio) of only 8x our FY 2015 forecast, a significantly lower P/E than a broad market index, the Samp;P 500, which trades today at a P/E of 15x FY 2015 consensus.In contrast tthe Samp;P 500’s slower growth, we expect Apple tgrow its EPS by 30% in each of FY 2016 and FY 2017.在经过净现金值调整后,根据我们对苹果2015年的每股收益预期,公司股票目前的市盈率(股价与每股收益之间的比值)只有8倍,远远低于大盘指数的整体水平——根据市场对2015年的平局预期,标普500指数目前的市盈率达到15倍。相较于标普500指数的缓慢增长,我们预计苹果的每股收益将在2016财年和2017财年分别上涨30%。Our forecasted growth for FY 2016 and FY 2017 more than adequately justifies using a P/E multiple of 19x our FY 2015 forecast, which along with net cash values Apple at 3 per share today.对2016和2017财年的增长预期让我们有充分的理由来使用基于2015年预期值19倍的市盈率来估算苹果股价,综合净现金值考虑之后可以得到苹果目前的合理股价应该达到203美元。The literary device of a “letter” tCook breaks down pretty quickly. Apple’s CEdoesn’t need tbe told how great Apple’s products are. Or how “flawed and fragmented” Google’s Android.The literary device of a “letter” tCook breaks down pretty quickly. Apple’s CEdoesn’t need tbe told how great Apple’s products are. Or how “flawed and fragmented” Google’s Android.从文学手法来说,这封致库克的公开信很快就跑题了。苹果的首席执行官不需要听伊坎再唠叨一遍苹果的产品有多么优秀,或是谷歌(Google)安卓系统的生态环境有多么“破碎离”。What alsbreaks down is the logic of his pitch to Apple’s board of directors for a massive tender offer trepurchase shares.同样无甚逻辑的,是他对苹果董事会提出的大批回购股票的要求。According tIcahn, self interest will soon force mutual funds tpour money back intApple. But if that’s inevitable, why would the company need tenlarge what is aly the largest share buyback in the history of capitalism?根据伊坎所述,在自身利益的驱使下,他很快就会敦促投资公司把钱投入苹果。不过如果这是不可避免的,苹果为何还要扩大已经是公司历史上最大的股票回购规模?No, this isn’t a letter tTim Cook at all. It’s a letter tinvestors, telling them tbuy Apple before it’s tolate.所以,这并不是一份给蒂姆o库克的信,而是一封给投资者的信,告诉他们要尽快购买苹果的股票。 /201410/334797Cyber attacks rose 14 per cent last year, as online criminals targeted intellectual property-rich industries such as pharmaceuticals, mining and electronics, according to a report by Cisco.思科(Cisco)一份报告称,网络攻击数量去年上升了14%,制药、矿业和电子工业等知识产权密集的行业成为网络罪犯的目标。Vulnerabilities in computer systems and the threat from hackers reached the highest level since 2000, when the technology company launched its annual security report.这家技术公司发布年度安全报告之际,计算机系统漏洞及黑客威胁达到2000年以来的最高水平。Cisco said there had been “unprecedented growth” in advanced attacks, with every large company it monitored becoming a target for malicious traffic.思科表示,技术含量较高的攻击出现了“前所未有的增长”。思科监测的每家大型公司都成为恶意流量攻击的目标。John Stewart, senior vice-president and chief security officer, said the report painted a grim picture of the state of cyber security.思科副总裁兼首席安全官约翰#8226;斯图尔特(John Stewart)说,这份报告描绘了网络安全现状的一幅悲观图景。But, he added, there was hope to restore trust by trying to understand hackers. “To truly protect against all of these possible attacks, defenders must understand the attackers, their motivations and their methods – before, during and after an attack.”但他补充道,通过试图了解黑客,有望恢复信心。“为了真正防御所有这些可能的攻击,防御者必须了解攻击者,掌握他们的动机和手段——在攻击开始前、进行中和结束后。”Pharmaceuticals, chemicals, agriculture, mining and electronics all saw increases in the malware targeted at them of more than 600 per cent, while attempts to breach security in the energy, oil and gas industries rose more than 400 per cent.制药、化工、农业、矿业和电子工业受到的恶意软件攻击均增加逾600%。同时,针对能源和油气行业的攻击增加400%以上。Attempts to hack retailers and wholesalers – in the public eye after Target lost data from more than 70m customers in an attack – rose more than 100 per cent. The attempts may not have led to breaches, depending on the protections in place.针对零售商和批发商的攻击增加逾100%。美国零售商塔吉特(Target)在一次攻击中丢失7000余万用户数据的消息曝光后,此类攻击引起公众关注。不过,取决于采取的保护措施,有些攻击可能没有突破防线。Cyber criminals are increasingly looking for intellectual property they can either sell on the black market or use to inform decisions about competing products or plans.网络罪犯对寻找知识产权越来越感兴趣,这些机密要么可在黑市上出售,要么可用作竞争产品或计划的决策依据。Levi Gundert, a threat researcher who worked on the Cisco report, said the attacks could be “criminals” or “nation states”.参与撰写报告的威胁研究员莱维#8226;贡德特(Levi Gundert)说,实施攻击的可能是“罪犯”,也可能是“国家”。“You almost need to have the Economist or the FT in hand while looking at some of these numbers – they vertically correspond to geopolitical events,” he said.他说:“你在看报告中的一些数字时,手里几乎需要一份《经济学人》或英国《金融时报》,因为这些数字直接对应着某些地缘政治事件。” /201401/273677

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