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楼主:康泰报 时间:2019年11月18日 22:28:38 点击:0 回复:0
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On the face of it, it makes no sense that the international flower industry should be headquartered in the Netherlands. The feeble sunshine and predisposition for a large number of rainy days would not make the Netherlands the first choice for anyone starting a flower-growing business today – if not for the fact that the business, and its integral supply chains, are aly there. This is a huge competitive advantage for a new entrant, who can benefit from such things as the sophisticated Dutch flower auctions, the flower-growers’ associations and advanced research centres.从表面上看,把国际鲜花行业总部设在荷兰是没道理的。如果不考虑荷兰已经形成鲜花行业以及完整的供应链的话,鉴于那里微弱的日照及大量阴雨天气,如今任何人都不会把荷兰作为开启鲜花种植生意的首选。荷兰已有的鲜花产业和完整供应链对于新的市场进入者来说是巨大的竞争优势,他们可以从荷兰成熟的鲜花拍卖、鲜花种植者协会以及先进的科研中心等方面获益匪浅。Academic Michael Porter uses this very example to illustrate his cluster theory of trade development, whereby whole supply chains “cluster” together. Another well-known cluster is the auto manufacturing industry in Michigan in the US. Over 50 per cent of North American auto companies are based in Michigan, and 46 of the top 50 global auto suppliers have operations in the state. Further south in the US, around Dalton in Georgia, over 90 per cent of all functional carpets are produced. It is why Dalton is called the “carpet capital of the world”.学者迈克尔波特(Michael Porter)利用这个例子来阐释他的贸易发展集群理论——即整个供应链“聚集”在一起。另一个众所周知的集群是位于美国密歇根州的汽车制造业。超过50%的北美汽车公司都位于密歇根,全球排名前50的汽车供应商中有46家在密歇根有业务。在美国的更南方——佐治亚州道尔顿(Dalton)附近,超过90%的功能性地毯在此生产。这也是道尔顿被称为“世界地毯之都”的原因。It’s partly because of the cluster effect that we believe Chinese exports will be sufficiently competitive to ride out the economic slowdown and emerging market uncertainty. Clustering is certainly nothing new to China – regional specialisations have always existed. A few centuries ago, tailors from Cixi (in the Zhejiang sub-provincial city of Ningbo) were known for their skills in clothing manufacturing and even now the area is a major centre for textile manufacturing.我们相信中国的出口业将以足够的竞争力安然渡过此轮经济放缓和新兴市场动荡,部分原因正是集群效应。集群对于中国来说自然没什么新鲜的——这里一直存在地域专业化。几个世纪以前,慈溪(位于浙江省宁波市)的裁缝以其制衣的精湛手艺而闻名,即使现在那里仍然是纺织制造业的主要中心。However, advanced industrial clusters are a more recent phenomenon. Think of the city of Dongguan in the Pearl River Delta, where a large number of Taiwan technology companies cluster together. Other examples are the photovoltaic industrial cluster in Wuxi (Jiangsu province), electronics in Shenzhen, and Foshan in south China, where household appliances and ceramics clusters have evolved.然而,先进的产业集群则是近来才出现的现象。想一想位于珠三角的东莞市,大批台湾科技公司聚集在这里。其他的例子有,江苏无锡的光伏产业集群、深圳的电子产业、以及佛山成熟的家用电器业和陶瓷业集群。The emergence of these clusters is changing Asian supply chains. Goods now make fewer stops along the way before final assembly in China. More and more production is taking place on the mainland (including Hong Kong), rather than in other parts of Asia, particularly ASEAN, the 10-member Association of South East Asian Nations.这些集群的出现正在改变亚洲的供应链。如今商品在中国进入最终装配之前停靠的站点变少了。越来越多的生产过程在中国内地(以及香港)完成,而不是在亚洲其他地区,尤其不是在10国组成的东盟(Asean)地区。There is further evidence that corroborates this view. As the chart below illustrates, China is making more of the parts that go into its finished goods production. It shows that the share of imported components in China’s total exports has fallen from a peak of 60 per cent in the mid-1990s to around 35 per cent today. This reflects the progressive substitution of domestic inputs for foreign inputs by Chinese firms, possibly because China boasts clusters of highly efficient suppliers that other countries struggle to replicate.还有进一步的据来实这一观点。正如下图所显示的那样,中国正制造越来越多的进入成品生产的零件。该图显示,中国出口产品中进口零件的占比已经从1990年代中期巅峰时的60%,下滑至如今的35%左右。这反映出中国公司用国产投入品替代外国投入品的飞跃,这可能是由于中国拥有其引以为荣的别国难以复制的高效供应商集群。Therefore, the common picture of China losing competitiveness and being “hollowed-out” as manufacturers move to lower labour cost geographies such as Vietnam and Bangladesh is not entirely correct. China actually still dominates large parts of the manufacturing food chain. Indeed, we find evidence that it is going upmarket to pursue higher-value-added products and that it is supported in its efforts by having a large number of industrial clusters (it should be noted, however, that even in labour intensive industries such as clothing, China’s share of global clothing exports has actually risen from 42.6 per cent in 2011 to 43.1 per cent in 2013).因此,通常画面中描绘的中国失去竞争力、并随着制造商向越南、孟加拉国等劳动力成本较低的地域转移而被“空心化”的景象,并非完全正确的。中国仍然主导着大部分的制造业食物链。实际上,我们发现的据表明,中国正在进军高端市场以追求高附加值产品,并且其拥有的大量产业集群撑着这一努力(然而,值得注意的是,即使是在装这一劳动密集型产业,中国在全球出口中的份额也已经从2011年的42.6%上升至2013年的43.1%)。So, the fear of Chinese exports losing competitiveness is in our view misplaced. The most compelling question for China and indeed, the global economy, continues to be one of demand. Export growth cannot charge ahead when recovery in much of the world economy remains fragile. Once things get back on track, China has what it takes to continue its dynamic export story.因此,在我们看来,对中国出口失去竞争力的担忧放错了地方。中国、甚至世界经济面临的最紧迫的问题仍然是需求问题。在世界经济的大部分仍然复苏乏力的情况下,出口增长也无法独善其身。一旦事情回到正轨,中国有条件继续抒写其充满活力的出口传奇。 /201509/398207

Many shoppers are blaming online retailers for stealing Christmas.许多顾客抱怨网上零售商偷走了他们的圣诞节。Companies from Amazon.com Inc. to Kohl#39;s Corp. and Wal-Mart Stores Inc. promised to deliver items from headphones to television sets before Christmas, but shipping delays left gift-givers across the country without anything to put under the tree.从亚马逊公司(Amazon.com Inc.)到Kohl#39;s Corp.再到沃尔玛(Wal-Mart Stores Inc.),网上零售商们信誓旦旦地保可以在圣诞节前把耳机、电视机等五花八门的商品送到顾客手中。但运输的延误却导致全美国许多人没有礼物可以摆在圣诞树下。On Christmas Eve, Brandon Scott was still waiting for a 46-inch Samsung TV and Kate Spade watch he ordered from Amazon on Saturday.圣诞节前夜,家住密歇根州安阿伯的斯科特(Brandon Scott)还在等着他上周六在亚马逊订购的46寸三星(Samsung)电视机和凯特丝蓓(Kate Spade)手表。#39;I#39;m frustrated because these items could have easily been purchased at various retailers in my area, something I would have gladly done had Amazon not guaranteed#39; their arrival before Christmas,#39; said Mr. Scott of Ann Arbor, Mich.他说:我很懊悔,这些东西本来在我家附近许多零售店都能买到,要不是亚马逊保商品会在圣诞节前送到,我会很乐意去附近零售店买的。An unexpected surge of online orders in the past few weeks appears to have strained the limits of delivery and fulfillment infrastructure at retailers and parcel carriers. While instances of bad weather, Web glitches and late deliveries from manufacturers also played a part, the sheer volume may have been the problem, according to retail analysts.过去几周网上订单的意外激增似乎使零售商和快递公司的送货和订单处理能力都达到了极限。零售业分析师说,虽然存在天气不好、网络故障和制造商发货延迟等其他因素,但庞大的订单量可能才是主因。ed Parcel Service Inc. determined late Tuesday that it wouldn#39;t be able to get some goods to customers in time for Christmas, as a spike in last-minute shopping demand overwhelmed its system.联合包裹运送务公司(ed Parcel Service Inc., 简称UPS)周二晚间确认,一些商品无法在圣诞节及时送达,因为最后时刻的购物需求飙升超过了其系统承受能力。#39;The volume of air packages in the UPS system did exceed capacity as demand was much greater than our forecast,#39; spokeswoman Susan Rosenberg said in response to questions. UPS delivers around 45% of U.S. packages and saw more shipments enter its air network on Monday than the 7.75 million it expected.UPS发言人罗森堡(Susan Rosenberg)在回答问题时说,UPS系统的空运包裹数量确实超出了承受能力,需求量远远超出我们的预期。UPS运送的包裹数量占美国包裹总数的45%左右,周一进入其空运网络的包裹数量超过了其预计的775万件。In notifications to some Amazon customers, though, UPS also seemed to blame the e-commerce giant for some of its troubles, saying shipping delays were because it had #39;not yet received the package from the shipper.#39;但在发给部分亚马逊顾客的通知中,UPS似乎将部分问题归咎于这家电子商务巨头,称运送延迟是因为还没有从发货商收到包裹。Having pushed delivery deadlines even later this year, some merchants weren#39;t y for the jump in online orders that came in the last few weeks of December, said Eric Best, chief executive of Mercent Corp., which helps facilitate online sales for more than 550 retailers.Mercent Corp.首席执行长贝斯特(Eric Best)说,虽然已将今年的最晚送达时间进一步延长,但一些商户对12月份最后几周网上订单数量的激增依然感到措手不及。Mercent为550多家零售商的网上销售提供务。#39;During the holidays, we reach the limits on the capacity of these retailers,#39; Mr. Best said. #39;It#39;s a double whammy for conservative retailers, which have been burned by excess inventory in the past, and underestimated demand.#39;贝斯特说,节日期间,零售商的能力都达到极限,保守的零售商则遭到双重打击,他们过去因为库存积压而焦头烂额,这一次却低估了需求。After years of losing sales to online competitors, retailers have invested heavily in infrastructure to support Web sales and this year made aggressive promises for delivery by Christmas. Last-minute shoppers responded. During the last shopping weekend before Christmas, Web sales jumped by 37% from the year before, according to IBM Digital Analytics. Market research firm Forrester Research expects online sales to increase by 15% this holiday season amid slow mall traffic and weak sales at brick-and-mortar retailers.多年来不断被网上竞争对手抢走生意的零售商们纷纷加大了网络销售的配套投资,今年打出了圣诞节前保送货到家的口号,这吸引了那些拖到最后一刻才来购物的消费者。根据IBM Digital Analytics的数据,在圣诞节前的最后一个购物周,网上销售同比飙升37%。市场研究公司Forrester Research预计,这个假日购物季,在商场客流量和实体零售店销售萎靡不振的同时,网上销售将增长15%。For Wal-Mart shopper David McCarthy, 41 years old, in Evans City, Pa., the shipping snafus meant telling his 10-year-old son that he wouldn#39;t get the Beats by Dr. Dre headphones, which were first on his wish list this year. By Christmas Eve, Mr. McCarthy hadn#39;t found a replacement gift.对家住宾夕法尼亚州埃文斯城的41岁的麦卡锡(David McCarthy)来说,因为他选择在沃尔玛购物,运输不给力意味着他要告诉自己10岁的儿子他无法收到Beats by Dr. Dre耳机了,这是他今年愿望清单上排在第一位的礼品。直到圣诞节前夜,麦卡锡还没有找到可以替代的礼物。In Alexander City, Ala., Kohl#39;s shopper Andi Burks grumbled over the realization she wouldn#39;t be able to give her husband the sweaters Ms. Burks had ordered on Dec. 19, a day before the cutoff for #39;guaranteed Christmas delivery.#39;在亚拉巴马州的亚历山大城,在Kohl#39;s购买了商品的伯克斯(Andi Burks)抱怨说,她在12月19日那天下了单子,想送老公一件毛衣,那是“圣诞节保送达”最后下单日期的前一天,可现在没法完成这个愿望了。#39;I thought that since they had stated on their website that it was guaranteed to arrive on time that I would be OK,#39; she said referring to Kohl#39;s. #39;Apparently I was wrong.#39;她说:当时我想既然他们(Kohl#39;s)在网站上承诺会按时送达,应该不会出问题,显然我是错了。Kohl#39;s said on Tuesday it would pay the full cost of all items not delivered in time. #39;We are deeply sorry for disappointing our customers expecting delivery in time for Christmas,#39; spokeswoman Jen Johnson said.Kohl#39;s周二说,将为所有未及时送达的商品全额退款。该公司发言人约翰逊(Jen Johnson)说,我们让期待商品在圣诞节及时送达的顾客失望了,我们深表歉意。Groupon Inc. sent customers an email this week suggesting they print out a picture of their present in lieu of the promised on-time delivery of the actual gift, as well as a gift certificate. #39;We know it doesn#39;t make up for the disappointment of not getting your item in time for the holidays,#39; the email said.Groupon Inc.本周向顾客发了一封电子邮件,建议他们打印出所购礼物的图片,暂时代替该公司承诺按时送达的实际礼物,该公司还赠送顾客一张25美元的礼品券。电子邮件中说,我们知道这难以弥补大家在节日期间无法及时收到所购物品的失望。The deals site #39;successfully fulfilled and delivered an overwhelming majority of orders,#39; said spokesman Nicholas Halliwell.这家团购网站的发言人哈利韦尔(Nicholas Halliwell)说,该公司成功完成并投送了绝大部分顾客订购的物品。It is unclear how widesp the delays were or which retailers suffered the most problems. Weather delays, mislabeled packages, and even errors by customers entering their own delivery information can cause delays.不清楚这次的投送延迟影响范围有多大,也不清楚哪些零售商遇到的问题最多。天气原因、误标的包裹,甚至是顾客在填写投递信息时犯的错误,这些都可能造成投递延迟。Kohl#39;s, Wal-Mart and UPS said a small percentage of customers experienced delays but declined to elaborate on how many people were affected. Amazon said it was unaware of major shipping delays.Kohl#39;s、沃尔玛和UPS说,有一小部分顾客遭遇了延迟,但拒绝详细说明有多少人受到影响。亚马逊说,未发觉有重大运送延迟的问题。Typically, about 15% of online shoppers who order items by retailers#39; specified cutoff dates don#39;t get their packages by Christmas Eve, Forrester Research analyst Sucharita Mulpuru said. But with more gifts being shipped in the mail, the volume of errors is likely to rise, even if the percentage doesn#39;t.Forrester Research分析师穆普鲁(Sucharita Mulpuru)说,一般来讲,在零售商指定的截止日期前下单的网络购物者中约有15%在平安夜前收不到包裹。但由于寄送的礼物增多,出错量可能会增加,即便出错率不变。UPS, which handled more than 500 million packages during last year#39;s peak period, was expecting an 8% rise in volumes this year. The U.S. Postal Service, meanwhile, said it expected to ship a record 420 million packages between Thanksgiving and New Year#39;s, an increase of 12% from last year. The Postal Service in some cases plans to deliver on Christmas Day itself.UPS在去年的高峰期里处理了超过5亿个包裹。该公司预计今年包裹量将上升8%。与此同时,美国邮政总局(U.S. Postal Service)说,它预计在今年的感恩节至元旦期间,将运送创纪录的4.2亿个包裹,较上年同比增加12%。美国邮政总局有些情况下会安排在圣诞节当天投递包裹。#39;We#39;ve heard more noise about shipping problems this year than usual,#39; said Chris Saridakis, president of eBay Enterprise, which handles shipping for more than 70 retailers including Toys #39;R#39; Us Inc. and Aéropostale Inc.eBay Enterprise总裁萨勒达奇斯(Chris Saridakis)说,今年我们听到的有关运输问题的投诉比往年要多。该公司为超过70家零售商提供运输务,包括玩具反斗城(Toys ;R; Us Inc.)和装零售商Aeropostale Inc.。Part of the problem is handling an increased number of orders in a shorter time frame, given that there were six fewer shopping days between Thanksgiving and Christmas this year.问题之一是需要在更短的时间内处理更多的订单,因为今年感恩节与圣诞节之间的购物日比往年少了六天。#39;These retailers just don#39;t have enough labor,#39; Mr. Saridakis said, noting that while most of the distribution centers are automated, #39;you still need people to pack and unpack boxes.#39;萨勒达奇斯说,这些零售商没有足够的工人。他指出,尽管大部分配送中心都是自动化的,但仍需要人来打包和拆包箱子。Retailers like Amazon and Wal-Mart have been building more fulfillment centers and other infrastructure to handle surging online orders. This year, Amazon hired 70,000 seasonal workers for its U.S. warehouses, a 40% increase from the year before.像亚马逊和沃尔玛这样的零售商一直在修建更多的物流中心和其他基础设施,以便处理不断激增的网络订单。今年,亚马逊为其美国的仓库雇佣了7万名季节工,较上年同比增加了40%。To ease pressures on possible shipping bottlenecks, many retail chains have promoted the option to pick up items purchased online inside stores. That plan might have backfired for companies like Wal-Mart, where dozens of customers complained that items weren#39;t available for pickup in stores by the promised date.为缓解给可能出现的运输瓶颈带来的压力,很多连锁店鼓励顾客到店自提在网上购买的物品。这项计划对沃尔玛这样的公司可能带来了事与愿违的结果。在沃尔玛,数十名顾客抱怨说,在该公司承诺的日期前他们无法在店内自提所购物品。The problem seemed to be biggest for customers who had lined up for hours during Thanksgiving weekend to get special deals on popular televisions and tablets.对那些在感恩节周末期间排了几个小时的队抢购特价热卖电视和平板电脑的顾客来说,问题似乎是最大的。As part of Wal-Mart#39;s Black Friday promises, shoppers who lined up for the best door-buster deals were told that if the store ran out of stock, then the items they paid for would be available for store pickup by Dec. 22. But in some cases, the items weren#39;t available and shoppers jammed customer-service phone lines and took to Facebook and Twitter to gripe at the retailer.作为沃尔玛黑色星期五的承诺的一部分,排队抢购特价商品的购物者被告知,如果店内缺货,他们可以在12月22日前到店自提订购的商品。但有些情况下,到了该公司承诺的日期店内仍没有货,购物者打爆了电话,并在Facebook和推特(Twitter)上表达对这家零售商的不满。Wal-Mart said the issue affected only a small percentage of the five million people who took part in its one-hour guarantee promotion.沃尔玛说,这个问题仅影响了参与沃尔玛一小时限时促销活动的500万人中的一小部分。But by Christmas Eve, it was too late for some customers like Terence Kavanaugh in Louisville, Ky.但在平安夜前,对一些顾客来说已经为时过晚,比如肯塔基州路易斯维尔的卡瓦诺(Terence Kavanaugh)。After losing hope on getting the Emerson television he bought his 9-year-old daughter at Wal-Mart over Thanksgiving weekend, he went to Best Buy and bought a second TV for 9.感恩节周末他在沃尔玛花了98美元给九岁的女儿买了一台艾默生(Emerson)电视机,但由于迟迟未收到货,他不再抱希望。于是去百思买(Best Buy)花179美元又买了一台。#39;It#39;s more expensive but I#39;m not going to let Wal-Mart ruin my daughter#39;s Christmas,#39; he said.他说,这台电视机更贵,但我不会让沃尔玛毁了我女儿的圣诞节。 /201312/271040

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