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来源:丽新闻    发布时间:2019年06月17日 13:51:08    编辑:admin         

Science and technology科学技术Bionics仿生学I think Id like some coffee我想来点咖啡A paralysed woman gets herself a drink四肢瘫痪的女人也能自己喝咖啡HELPING yourself to a cup of coffee may seem like a small, everyday thing.给自己倒杯咖啡对普通人来说是一件再平常不过的小事,But not if you are quadriplegic.但对于一个四肢瘫痪的人来说就不是这样了,Unlike paraplegics, for whom the robotic legs described in the previous article are being developed, quadriplegics have lost the use of all four limbs.不像下身麻痹患者,前文中提到的机械腿已经发展得很成熟,但全身瘫痪的人四肢都不能使用,Yet thanks to a project organised by John Donoghue of Brown University, in Rhode Island, and his colleagues,现在多亏了罗德岛州布朗大学的John Donoghue和他同事发起的一项计划,they too have hope.四肢瘫痪者也有了希望。One of the participants in his experiments, a 58-year-old woman who is unable to use any of her limbs, can now pick up a bottle containing coffee and bring it close enough to her mouth to drink from it using a straw.在他的实验中有一位58岁的女患者,她四肢瘫痪,但她现在能够拿起一瓶咖啡并送到嘴边,再用吸管喝下,She does so using a thought-controlled robotic arm fixed to a nearby stand.她完成这个动作是靠思想控制固定在旁边的机械臂,It is the first time she has managed something like that since she suffered a stroke, nearly 15 years ago.这也是她15年前中风以来,第一次像这样掌控一些东西。Arms are more complicated pieces of machinery than legs, so controlling them via electrodes attached to the skin of someones scalp is not yet possible.由于手臂上的机械零件比腿更复杂,所以通过依附在头皮上的电极来控制它们不大现实,Instead, brain activity has to be recorded directly.而大脑活动是可以被检测到的。And that is what Dr Donoghue is doing.这就是Donoghue士所做的事情。Both his female participant and a second individual, a man of 66 also paralysed by a stroke, have worked with him before, as a result of which they have had small, multichannel electrodes implanted in the parts of the motor cortexes of their brains associated with hand movements.不仅那个女患者,还有一个66岁的男中风患者也参与了他的实验,Donoghue士先找到参与者大脑中控制手活动的区域,再把一些小型多波段电极植入该运动皮质。The womans implant was put there in 2005; the mans five months before the latest trial, described in a paper just published in Nature.根据刚刚发表在《自然》杂志上的论文,女患者在2005年就植入了,而男患者的最新植入才5个月。Dr Donoghue and his team decoded signals from their participants brains as they were asked to imagine controlling a robotic arm making preset movements.Donoghue士和他的团队先设定一个动作,让参与者想象通过机械臂去完成它,这个过程中大脑的信号就会被记录和破译出来。The volunteers were then encouraged to operate one of two robot arms by thinking about the movements they wanted to happen.然后Donoghue士再鼓励他们去控制其中一只机械臂去完成自己想要的动作,When the software controlling the arms detected the relevant signals, the arms moved appropriately.机械臂上的控制软件在检测到相关信号之后,机械臂就会进行相应的移动。The arm that the woman used to help herself to a drink is a lightweight device developed by DLR, Germanys Aerospace Centre, as part of its robotics programme.能让女患者自己喝水的这个轻量级机械臂来自于DLR,这也是机器人计划的一部分,The other, known as a DEKA arm, is being developed in America specifically as a prosthetic for those who have lost an arm.其他的还有DEKA的机械臂,该厂专为残疾人士提供假肢,并且在美国已经相当成熟。Normally, it is operated by the wearer moving his chest or moving his toes over buttons in a shoe.一般情况下,穿戴者会通过移动他们的胸部或者用脚趾按鞋子上的按钮来操作,The participants used it to reach and grasp a ball made of foam rubber.这样他们还可以抓起泡沫橡胶球。Dr Donoghue and his colleagues have thus shown that a mechanical arm can be controlled remotely by the brain of a person with paralysis.Donoghue士和他的同事明了瘫痪者可以通过大脑来控制较远的机械臂。Controlling a true prosthetic—an arm that is attached to the individuals body—will be trickier,要直接控制安装在身体上的假肢还是比较麻烦,即使理论上是可行的,但是现在把机械臂安装在轮椅上是一个更加实用的好事。but in time even that may be possible. In the meantime, a robotic arm attached to a wheelchair will be a real boon. For people who have little or no ability to move their arms Dr Donoghues work promises liberation in the form of idian action that the able-bodied take for granted.对于那些没有能力或者只有有限能力配他们手臂的患者来说,Donoghue士的成果解放了他们,让他们也能够完成那些我们认为理所当然的琐事。 /201307/247735。

Business商业报道Religious investigation services宗教审查务The Lords outsourced work上帝的外包工作The Vatican introduces price controls on the saint-verifying business罗马教廷在圣徒核查领域引入价格控制机制IF YOU came across an essay titled The Cost of Sainthood you might assume it was a homily on the self-sacrificing life of some heroic person.如果你偶然看到一篇文章题为《圣徒的代价》,你可能以为这是一篇关于某个英雄人物自我牺牲的道德说教。But it turns out that sainthood has a cost in a more literal sense—and it has been rising.但是事实上,作为圣徒还有一个实际意义上的花费,而且这个花费在不断增加。When Cardinal John OConnor ofNew Yorkstarted a campaign for the canonisation of Dorothy Day, an activist who toiled among the citys poor, some said this was a bad use of church funds.多罗西·戴是一名挣扎在纽约贫苦人群中的激进主义分子。纽约主教约翰·欧·康纳为其的圣徒册封仪式发起活动,而有人说这一行为滥用了教派基金。He retorted that the expense was not excessive: an initiative to canonise a Haitian-born New Yorker called Pierre Toussaint, aly well advanced, had cost less than ,000主教反驳道,此项花费并非多度:为一名出生在海地的纽约人皮埃尔·图森特发起的册封倡议已经花费超过4000美元,而这一活动进展非常顺利。But that was in the late 1990s. These days a successful canonisation campaign launched inAmericatypically costs around 0,000, and can go far higher, says the Catholic News Service, an agency editorially independent of the church.独立于教会的编辑代理机构《天主教新闻通讯社》称,但是那是在二十世纪九十年代末期。现在在美国,一项成功的圣徒册封活动大致需要花费25万美元甚至更高。The procedures for having somebody recognised as a saint are elaborate and bureaucratic.让某人受封成为圣徒的程序复杂精细而又庄严肃穆。They require an exchange of documents and expertise over many years between the persons home region and theVatican.需要主教奔赴候选人的家乡,调查相关文献,并将资料送到教会,获得相关专家的意见。All sorts of experts may be called in, including doctors, who are asked to comment on the two miraculous cures which are a prerequisite for full sainthood.这一过程将历时多年。各类专家将会被召集,其中也包括医生,他们将会对两种疑难杂症的治愈过程进行评价,因为这是完全成为圣徒的首要条件之一。And a key role is played by an expert, often a Rome-based canon lawyer, known as a postulator, who mediates between the candidates fan base and theVatican, and helps prepare a case for sainthood.另外,专家也将发挥重要作用。这个专家通常是一个来自于罗马的寺院律师,被叫做列圣申请官。To the dismay of Dan Brown fans, the role of devils advocate, who argued against a prospective sainthood, was abolished in 1983.他将会在候选人的持者基地和罗马教会之间进行调停,并协助候选人的受封仪式。令丹·布朗的追随者沮丧的是,扮演与候选圣徒唱反调的魔鬼辩护人的角色在1983年被取缔。The whole business will come under scrutiny this year, with two recentish popes—John XXIII and John Paul II—due to be proclaimed saints in April.今年,圣徒册封仪式将会在准教皇约翰二十三世和约翰·保罗二世两位的仔细审查下进行。This helps explain why, in a speech to postulators this month, Cardinal Angelo Amato, who oversees the Vaticans sainthood department, disclosed that it had introduced a reference tariff—in effect, price regulation—for the costs incurred in promoting a possible saint.这两位将会在今年四月正式宣誓上任。这也就是为什么本月掌管罗马教廷圣徒机构的主教安格鲁·阿玛托在致列圣申请官的讲话中提到的,他们将会针对提名一个圣徒候选人所产生的相关费用引进一项举荐关税。 这项关税实际上是一种价格规章。The department will also continue to ensure that candidates from poor countries, whose backers are less able to pay for elaborate verification services, get a fair hearing.这个机构也会继续确保来自贫穷国家的人们有机会成为候选人。这些人们的持者无力付详尽审查务的费用或举行一个公平的听会。Even that policy has its detractors.但这个政策仍然有反对的声音。Bill Briggs, author of a book on canonisation, has argued that the investigation system introduced by John Paul II, since it is less adversarial than before, was a marketing coup: it facilitated a wave of new saints in emerging markets, helping to recruit new souls to Catholicism.比尔·布里格斯写了一本关于圣徒册封仪式的著作。在书中,他驳斥由教皇约翰·保罗二世引入的候选人调查制度是一个营销诡计,因为该制度不像以往那样具有反抗意识。它催生了新兴市场里一批新圣徒的诞生,为天主教注入了新鲜的血液。But sainthood is never just a matter of money.但是成为圣徒决不是只关乎金钱。Some see the canonisation of two popes—a Polish conservative and an Italian reformer—as a way to reconcile traditionalists and radicals.有人认为两位教皇的册封,是传统主义者和激进分子相互妥协的一种方式。And Meaghan OKeefe of the University of California,Davissees the promotion of Dorothy Day as a move by male bishops to neutralise the countrys left-leaning nuns.加州大学戴维斯分校的米根·欧·基夫认为男性主教对多罗西·戴的提名,旨在寻求国家重心的平均分配,而不是过度倾向于关注修道院。Politics comes into the picture, as well as Mammon.政治问题以及财富收入也成为成为需要考虑的相关因素。 /201402/275346。

Youre out on the golf course one pleasant afternoon.在一个舒适的下午,你站在高尔夫球场上。Your ball is set on the tee.把球在球托上放好,You lean overthe ball.身体倾斜到球的上方,You grip the club just right.握好球杆。Your arms are straight. Your stance perfect. Whoosh!呼地一声!你挥杆了,高尔夫球飞了起来,You swing, and the ball takes off toward the green, sailing in a beautiful arc–almost as if its weightless.奔向绿地,划出一道优美的弧线,轻盈得似乎没有重量。Your impeccable technique certainly has a lot to do with the success of that drive, but you got amajor assist from the little dimples on the golf ball-and theyre the subject of this Moment ofScience.这一杆的成功当然和你完美的技术密不可分,但高尔夫球上的那些小窝也帮了你的大忙,它们就是本期《科学一刻》的主题。Combined with the proper spin, the dimples help keep the ball in the air longer, and heres how.如果加上适当的旋转,这些小窝可以帮助高尔夫球在空中停留更长时间,原因如下。Your picture-perfect swing puts back spin on the ball.你完美的挥杆动作使球向后旋转。The dimples trap a layer of air next to theball, and this layer spins with the ball.球上的小窝吸附了周围薄薄的一层空气,这层空气会与球一块旋转。The air being dragged across the top of the spinning ball moves in the same direction as the airthats rushing past.球所吸附的这层空气转到球的上方时,它的运动方向与周围空气流动方向一致。As the air spinning with the ball comes around the bottom it is moving in theopposite direction from the air on top, and therefore against the onrushing air.而这层空气到球下方的时候,它的运动方向与上方空气相反,因此与周围气流相抵。Consequently itsslower than the air on top.这样就使得下方的空气的速度比上方的要慢。A slow moving air stream has higher pressure than a fast moving air stream.速度慢的气流压强较大,速度快的气流压强较小。So, the higherpressure on the bottom of the ball is going to hold the ball up longer.因此,球底部较高的气压可以把球向上托使它在空中驻留更长时间。The effect of the dimples is so significant that a drive of two-hundred yards hit with a dimpled golf ball, would be shortened with a non-dimpled ball to about one hundred yards.这些小窝的作用是十分重要的,同样的一杆,如果可以把有小窝的高尔夫球击出200码,那它只能把没有小窝的球击出大约100码。 201404/289949。