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2019年07月23日 05:16:26 | 作者:安心健康 | 来源:新华社
Business商业报道Multinationals in China跨国公司在中国Guardian warriors and golden eggs金刚VS金蛋The states crackdowns on big firms are not all about bashing foreigners中国政府制裁大公司,对象绝非仅是外国人FOREIGN companies love to complain about doing business in China.外国公司喜欢抱怨在中国做生意,游戏规则于其不利;The rules of the game are rigged against them, they grouse, the locals are corrupt and the government is always turning the thumbscrews on them.他们埋怨华人腐败,政府总是给其穿小鞋。Amid such moans it is worth remembering that, for all the barriers that foreign multinationals face in China, it has welcomed them with open arms compared with the protectionism imposed by Japanand South Koreaat comparable stages in their economic development.比起同期日本、韩国为发展经济而实行的贸易保护政策,这种牢骚便值得留念;即便跨国公司在中国面临着重重壁垒,毕竟中国还是张开手臂表示欢迎。Nevertheless, the recent spate of high-profile crackdowns on international firms, and people associated with them,has prompted worries about a generalised anti-foreigner backlash.然而,近期备受瞩目的中国制裁跨国公司浪潮让相关人员担心中国民众会产生强烈的排外情绪。This week police in Shanghai formally arrested a British fraud investigator, Peter Humphrey, whom they had detained for six weeks as part of an inquiry into alleged bribery of doctors by foreign drug firms, along with his wife, also an investigator.本周,上海警方正式逮捕一名英国公民—商业竞争情报人员彼特汉弗莱。为调查所谓的外国公司医疗行贿,汉弗莱已被拘留六周。同时被批捕的还有汉弗莱的妻子,后者也是一名竞争情报人员。Mr Humphrey had done work for GlaxoSmithKline, a British drugs firm, four of whose Chinese managers were arrested last month.汉弗莱曾在英国药品公司葛兰素史克工作,上月GSK四名中国区高管被捕。Since these arrests other foreign drugmakers have come under investigation, including Sanofi and Eli Lilly.此后,包括赛诺菲制药集团、礼来公司在内的其他外国制药公司均被中方调查,All three firms say they will co-operate with the inquiries.三家公司均表示愿意协助中方调查。There have also been crackdowns on alleged price-fixing by foreign manufacturers of milk formula, and regulators are scrutinising the prices charged by foreign carmakers and their joint ventures with local firms.此外,中方还在制裁外国公司垄断奶粉配方价格,监察部门正仔细审查外国汽车制造商提出的报价,并调查其同国内公司的合资公司。Now foreign technology firms are worried that they may be next.现在,外国科技公司担心自己会成为下一个调查对象。Chinese nationalists were outraged when Huawei, a local telecoms-equipment giant, was blacklisted last year by American politicians on unsubstantiated allegations of spying.当中国电信设备巨头华为被美国政客以未经核实的间谍活动为由列入黑名单时,中国国内的民族主义者勃然大怒。But they grew apoplectic when Edward Snowden earlier this year revealed the extent of American spying on China.但是,当爱德华斯诺登早些时候揭露美对中采取间谍活动的时候,他们更是怒不可遏。Official media outlets have since been calling for the expulsion of Cisco and other leading American technology firms, dubbed the eight guardian warriors.此后,中国官方媒体甚至呼吁驱逐思科及其他美国顶尖科技公司,并称此举为八大金刚。This has made some observers nervous.中国的上述举动也令其他公司感到不安,Rhodium Group, a consultancy, gave warning that The implications for business prospects of foreign firms operating in the worlds second largest economy are potentially far-reaching.美国咨询公司荣鼎集团警告称:这对于外国公司在世界第二大经济体的前景影响深远。So, is the new Chinese government really about to boot out the foreigners?那么,中国政府真会驱逐外国公司吗?Not likely.看样子不会,Cut through the official medias hype about greedy foreigners and it seems that a mix of motives is at work.通过官方媒体对贪婪外国投资者的大肆宣扬不难看出其动机正在奏效。Consumers are growing ever angrier about the cost of living in Chinas main cities, be that the soaring prices of homes, health care or safe food.消费者对于中国主要城市的生活成本越发愤怒,或是物价飞涨、或是医疗保健、亦或是食品安全问题。So it seems the government, which despite its tight grip on power does care about public opinion, is putting on a noisy show of trust busting.因此,尽管政府攥紧权杖,但仍很在乎民意,打压跨国巨头的好戏也就随之上演。Foreign firms are not the only targets:外国公司并非此次行动唯一的打击对象:recent action on alleged price-fixing by jewellers and the distillers of spirits, for example, nabbed only Chinese firms.比如近期对珠宝商价格垄断及整风活动均是针对中国公司。The antitrust regulator is now promising to get tough on telecoms and banking—two industries dominated by domestic firms.反垄断监管机构正对电信公司及采取更严厉措施—两个由中国国内公司主宰的行业。In contrast the drugs industry is dominated by foreign firms.相比之下,药品行业则由外国公司左右。Doctors are underpaid and thus highly susceptible to being incentivised to peddle pricey pills.医生工资低,因此更容易被蛊惑兜售昂贵药物。Most patients have to pay for their treatments, are angry at how much they cost and blame graft among health professionals.大部分病人治疗都得付费,对高昂的医疗费用极为愤怒,随之将这种情绪转嫁到医护人员身上。So by cracking down on alleged bribery by the foreign drug firms, the new Chinese government is also fulfilling another promise it made on taking office last year, to stamp out corruption.因此,通过制裁国外药品公司行贿一事,新任中国国家主席也是在履行其去年上任时的另一项承诺,即反腐工作。A crutch for lame ducks跛子的拐杖In many industries where local firms compete hard with foreign-backed ventures, the Chinese firms are struggling.中国公司在许多行业面临着外国合资公司的激烈竞争,其发展举步维艰。Often their products are perceived as lower-quality or unsafe.中国公司的产品通常被视作低质、不安全,The economic slowdown is making things worse for them.经济增速放缓对他们来说更是雪上加霜。Although regulators, by getting tough with the foreign firms first, are propping up some local lame ducks in the short term, they may be setting a precedent, and softening up public opinion, for when they eventually turn on the local firms.尽管政府首先拿外国公司开刀,短期内仍旧持国内公司,但其或许会有先例,最终会对国内公司下手以平息民愤。As for the foreign technology firms, and the fear that a nationalist backlash will drive them away, it is true that some in officialdom and in the online Weibo-sphere are eager to see their departure.对于外国科技公司来说,对中国民族主义强烈抵制的忧虑会让他们选择离去。事实确实如此,部分官员、及微圈子的人迫切希望看到他们退出中国市场。And there is some evidence of such firms losing a contract here or there.有据显示,此类公司在中国正相继失去合作机会。However, it will be bizarre if China were to chase away these firms in the same way that America has seen off Huawei.然而,如果中国采取美国对待华为的态度驱逐这些外国公司,那就有些匪夷所思了。American technology firms are the worlds best.美国科技公司是世界上最好的,Americadoes not need Chinese technology, whereas China most certainly needs access to American inventions.美国不需要中国的技术,但中国肯定是需要渠道获得美国的发明。In all, life for the many multinationals operating in China may get more difficult, with further cases of harassment by officials likely to emerge.总而言之,对于众多在华经营的跨国公司来说,其生存环境或许会更加苦难,未来中方政府的进一步调查似乎不可避免。But it seems unlikely, in most cases, that they will be forced out of the country.但是,看样子大部分情况下他们是不会被驱逐出中国市场。Chinas model of economic development depends, and has depended for years, on inviting in the worlds best companies,and—legally or otherwise—benefiting from their intellectual property.中国的经济发展模式需要依靠、过去许多年也一直在依靠吸引国外最好的公司,并合法或者非法从其知识产权中获益。So why would China kill the goose that lays the golden egg?因此,中国难道会杀了这只下金蛋的鹅? /201309/256311Science and technology科学技术Epigenetics and health表观遗传学与健康Grandmas curse祖母的诅咒Some of the effects of smoking may be passed from grandmother to grandchild祖母吸烟产生的影响可以会遗传至孙子或孙女Think of your grandchildren!想想你的孙辈吧!ONE of biologys hottest topics is epigenetics.当今生物学最热的话题之一是表观遗传学,The term itself covers a multitude of sins.这个术语本身就涵盖了许多宗罪。Strictly speaking, it refers to the regulation of gene expression by the chemical modification of DNA, or of the histone proteins in which DNA is usually wrapped.严格来说,表观遗传学研究的是DNA或含有DNA的组蛋白化学改性中的基因表达调控现象。This modification is either the addition of methyl groups to the DNA or of acetyl groups to the histones.这种改性或者是甲基增至DNA中,或者是乙酰基增加到组蛋白中。Methylation switches genes off.甲基化作用关闭基因,Acetylation switches them on.乙酰化作用启动基因。Since, in a multicellular organism, different cells need different genes to be active, such regulation is vital.由于在多细胞有机体中,不同的细胞需要借助不同的基因以激活自身,所以这种调控至关重要。What has got a lot of people excited, though, is the idea that epigenetic switches might be transmitted down the generations.但令人兴奋的是,有观点认为,表观遗传现象中的基因表达调控功能有可能世代相传。Some see this as contrary to Darwinism, since it would permit characteristics acquired during an organisms lifetime to be passed on to its offspring, as suggested by a rival theory of evolution put forward by Jean-Baptiste Lamarck.有些人将之视为对达尔文学说的反,因为这将允许有机体存活期间所获得的特征遗传给后代,正如法国著名生物学家让巴蒂斯特拉马克所提出的与进化论相对的学说。This is an exaggeration.这种想法有些夸张了。The DNA sequence itself is not being permanently altered.基因序列不会一直变化,Even those epigenetic changes that are inherited seem to be subsequently reversible.甚至那些表观遗传学意义上的变化遗传给下一代后,似乎仍然存在可逆性。But the idea that acquired characteristics can be inherited at all is still an important and novel one, and a worrying example of the phenomenon has been published this week in BioMed Central Medicine.但是,因表观遗传现象所获得的特征完全可以遗传的观点仍然新颖且重要。本周,BioMed Central Medicine刊出了一项研究,可例这一现象,其结果令人担忧。The study in question, by Virender Rehan of the Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute, and his colleagues, was of the intergenerational effects of nicotine.该项研究是由洛杉矶生物医学研究所的Virender Rehan和他的同事们开展的,研究的是尼古丁的代际影响。It was done in rats, but a rats physiology is sufficiently similar to a humans to suspect the same thing may be true in Homo sapiens.研究人员虽然在大鼠身上进行实验,但因为大鼠的生理机能与人类十分相像,所以研究人员怀疑对于大鼠的研究结果可能同样适用于智人。In a nutshell, Dr Rehan showed that if pregnant rats are exposed to nicotine, not only will their offspring develop the asthma induced by this drug, so will the offspring of those offspring.简而言之,Rehan士想说明的是,如果大鼠怀时接触尼古丁,不仅下一代会因此患上哮喘,第三代也会深受其害。Dr Rehan and his team injected their rats with nicotine when they were six days pregnant.Rehan士和他的团队在大鼠怀的第六天为其注射尼古丁。They then allowed them to give birth and raised the pups to the age of three weeks, before some were examined.大鼠的后代出生后,由母鼠养育三周。The rest were allowed to mature and breed, and their own offspring were similarly examined.然后研究人员选取一部分后代进行检查,其余的第二代大鼠继续生长繁殖,最后研究人员对第三代大鼠进行类似的检验。There was, however, no further administration of nicotine.但是,第二代大鼠在妊娠期间,不再被注射尼古丁。The pups of the treated mothers had asthmatic lungs.检测发现,被注射尼古丁的母鼠所繁殖的第二代大鼠肺部有哮喘病变。The organs airways were constricted,大鼠肺部的气道处于收缩状态。and molecular analysis showed abnormally high levels of fibronectin and collagen—which would stiffen the lung tissue—and also high levels of receptor molecules for nicotine.经过分子分析发现,大鼠肺部的纤维连接蛋白和胶原蛋白含量异常升高,这将导致肺组织硬化;同时尼古丁受体分子增加。That was expected, since the developing embryos were exposed to the nicotine when their mothers were treated.结果表明,母鼠被注射尼古丁后,其后代在胚胎发育时期就会受尼古丁的影响,这一结果正如预期。However, when the team did similar tests on the grand-offspring of the treated mothers, they got similar results.但是,当研究团队对第三代大鼠进行类似检查时,发现了同样的情况,Those grand-offspring had not been exposed to nicotine.即使这些第三代大鼠并没有接触尼古丁。The cause of the grand-offsprings asthma, Dr Rehan believes, is epigenetic modification.Rehan士认为,第三代大鼠的哮喘是表观遗传中的改性现象。Nicotine is not only affecting lung cells, but also affecting sex cells in ways that cause the lungs which ultimately develop from those cells to express their genes in the same abnormal ways.尼古丁不仅侵袭肺部细胞,还会影响生殖细胞,使得生殖细胞在发育器官时,在肺部异常表达基因,导致新发育的肺部同样受到尼古丁的不良影响。Exactly what those epigenetic changes are is hard to track down.表观遗传现象具体引起了哪种变化,目前难以获知。The team have started looking, but could find no clear pattern except that one form of nicotine-induced acetylation, that of H3 histones, could be blocked by a molecule called RGZ.研究团队已经开始研究这一问题,但目前只研究出一种明确的模式:尼古丁会引起H3组蛋白的乙酰化,This molecule is also known to protect lungs against the asthma-causing effects of nicotine.进而导致一种叫做RGZ的分子受到抑制,而目前已知RGZ分子可以保护肺脏,使其免受由尼古丁引起的哮喘。That suggests it is the acetylation of H3 histones rather than the methylation of DNA itself that is creating the effect.这表明由尼古丁引起的哮喘是源于H3组蛋白的乙酰化,而非DNA自身的甲基化作用。Which crucial genes these histones surround remains obscure.研究团队目前没有研究出这些受影响的组蛋白包含着哪些关键基因,Nor have the team yet found out whether the epigenetic effect they have discovered reaches further than grand-offspring.也没有发现表观遗传的影响是否会延续至第三代以下的后代。If it does, though, it suggests that epigenetics really might act like the biblical curse:然而,如果有研究表明后生效应会世代相传的话,这就表明表观遗传现象真真是有如圣经上的诅咒:that the sins of the fathers will be visited on the sons, even unto the third and fourth generations.父辈的罪孽,会降罪至他们的下一代身上,甚至会延续至第三代或者第四代。 /201401/271825

Its time to go again to the A Moment of Science mailbag.又到阅读《科学一刻》栏目来信的时间了。A listener writes:其中一位听众来信说:Dear A Moment of Science,Ive heard that owning a dog or cat can be a good way to deal with stress and ward offdepression.亲爱的《科学一刻》栏目组,我听说养或养猫是对待压力和预防抑郁的好方法。So I was wondering–is it interacting with actual pets thats beneficial, or would justlooking at pictures of cats and dogs work to curb stress?所以我一直想知道,有益的是与真实的宠物互动吗?或是只是看看猫猫的图片就可以减少压力呢?Actually owning a pet is different from merely looking at pictures of cute puppies and kittens,certainly.实际上,拥有宠物当然有别于只是看看可爱小或猫咪的图片。Stress relief has a lot to do with the companionship that real pets provide.减压与真实宠物给我们的陪伴有很大关联。But one study showed that watching s of animals can help reduce stress.但是,一项研究显示观看动物视频可以帮助人们减压。And according tothe study by researchers in Japan, looking at pictures of cute animals does appear to help usfocus and concentrate.而且根据日本学者的这项研究,看可爱动物的图片似乎可以帮助我们集中精神。The researchers divided around 130 students into two groups andassigned each a task.研究者们将130名左右的学生分成两组,每组分配一项任务。One group played an Operation like game that involved removing small objects from a holewithout touching the sides.其中一组进行一种操作类的游戏,在不接触孔洞侧面的条件下将小物件从洞中移出。A second group was tasked with finding a number in a randomsequence.另一组则是要求在随机序列中找到一个数字。Within each group, participants were shown pictures either of puppies and kittens or of growncats and dogs.在每一组里,研究者给参与者展示小小猫或是成年猫的照片。A subset of participants in one of the groups was also shown pictures of appealingfoods.而在其中一个实验组里的一小组参与者面前展示的是诱人食物的图片。The participants that saw the puppies and kittens consistently performed better than theothers.结果是,看到小小猫图片的参与者们一致表现得优于其他人。As for why viewing these cute images resulted in improved performance, the study doesnt say.至于为何观看这些可爱的图像能够得到更好的表现,这项研究并没有给出原因。It seems reasonable to speculate, though, that feelings of happiness or warmth elicited by cutepictures helps relieve stress, thereby enabling the brain to focus and concentrate with greaterpower.尽管如此,我们可以合理地猜测,由可爱的图片所激发的开心和温暖的感觉有助于舒缓压力,由此使得大脑以更高的效率集中精神。 201402/275348

Science and technology科学技术Astrochemistry天体化学The great test tube in the sky空中的大试管Space is one big chemistry set宇宙是一个很大的化学装置MOST people think of the empty space between the stars as being, well, empty.大多数人们认为星星之间就是空无一物,但事实并非如此。But it is not. It is actually filled with gas.实际上有气体弥散其中。Admittedly, at an average density of 100-1,000 molecules per cubic centimetre, it is a pretty thin gas.诚然,分子平均密度102-103/cm3的气体非常稀薄。But space is big, so altogether there is quite a lot of it.不过由于空间很广阔,气体分子总体数量是可观的。Most of it, about 92%, is hydrogen.大部分的气体是氢,另外8%是惰性气体氦。A further 8% is helium, which is chemically inert.还有一小部分由氧、碳、氮等其他元素构成的分子。But a tiny fraction—less than one-tenth of a percent—consists of molecules with other elements, such as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen, in them. Though these other elements are a mere soupon of the interstellar soup, they do give it real flavour.虽然这些元素仅仅是“星际浓汤”轻微的调料,但它们确实增添了汤的味道。Signs of life生命的迹象So far about 180 types of these molecular ingredients have been detected in space from their microwave spectra—the energy produced when molecules rotate around their chemical bonds.到目前为止,人们已经通过微波谱线探测出约180种分子成分。分子绕其化学键旋转时,分子能级会发生改变,从而产生微波谱线。There are two reasons for wanting to study them.研究微波谱线有两个原因。One is that these molecules are probably the precursors of life.一是分子可能是生命的预兆。The other is that the rarefied nature of astrochemistry changes the way processes work.二是天体化学其稀薄的属性会改变化学反应的过程。It means the individual steps in chemical reactions can be disentangled from one another in a way that is hard—and sometimes impossible—on Earth.人们可以用这种方式把化学反应中独立的一步从彼此步骤间分离出来,有时这在地球上很难实现。And it allows reactions to happen that are unknown on Earth.并且还有可能发生人类未知的化学反应。Now the astrochemists have a new tool:the Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimetre Array in northern Chile.现在天体化学家有了新工具:阿塔卡马大型毫米/亚毫米波天线阵。It was officially opened on March 13th but has aly been making discoveries, including the most intense bursts of star birth in the early universe.3月13日ALMA正式运作,到现在已经有了发现,例如宇宙早期恒星诞生最激烈的爆发。ALMA consists of 66 dishes and is the worlds most powerful radio telescope.ALMA有66台天线,是世界上最强劲的射电望远镜。At a cost of 1.3 billion it should provide a hundredfold increase in sensitivity and resolution over the best older instruments.花费13亿美元想必会使灵敏度分辨率比过去最好的仪器还要好百倍。Those older telescopes had to focus on nebulae, where the interstellar gas is most concentrated.以往的望远镜必须关注星云,那里是星际气体最集中之处。And older telescopes can detect only strong, simple signals of the sort emitted by small molecules like carbon monoxide and hydrogen cyanide, which have two and three atoms respectively.一个可用双筒望远镜看到的典例是气体环绕恒星所形成的猎户座的”剑”。并且老望远镜只能探测到一氧化碳、氢氰化物等小分子释放出的强的,简单的信号。Spotting more complex substances was almost impossible because their rotational energy is scattered by their numerous bonds across a wide range of frequencies.而鉴别更复杂的物质几乎不可能,大量化学键占有很宽的频率范围,以至于旋转能被散射掉。ALMA, by contrast, can detect such things routinely.相反ALMA可以轻易探测到这些信号:It has aly identified glycolaldehyde and acetone, molecules that have eight and ten atoms respectively.它已经鉴定出了乙醇醛和丙酮。In particular, ALMAs masters, a consortium of research agencies from Canada, Chile, Europe, Japan, Taiwan and the ed States, hope to find simple sugars and organic acids—molecules most researchers in the field believe were needed to get life going on Earth.特别的,由加拿大、智利、欧洲、日本、台湾及美国的财团组成的研究机构掌控ALMA,希望以此寻觅简单的糖类和有机酸——该领域大多数研究人员认为它们是地球上生命的必需之物。The ability to study chemical reactions stage by stage will be equally important.能够研究化学反应中的每一步同样很重要。High-school chemistry lessons, with their neat equations transforming, say, 2H+O into 2HO, miss out a plethora of intermediate steps such as the formation of hydroxyl, OH.高中化学课上简单的反应方程式省略了大量的中间步骤。例如 2H? + O? 2H?O 就没有体现形成羟基的过程。In a lab, these intermediates are often too short-lived to be detectable.实验室里,这些中间过程非常短暂,人们难以探测。But in space an intermediate may hang around a long time before it encounters its partner in the next stage of a reaction.不过在太空中,一个中间过程会持续很长时间,直到碰到下一步反应的搭档。ALMA can see the microwave traces of such intermediates, and thus gain a better understanding of them.ALMA可以看到这些中间过程的微波轨迹,因此研究者可以更好的了解这些过程。There are also completely new reactions to discover.还有全新的反应有待人们发现。Anthony Remijan, of Americas National Radio Astronomy Observatory, who is one of the astronomers putting ALMA through its paces, is studying the formation of methyl formate, a compound widely used on Earth in applications from insulation to insecticides.美国国家射电天文台的Anthony Remijan是将ALMA引入这个方向的天文学家中的一员。他正在研究甲酸甲酯的形成过程。从绝缘体到杀虫剂,可以说地球上到处都是甲酸甲酯。Usually it is synthesised either from methanol and formic acid, or methanol and carbon monoxide.通常它由甲醇和甲酸,或甲醇和一氧化碳合成。But there is, in theory, a third route that uses formic acid and an unstable substance made from methanol and hydrogen.但是在理论上,还可以使用甲酸和一种不稳定的物质来制造甲酸甲酯。This has not been seen in an Earthly laboratory, but Dr Remijan thinks it is an important pathway in space, and ALMA should soon tell him if he is right.这还没有在地球上的实验室中发现,但Remijan士认为在太空中这是一个重要的过程。ALMA应该很快就会告诉他他是否正确。Probably, that particular discovery will have no practical consequences.也许,上述特别的发现不会产生实用效果。The known syntheses are effective, and methyl formate is aly cheap.甲酸甲酯熟知的合成方法很有效,而且它很便宜。But it will prove a principle about using the cosmos as a chemistry laboratory, and the hope is that similar findings about other molecules that are harder to make may allow chemical engineers at home to reformulate their processes.但是,这明了一个理念:用宇宙充当化学实验室。希望有关其他较难制造的分子的类似发现能够让化学工程师在家里重新制定它们的合成过程。If that happens, the test tube in the sky really will have proved its worth.如果可以,天空中的试管确实有其价值。 /201312/267955

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