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2019年08月18日 09:50:34
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Science and technology科学技术Age and wisdom年龄与智慧Older and wiser?姜是老的辣?Americans get wiser with age. Japanese are wise from the start美国人年龄越大越聪明。日本人从小就聪明ONE stereotype of wisdom is a wizened Zen-master smiling benevolently at the antics of his pupils, while referring to them as little grasshoppers or some such affectation, safe in the knowledge that one day they, too, will have been set on the path that leads to wizened masterhood.提到智慧的时候,人们脑海里总会出现这样一个老套的画面:一个削瘦的禅宗大师面容慈祥的对他的弟子微笑着,一边叫他们小不点,心中十分确定他们迟早会走上这条通往智慧的禅宗之道。But is it true that age brings wisdom?但是智慧真的与年龄有关吗?A study two years ago in North America, by Igor Grossmann of the University of Waterloo, in Canada, suggested that it is.两年前,加拿大滑铁卢大学Igor Grossmann士的研究显示情况的确如此。In as much as it is possible to quantify wisdom, Dr Grossmann found that elderly Americans had more of it than youngsters.由于智慧可以标准量化,他发现年长的美国人的确比年轻人要聪明。He has, however, now extended his investigation to Asia—the land of the wizened Zen-master—and, in particular, to Japan.但是,如今他将调查扩展至整个亚洲—这个拥有禅宗大师的神奇土地—特别是日本。There, he found, in contrast to the West, that the grasshoppers are their masters equals almost from the beginning.在那里他发现,与西方相比,几乎从一开始,这些弟子与大师在智力方面难分伯仲 。Dr Grossmanns study, just published in Psychological Science, recruited 186 Japanese from various walks of life and compared them with 225 Americans.Grossmann士研究结果刚发表在《心理科学》。他招募了186个来自各行各业的日本人并且与225个美国人做对比研究。Participants were asked to a series of pretend newspaper articles.他要求参与者阅读一些假装在报纸上发表的文章。Half described conflict between groups, such as a debate between residents of an impoverished Pacific island over whether to allow foreign oil companies to operate there following the discovery of petroleum.其中一半描述了一些团体斗争,比如太平洋小岛上当地居民关于是否允许外国石油公司开发刚发现的石油资源。The other half took the form of advice columns that dealt with conflicts between individuals: siblings, friends and spouses.另一半文章以专栏的方式提供兄弟、朋友、配偶之间的个人斗争解决建议。After ing each article, participants were asked What do you think will happen after that? and Why do you think it will happen this way? Their responses were recorded and transcribed.在阅读完文章之后,研究人员会问参与者两个问题,分别是此事发生后,你认为事态将会如何发展??和为什么你认为事态会这样发展?然后研究人员会记录他们的。Dr Grossmann and his colleagues removed age-related information from the transcripts, and also any clues to participants nationalities, and then passed the edited versions to a group of assessors.Grossmann士和同事们会在记录中剔除与他们年龄和国籍相关的信息,然后将处理过的记录版本交给经过培训的一组评委,他们都对的有一致的评分标准。These assessors were trained to rate transcribed responses consistently, and had been tested to show that their ratings were statistically comparable with one another.这些评估成员经过训练,能够始终以相同标准对纸上进行评分;并且已通过测试表明其评出的分数在统计方面相互具有可比性。The assessors scored participants responses on a scale of one to three. This attempted to capture the degree to which they discussed what psychologists consider five crucial aspects of wise reasoning: willingness to seek opportunities to resolve conflict; willingness to search for compromise; recognition of the limits of personal knowledge; awareness that more than one perspective on a problem can exist; and appreciation of the fact that things may get worse before they get better.评委将参与者的按1至3分进行评分。他们想通过这种方法把握心理学家认为的五个有关于智慧方面的重要程度,分别是:寻求解决争端机会的意愿;寻求折中方法的意愿;对个人知识有限的认识度;对问题存在多个方面的意识程度;和对事情在往好的方向发展前的趋坏倾向的估计程度。A score of one on any aspect indicated a participant gave no consideration to it.1分代表参与者根本就没有考虑过,A score of two indicated some consideration.2分代表参与者有了些思考但并不深入,A score of three indicated a great deal of consideration.3分代表参与者对这些问题有深入的思考。Each participants scores were then added up and mathematically transformed to create an overall value within a range of zero to 100 for both interpersonal and intergroup wisdom.将参与者的每个问题的得分相加,再把总分从人际关系及团体关系两方面分别转换为百分制。The upshot was that, as Dr Grossmann had found before, Americans do get wiser with age.与Grossmann士以前的结果一样,美国人随着年龄的增长智慧增加。Their intergroup wisdom score averaged 45 at the age of 25 and 55 at 75.25岁的美国人社会群体的判断力平均数是45而75岁的美国人平均数是55。Their interpersonal score similarly climbed from 46 to 50.他们人际关系的判断力平均数同样随年龄由46攀升至50。Japanese scores, by contrast, hardly varied with age.但是与美国人的结果相反,日本人的分数与年龄并无太大关系。Both 25-year-olds and 75-year-olds had an average intergroup wisdom of 51.25岁和75岁的人的社会群体的判断力平均数都是51;For interpersonal wisdom, it was 53 and 52.对于人际关系判断力反而是25岁的是53,75岁的人是52.Taken at face value, these results suggest Japanese learn wisdom faster than Americans.这些结果显示日本人比美国人更早变聪明一些。One up, then, to the wizened Zen-masters. But they also suggest a paradox.年轻人以一分的优势险胜那些削瘦的禅宗大师们。但是却有一个悖论:Generally, America is seen as an individualistic society, whereas Japan is quite collectivist.通常说来美国被视为是一个充满了个人主义的社会,然而日本则更推崇集体主义。Yet Japanese have higher scores than Americans for the sort of interpersonal wisdom you might think would be useful in an individualistic society.但是日本人在人际关系能力这一项上的得分却比美国人要高,而人际关系判断力是大多数人认为在个人主义社会中十分受用的能力。Americans, by contrast—at least in the maturity of old age—have more intergroup wisdom than the purportedly collectivist Japanese.相反,美国人—至少在年龄比较高的那一组中—在群体判断力的得分上比据称崇尚集体主义的日本人要高。Perhaps, then, you need individual skills when society is collective, and social ones when it is individualistic.也许,当社会推崇集体主义的时候你也需要人际关系技巧,在推崇个人主义的社会里你同样需要社交技巧。All of which goes to show that the real root of wisdom is this: do not assume, little grasshopper, that your prejudices are correct.所有的这一切都表明,智慧的真正根源是:别事先假定你的成见是正确的,也别轻看了那些小不点。 /201402/277825芜湖市芜湖县前列腺炎哪家医院最好芜湖三山区男性男子男科医院割包皮Business商业报道GMs next bossGM的下任老板Detroits first lady底特律第一夫人The car giants new boss is not only a woman but a car guy这家汽车巨头的新老板虽是女性却还是个汽车人。IT MAY look like a firm stuck in one gear: General Motors market share in America, at around 18%, has not shifted in a while.看起来,这家公司是陷入了僵局:通用汽车在美国的市场占有率已经在很久都没有变化了。But on December 10th its announcement that in January Mary Barra will take the wheel to become one of the most powerful executives in the car industry, and indeed corporate America, signals a shift up through the cogs.但是在12月10日,该公司宣布在一月,Mary Barra将掌管公司。这使她成为了汽车业,也是全美国最有权势的执行人之一,标志着汽车行业的一次重要转变。Three years ago she became one of the highest-ranking women in the business when she was named head of global product development at GM.三年之前被任命为GM全球产品发展部主管的时候,她就已经成为了商业界排名榜首的几位女性之一。Almost as striking as the fact that she will now take the top job in what has traditionally been a male environment is that she is a genuine car guy.和她即将在传统上都是男性文化充盈的环境中掌权一样令人惊奇的事实是她是个正宗的汽车人。In some respects this is a step backwards for GM.从某些方面上说,这个举措对GM来说是一种让步。She is a company woman who has spent her entire career working for the carmaker.Mary Barra成长于公司内部,整个职业生涯都在这家汽车制造商中渡过。Dan Akerson, GMs current chairman and chief executive, who retires next year, came to Detroit from other industries, as did his counterparts at Ford and Chrysler.将在明年退休的GM现任主席及首席执行官Dan Akerson是从其他行业转投底特律的,福特、克莱斯勒的老板也是如此。That was a big change for a business distrustful of outsiders but in need of a new approach to leadership to oversee the turnaround of Americas carmakers after the ravages of a financial crisis and a crippling recession.对这个外界充满怀疑的行业来说,这绝对是一个大变化,同时这个行业也急需一种新的方式来带领美国汽车制造业扭转金融危机造成的破坏和走出目前的衰退情境。As Mr Akerson noted, the new GM that emerged from 11 bankruptcy protection in is run very differently from the way the giant carmaker was managed in the past.如Akerson先生所说,在年后根据联邦破产法第11章的破产保护而重组以来,新GM的运营方式同过去相比已经非常不同了。When asked how Ms Barra might fare in a company known for its old-boy mentality, Mr Akerson insisted that the perception is quite dated.当被问到Barra女士在这个以男性文化闻名的公司中会遇到什么问题时,Akerson坚持说这种观念已经非常过时了。During close to four years of leadership, Mr Akerson has concentrated on building teams rather than the top-down management of old.在将近4年的领导过程中,Arkerson专心于建设管理团队而不是同过去一样采用由上至下的管理模式。But as a former military man his brusque demeanour may have tempered his ability to resist ordering people around.但是作为一位前军队人员,Arkerman直率的举止Ms Barra is likely to take a more conciliatory approach.看起来Barra女士会采取一种更加中庸的做法。Mary is a coach, and thats the sort of management style this company needs, says David Cole of the Centre for Automotive Research.Mary就像教练一样,这正是这家公司需要的管理方式。汽车研发中心的David Cole说道。She was certainly groomed for the role.她当然为这个角色修饰打扮过。She is part of a generation of women targeted by GM to achieve great things.Barra是GM认定将会作出一番成就的一代女性中的一个。The firm, embarrassed by its macho culture, has made a big effort to bring on female talent.这家为男性文化的公司为招揽女性人才作出的很大努力。Indeed, the carmaker now has a fast-growing cadre of top managers who are women; there are five more on its executive committee as well as Ms Barra.实际上,这家汽车制造商中女性高层骨干也在快速增加;在它的执行委员会中还有5名同Barra一样的女士。A quarter of its factory managers are female.其工厂经理中1/4是女性。A woman runs the crucial electric-vehicle programme.至关重要的电动汽车项目也由一名女性领导。GM will also benefit from Ms Barras skills as a product person.GM还会因Barra女士从事产品工作的经历而受益。She is an engineer who knows cars inside out.她是一位对汽车了如指掌的工程师。Mr Akerson leaves on an upbeat note.Arkerson先生留下的一副乐观的景象。The carmakers recent profits have exceeded expectations, its share price has risen sharply in recent months and many of its latest models are widely praised for engineering, design and quality.这家汽车制造商的近期利润已经超过了预期,它的最近股价也是一路飙升,新推出的车型中多款都在工程、设计和质量上饱受赞誉。The new Chevrolet Impala was cited as the best saloon ever tested by Consumer Reports, an influential magazine.新型的雪佛兰英帕拉被很有影响的杂志《消费者报告》称为测试过的最好的轿车。Still, Mr Akerson warns that as far as weve come, weve got to go that far again.然而Arkeson先生警告说尽管我们已经有了一些成绩,我们需要尽力做到更好。There is plenty more room for improvement.发展的空间还很大。Other models in GMs range are in need of the makeover she has aly given to the Chevrolet Malibu and the companys range of pick-up trucks.GM的其他车型也需要Barra女士给雪佛兰迈锐宝以及皮卡车所带来的那种改变。Successive bosses have failed to fix Opel, GMs loss-making European arm.连续几任老板都没能改变其在欧洲不断亏损的分—欧宝。And the important Chinese market appears to be slowing.而且至关重要的中国市场进展缓慢。Ms Barra has to make sure that she keeps improving GMs line-up of vehicles if it is to take on Ford and Toyota.Barra女士需要继续提高GM旗下的各款车辆来对抗福特和丰田。 /201312/269630芜湖性病医院哪家最好

芜湖市第四人民医院治疗包皮包茎多少钱芜湖那家医院早泄好Linguistics语言学Argot bargy方言来袭Why urban teenagers speak the way they do城里的年轻人为什么那样说话Nov 2nd 2013 |From the print editionYou think my accent’s bonkers. Your kids speak like me你觉得我的口音弱爆了。但是你家孩子跟我一个德行。IN HER novel “White Teeth”, published in 2000, Zadie Smith noted that in London, “all kids, whatever their nationality”, seem to express scorn with a Jamaican accent. Since then linguistic researchers have gradually come to understand how and why so many teenagers sound like Dizzee Rascal, a rapper from Bow in east London (pictured). They call this sping, mutating argot Multicultural London English (MLE).扎迪史密斯在2000年发表过一部小说,名字叫《白牙》,在书中,她提到在伦敦,所有的孩子,不管他们来自哪里,似乎用牙买加口音表达自己的鄙视。从那时起,语言学研究者逐渐明白了如何以及为何那么多青少年口音听起来像来自东伦敦区说唱歌手迪兹瑞克斯(如图)了。研究者称这种正在蔓延以及变异的语言为多文化伦敦英语(MLE)。When MLE first emerged, linguists believed it was a ham version of the way West Indians speak English. In the early 1980s “West Indians who had spoken Cockney suddenly started to speak differently,” explains Paul Kerswill of York University. Young Afro-Caribbean men may have adopted a new style of speech as they sought to forge an identity in an often hostile society. Others were thought to have copied them.MLE首次出现的时候,语言学家认为这是西印度群岛人群讲英语的一种蹩脚方式。约克大学的保罗克苏威尔解释道,在上世纪80年代初,讲伦敦口音的西印度群岛人群突然开始讲不一样的口音了。年轻的加勒比黑人可能已经接受了一种新的口音,因为他们试图在一个充满歧视的社会里获得一种认可。其他人则被认为是在模仿他们。But far from being cod-Jamaican, MLE is now thought to be a hybrid dialect that emerged from the intermingling of West Indians, South Asians and speakers of Cockney and Estuary English. Though much of the slang is West Indian—from “bare” for “very” to “sick” meaning “good”—the pronunciation is often not. Its chief characteristic, an elongated “ah” sound in place of an “i” so that “like” is pronounced “lahke”, does not imitate a West Indian patois.但这绝不是牙买加人专属,MLE现在被认为是由西印度群岛口音,南亚裔口音和伦敦以及河湾区口音混合的方言。尽管大部分是西印度群岛俚语,比如说‘bare’等同于‘very’,还有‘sick’等同于‘good’,发音往往也不一样。MLE的主要特点是‘i’的发音像‘ah’,因此,‘like’听起来像‘lahke’,这一特征就不是效仿西印度群岛口音。Researchers have found that MLE alters from place to place. Variants have emerged in other cities with many immigrants, such as Birmingham and Manchester. Children tend to pick up MLE at secondary school. It is more common—and more strongly accented—among boys than among girls. The grammar that tends to accompany MLE is increasingly uniform: for example the use of ;we wasnt; in place of ;we werent;.研究者发现英国到处都有MLE的踪迹。其他城市的许多移民也出现了变种,比如伯明翰和曼城。孩子们一般是在初中开始接触MLE。这种口音在男孩之间更加普遍,口音也更明显。同时MLE的语法也正在变的规范起来,例如;we werent;代替了;we wasnt;。Linguists are most excited by what MLE is doing to the rhythm of speech. English is usually spoken with a stress-timed rhythm, in which syllables are stressed at regular intervals. Speakers of MLE speak with a syllable-timed rhythm, in which all syllables are accorded roughly the same time and stress, as in French or Japanese. Syllable-timed speech is a characteristic of languages that have come into contact with other languages. Versions of it may have existed in multicultural places such as Hackney for centuries, thinks Mr Kerswill.语言学家对MLE对语调带来的变化更感兴趣。英语一般是由重音引导的,就是音节按照时间规律重读。MLE的使用者则按照音节停顿,所有音节的语调基本一致,跟法语和日语大致相同。和其他语言相比,按音节停顿是其特点。这种语音特色可能已经在诸如哈克尼这种多元文化区存在数个世纪了。Helped along by the exodus of old-fashioned Cockney speakers to London’s suburbs and commuter towns, MLE is replacing London’s traditional vernacular. That worries some. Caroline Goyder, a former teacher who now coaches politicians and lawyers in the art of public speaking, says she sees increasing numbers of school leavers who fear they are incomprehensible in job interviews. For one young Cambridge graduate working in Paris, that rings true. His MLE accent is proving as much of a problem as his imperfect French. “I know it’s incongruous”, he says, “but it’s hard to lose, y’get me?”随着操伦敦口音的居民搬到郊区以及周边通勤城镇,MLE正在取代当地的传统语言。这让一些人感到担忧。曾任教师的卡洛琳葛依德现在是一名政客律师演讲指导教练,她表示她看到很多毕业生害怕在工作面试中不能被理解。对一个在巴黎工作的剑桥毕业生来说,这是真的。他的MLE口音跟他磕磕绊绊的法语一样。他说,我知道这不对,但是很难改,你懂吗?201311/264377Have you ever wondered why some cuisines, like Indian and Thai, are so spicy and others, like English, are so bland?你是否也曾好奇,为何印度菜和泰国菜辛辣无比,而英国菜却近乎清淡无味?Lets see,India and Thailand are very hot countries,while England is cold and damp.印度和泰国气候炎热,英国则又冷又潮,这么说来,或许每一种菜肴都和当地气候有关吧?So the answer has something to do with the climate associated with each cuisine?每一种菜肴都和当地气候有关?Yes,it sure does.是的,当然。The first one is spices mask spoilage, and in a country with a hot climate and without refrigeration, that can come in handy.一种解释是,辛辣香料能防腐,尤其在气候炎热又没有冰箱的国家,可备不时之需。Some scientists suggest that the spices in hot cuisines help protect humans from certain kinds of bacteria found in food.一些科学家推测,辛辣菜肴中的香料有助杀死食物中的某几种细菌,使人们免受其害。In fact, the hotter the country, the more likely it is that its recipes will use the kind of spices that slow down the growth of bacteria.事实上,所处地带越是炎热,食物的烹饪中越会使用辛辣香料来抑制细菌增长。You mean some ingredients can slow down the growth of bacteria?你的意思是一些原材料可以抑制细菌增长Thats right.是这样的。For example, onion, garlic, oregano and all spice alone all kill or inhibit up to twenty-nine different kinds food-borne bacteria.说得对。比如说,洋葱、大蒜、牛至和多香果就能杀灭或抑制多达29种不同的食物细菌。In fact, most spices inhibit bacteria to some extent.实际上,辛辣香料或多或少都能抑制细菌。And if you think about it, this makes sense.细想一下,这是有道理的。As plants evolved, they had to learn to fight off parasites and bacteria in order to survive.在进化过程中,植物必须击退寄生虫和细菌才能得以生存。Thats how they got their distinctive flavoring in the first place.辛辣香料原有的独特味道就因此而来。 /201404/293155芜湖弋矶山医院男科泌尿科咨询芜湖人民医院泌尿科专家门诊

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