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来源:好医咨询    发布时间:2019年08月24日 13:44:13    编辑:admin         

UNIDENTIFIED FEMALE: Time for The Shoutout. “大声喊出来”的时间到了!Who#39;s the leader the US Federal Reserve, the country#39;s central bank? If you think you know it, shout it out. 美国联邦储备局的主席是谁?如果你认为你知道的话,就大声喊出来吧!Is it Janet Yellen, Ben Bernanke, Mary Barra or Warren Buffet? You#39;ve got three seconds. Go. 是珍妮特·耶伦、本·伯南克、玛丽·拉还是沃伦·巴菲特?你与哦三秒钟的时间,开始!Last year, Janet Yellen became the first woman ever to chair the US Federal Reserve. That#39;s your answer and that#39;s your Shoutout. 去年,珍妮特·耶伦称为美联储历史上第一位女主席。那就是你的,那就是你的“大喊”。AZUZ: One way the Fed can influence the US economy is by raising or lowering interest rates. 联邦储备局可以通过调高或者降低利率来影响美国的经济。It wants to keep the economy growing, but not too quickly. 联邦储备局想要促进经济的发展,但又不能发展过快。That can cause inflation, when prices go up and the value of the dollar goes down. 那会造成通货膨胀,也就是价格上涨,美元贬值。Interest rates right now are very low. 如今的利率很低。Some critics say that#39;s keeping Americans from saving money in savings accounts. 一些家指出低利率会让人们的储蓄得更少。Why do it if you don#39;t earn interest? 如果赚不到利息的话,为什么要存钱呢?The other side argues that now isn#39;t the time to raise interest rates because even though the stock market has been setting record highs, Americans#39; wages are growing too slowly. 另一种观点指出现在不是提高利率的时候,因为尽管股市再创佳绩,美国人的工资增长太慢了。That#39;s not a good sign for the economy. 这对不是一个好现象经济征兆。 /201503/363363。

In many ways,plastic is the perfect material:we can make it strong and rigid enough to build spaceships and replace bones,or thin and flexible enough to makes shopping bags,that weigh as much as a nickel but carry up to 8 kilograms.在很多方面,塑料都是完美材料,塑料可以非常牢固坚硬,以制造航天飞船,替代骨骼,也可以很薄很坚韧,以制造购物袋,一块薄镍币厚度的塑料袋就能撑8公斤重量。And unlike other materials,plastic doesn#39;t rust or rot,it can last for centuries,even when we only need it to last a few seconds.We make tons of plastic precisely because it#39;s cheap,durable and yet expendable.But the features of plastic that make it so useful to us have also transformed life in the oceans,where as much as 10% of our discarded plastic-millions of tons per year-ends up.但是和其他材料不同的是,塑料保和省锈蚀也不会腐烂,即便我们有时只需要几秒钟,塑料却能挺过好几个世纪。人们大量生产塑料因为它便宜又耐用,但是塑料依然属于消耗品。人们懂得利用塑料的特性,但也因为如此,塑料改变了海洋生物,每年全球10%的废弃塑料进入海洋。Big pieces of plastic are definitely bad news for marine animals like whales,albatross,and sea turtles which risk getting tangled in the debris or ingesting large pieces of it.Yet despite the publicity about huge garbage patches in the sea.most of the ocean#39;s plastic isn#39;t big,our castaway shopping bags and soda bottles get weakened by sunlight.and torn apart in the wind and the waves into little bits of plastic confetti.对于鲸,信天翁和海龟等海洋生物来说,大块塑料当然不好,海洋生物可能被塑料缠住,或吞下大块塑料。虽然媒体中出现在海中的都是大块塑料,但是大多数海洋中的塑料并不大,购物袋和汽水瓶会在阳光下变薄 被海风和海浪撕扯成为小块碎渣。On the micro-scale,though,it#39;s still super durable the microorganisms that decompose ripped-up bits of wood and seaweed down into simpler organic compounds can#39;t easily digest plastic.So while the plastic confetti gets broken into smaller pieces,it doesn#39;t go away it just sps out over time.从微观角度看,塑料依然无法被微生物分解,分解木头和海藻的微生物无法轻易消化塑料。所以虽然塑料碎渣碎成更小颗粒,但并未消失 时间过去,塑料只是扩散开来。Which is why we#39;ve found;microplastics;pretty much everywhere in the oceans,from the Arctic to the Antarctic,and from the seafloor to the surface.Unlike the easy-to-observe impacts of large plastic trash.the effects of microplastics are as subtle and difficult to trace as the fragments themselves:the durable fragments can serve as new real estate,on which small ocean creatures can grow and multiply;or choke slightly larger ocean creatures that think the plastics are food;or attract and collect toxic chemicals,which become introduced into the food chain if the particles are eaten;and probably a million other problems we haven#39;t noticed yet.这就是为什么几乎全世界任何海洋中都发现了塑料微粒,从北极洲到南极洲,从海底到海面 和大块塑料垃圾不同,塑料微粒的影响不易观察,和微粒本身一样,其造成的影响微妙且很难追踪:耐性良好的碎片会成为生物新的栖息地,小型海洋生物在其上生长繁殖。稍稍大些的海洋生物会认为塑料是食物,如果吞下就造成阻塞。塑料也会吸附并积累有毒化学物质 如果微粒被动物吃下会进入食物链。也许还有更多问题,只是我们还未察觉到。Because we#39;ve only recently started paying attention to all these microplastics in the oceans.But it#39;s undeniable how much plastic trash we#39;ve introduced into marine ecosystems,and the wonderful durability of plastic guarantees it#39;ll be an issue for years to come.it#39;s possible we can decrease further impact by Switching to biodegradable plastics,dumping less plastic in the oceans,or cleaning up the patches of sea most strewn with plastic.因为我们也只是刚刚开始关注海洋中的塑料微粒问题。人类向海洋生态系统倾倒塑料垃圾数量之巨不容置疑,塑料惊人的耐性肯定会在未来的日子里成为一项难题,但是我们可以改用生物降解塑料减少以后塑料造成的影响,减少向海洋倾倒的塑料量,或是清理堆满塑料的海岸。But until we do,the question is,will the oceans be plastic enough to deal with our favorite material?不过在此之前,我们要问海洋是否能够适应我们最喜欢的塑料? Article/201501/355414。

栏目简介:More than 100 top track-and-field athletes, including several Olympic champions and world record holders, will compete in the 2016 IAAF Diamond League Shanghai tomorrow at Shanghai Stadium. Many will be using it as a warm-up for the Summer Olympics in Brazil. Cui Hui#39;ao has the details. Article/201703/496717。

If we wanted to make a cloud entirely from scratch,we#39;d first need a fleet of jumbo jets or several hundred hot-air balloons to haul hundreds of tons of water up to the sky.And then,somehow,we#39;d need to disperse all that liquid into a mist of droplets small enough to float.如果我们想从零开始造一朵云出来,首先我们需要一队喷气式客机,或是几百只热气球,将大量的水运到空中,然后我们需要通过某种方法,把这些水变成细小到能够漂浮的水雾。In short,it wouldn#39;t be easy.And yet,our atomosphere manages to pump out one cloud after another all over the world at altitudes of up to 20 kilometers above sea level,using water and fuel carried all the way from Earth#39;s surface.Cumulus clouds,for example get their start when solar energy evaporates water from oceans,plants,and soil by breaking the bonds that hold water molecules together.总之,这很难办到,但是,我们的大气层可以,世界范围内选出一朵又一朵的云,在海拔20千米的高空,从地表弄到所有的水和燃料,例如,积云的形成,首先太阳能破坏水分子间的连接,让它们从海洋,植物体内,和土壤中的水分蒸腾出来。As the patch of air above collects moisture and heat,cooler heavier air sinks around it pinching it off and pushing it aloft like an invisible hot air balloon.Surprisingly,this balloon#39;s cargo doesn#39;t weigh it down-in fact,the more water vapor it collects before lift off,the lighter it gets.As weird as that sounds,it#39;s because water vapor is a gas just like the nitrogen and oxygen that make up most of the atmosphere.上层的空气将水分和热量凝聚,冷空气下沉将它们包裹在一起,像一只无形的热气球带着水和热升向空中,神奇的是,热气球承载的货物不会导致坠落,事实上,在起飞前,热气球搭载的水分越多,它就越轻盈,这听上去很诡异,事实上水蒸气和组成空气的氮气,与氧气一样都是气体。Basic physics dictates that a given volume of gas the same number of molecules regardless of what those molecules are.And water is made of H plus h plus O,which is lighter than both two Ns and two Os.So warm,humid air is even more buoyant than warm,dry air.As the invisible balloon goes up,the falling pressure outside allows it to keep ballooning,which sps out its internal heat and lowers its temperature.基础物理定律:一定体积的气体,分子数相同,无论哪种分子都一样,水是由H+H+O组成的,比两个N和两个O轻,因此热的湿空气要比热的干燥空气要轻,随着无形的热气球上升,外部降低的气压会让它保持膨胀,这会分散它的内热,导致降温。Eventually,the air at the top cools enough for the water vapor there to condense into droplets,which look from after like a thin wisp of cloud.And as the rest of the balloon rises,water vapor continues to cool and condense at the same altitude,creating a flat bottomed cloud that appears to grow upward out of nothing.最终,顶部的空气温度降低到足以令人其凝结成水珠,从远处看就像薄薄的一片小云,随着热气球剩余部分的上升,水蒸气继续在相同的海拔高度处冷凝,形成一朵平底云,这朵云就像是凭空长出来的。What#39;s more,as the condensing water vapor molecules bond together into liquid droplets,they release the energy they absorbed from Earth#39;s surface when they evaporated.This heats the surrounding pocket of air,giving it lift and sucking more moist air up behind it,which cools and condenses and releases heat,which fuels lift and strengthens the updraft.Even in small cumulus cloud,the total energy released from condensation is huge-equivalent to about 270 tons of TNT.此外,随着冷凝的水蒸气凝结成水滴,它们会释放出从地表蒸腾时吸收的能量,这些热能充盈于气囊里,令其上升,同时带动下方空气上升,这些空气冷却,凝结并且释放热量,能量上升,上升气流增强,即使只是一小朵积云,冷凝所释放的总能量也大得惊人,大约相当于270吨TNT。And if the supply of water vapor is much larger,the energy released can produce stratosphere high pillars of cloud wigh violent updrafts,fierce electrical storms,and grapefruit sized hailstones.Not good weather for hot air ballooning.如果水蒸气的供给足够多,所释放的能量就可以形成平流层高度的云柱,伴随着猛烈的上升气流,造成猛烈的雷暴,下起葡萄柚大小的冰雹,这对热气球而言,可不是好天气。 Article/201505/376886。

栏目简介:《外国人在北京》是英语视频听力下面的子栏目,节目关注在北京生活的外国人的时尚新生活。话题紧紧围绕网络生活,每日的话题内容按照网络热门固定划分为家居、汽车、数码、饰美容、健身、交友、美食等,了解外国人生活的同时通过网络互动提供一个中外人士互相帮助的平台。 Article/201510/398997。

Hanno writes an account of his journey:汉诺在他的航海日志中记录道:;We saw at night the land covered with fire.;这个夜晚 我们目睹了被火包围的土地;In the middle was a high flame, ;它的中央迸射出极高的火焰 higher than the others,比周围的火焰都要高;Which seemed to reach the stars.;似乎可以碰触到星辰;A high mountain, named the Chariot of the Gods.;;我们将这座高山命名为 诸神的战车; The first written description of Mount Cameroon,这就是最早关于喀麦隆山的记载The largest volcano in West Africa.西非最大的活火山Recorded using a revolutionary new writing technology:他采用了具有突破性的记载方式The alphabet.即字母系统The phoenicians invent 22 symbols or letters腓尼基人创造了二十二个符号或字母That can be combined to represent almost any sound将它们组合起来 便可以传达任何语言中的In any language.任何声音Easy to learn, the alphabet puts ing and writing因为简单易学 字母体系让每个人都可以Within everyone#39;s reach.学会读与写One of the keys to the future of communication.这对未来的交流传播具有举足轻重的意义The invention of the alphabet was one of the biggest steps字母的创造是记载历史上in the history of writing.迈出的最重要的一步It just simplified dramatically the way the script worked,它极大地简化了记载的运作方式and made it so much easier for people to learn并且便于人们学习how to and write.如何阅读和写作 Article/201509/401255。

It#39;s a limited resource I guess.还真是抢手货啊What the scientists did was to科学家所做的recreate the drinking opportunities offered to monkeys on the island就是在受控的环境中but in a controlled environment.重演猴子在岛上喝酒的情况They monitored the monkeys by a collar它们颈部安有特殊装置so they knew exactly how much was being drunk可监控酒精的摄入量and what different effects it was having.及其产生的不同效应You can see this animal climbing up into this chamber.这只爬进了进去They are sippers.它们在吸吸管But they#39;re all free to choose whether to have alcohol or not.喝不喝完全取决于它们自己吗?Exactly.没错This male here is repeatedly coming up and wants to drink this alcohol.这只雄猴想喝酒 所以不断地往上爬Do you see different types of behaviour once they#39;ve had alcohol or not?它们饮酒后 你有看到不同的行为特征吗Some animals become relaxed有的猴子变很放松or appear to become sedate或者很安静even clumsy.甚至很笨拙Some of these guys are running around like crazy有的猴子疯狂地飞奔playing doing dangerous things.嬉打 甚至做出危险动作They become disinhibited.它们变得肆无忌惮They do things you don#39;t typically observe in these monkeys做一些平时少见的事because they#39;ve had this dose of alcohol.就是因为饮用了这么多酒精The guy who looks like he#39;s swinging on the lampshade up there would die.在灯罩上荡秋千的那只 真是凶多吉少 Article/201506/382939。