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Britain in Iraq英国,在伊拉克Camerons confusions卡梅伦的困惑The government flip-flops between belligerence and caution政府在交战和警告间犹豫不决HOW seriously does the British government take the threat from Islamic State (IS), an extremist group which has taken over swathes of Iraq and Syria? Despite a flurry of pronouncements from the prime minister and from Michael Fallon, Britains defence secretary, it is growing increasingly hard to judge.英国政府究竟对来自伊斯兰国(IS)这一占领了伊拉克和叙利亚的极端组织的威胁有多认真?尽管有首相和英国国防部长迈克尔·法伦的一系列声明,这一事态还是变得越来越难以琢磨了。Writing in a newspaper on August 17th, David Cameron warned that Britain faces a “generational struggle” against a “poisonous ideology”. Striking a Churchillian tone, the prime minister argued that Britains very security depended on the country using all its resources, aid, diplomacy and “military prowess” to vanquish this enemy. Tough stuff—perhaps the toughest from any Western leader so far.大卫·卡梅伦于8月17日在报上撰文警告说,英国面临着“代际斗争”和“有毒思想”的抗衡。这位首相带着惊人的丘吉尔语气争论说英国的安全取决于国家能否使用全部的资源、援助、外交和“军事力量”来击溃敌人。手段强硬—这可能是到目前为止西方领导人中最强硬的了。Yet before leaving on holiday the following day Mr Cameron assured journalists that this fiery rhetoric did not mean Britain was returning to war in Iraq, and that he had no intention to put “boots on the ground” against IS. That was before the release of a horrific on August 19th showing the beheading of a captured American journalist, James Foley, by an IS militant who appeared to have a British accent. Mr Cameron rushed back from his break in Cornwall to confer with ministers in London.然而第二天,在外出度假前卡梅伦向记者保说这种激烈的言辞并不意味着英国要在伊拉克重燃起战火,他并没有“派兵”对抗IS的意图。这是在8月19号美国记者詹姆斯·福利被一疑似有英国口音的IS成员斩首的恐怖录像发布之前了。卡梅伦立即结束了在康沃尔的度假,返回与伦敦的大臣们协商。Confusion aly surrounds the work Britains armed forces are presently performing in Iraq. Tornado bombers, helicopters, a spy plane, and some special forces are all operating in the north of the country—in particular near the city of Mosul. The government has said these efforts are merely humanitarian, intended to help refugees besieged by IS fighters (see picture). Yet on August 18th Mr Fallon was reported to have said that British forces were performing reconnaissance missions for Kurdish soldiers battling the jihadists. Some think Britain is also supplying the Kurds with communications equipment and training.关于英国武装力量目前在伊拉克的工作已招致了不少疑问。旋风式轰炸机、直升机、间谍机和一些特殊武力正在伊拉克北方—尤其在苏尔附近—进行操练。政府表示这些行为仅仅是人道主义的,目的是为了帮助被IS分子围困的难民(见图)。然而在8月18号,有报道称法伦曾表示英国武装力量在帮助库尔德士兵进行侦察任务以对抗圣战者。一些人认为英国也在为库尔德人提供通讯设备和训练。What explains this prevarication? Mr Cameron is doubtless eager to avoid a repeat of the fiasco last year, when the House of Commons voted against his urging that British forces intervene against the murderous regime of Syrias President Assad. As well as shattering Western resolve, the episode was a personal humiliation for the prime minister. If the government sounds too bellicose pressure will grow to recall parliament, currently in its summer recess, for a full debate.这种搪塞该如何解释?卡梅伦毫无疑问急于避免重复去年的惨败,当时众议院投票反对他催促英国军方介入叙利亚总统阿萨德恐怖统治的要求。正如粉碎西方的决心一样,这一插曲是对首相的个人羞辱。如果政府看起来过于好战,那么过大的压力会召回目前正处于夏季休会的议会成员来进行一次完整的辩论。Another risk is that Mr Camerons pronouncements outstrip Americas eagerness to act, leaving Britain isolated should the Obama administration commit itself no further. And the prime minister also has a war-weary public to contend with. Polls suggest that a large minority of Britons would support taking some limited action against IS, such as arming the Kurds. But winning public support for a larger scale conflict, however worthy the cause, looks almost impossible at present.另一风险是卡梅伦的声明超过了美国作战的热情,若奥巴马政府不愿进一步行动,便会使英国处于孤立地位。卡梅伦还需应对厌战的公众。投票显示大部分英国人持对IS采取有限的行动,比如说为库尔德人提供武装。但无论理由看起来多么值得,要赢得公众持大规模战争在目前看起来几乎还是不可能。Mr Foleys murder may change this. His hooded killers London accent has focused attention on the thousands of European—and particularly British—Muslims which IS has drawn to its banner. Thomas Hegghammer of the Norwegian Defence Research Establishment argues that this represents the “largest European Muslim foreign fighter contingent” that has gone to any conflict in modern history. As many as 500 of them are thought to be British. The clear risk is that these callow, inexperienced volunteers will return home as hardened and skilful jihadists, y, as Mr Cameron puts it, to “target us on the streets of Britain”.福利的谋杀一事可能改变这一情况。这位带有头罩的杀手的伦敦口音引起了成千欧洲—尤其是英国—穆斯林的注意,这些穆斯林已被IS招至旗下。挪威国防研究院的托马斯·黑哥海默称这代表着“最大的欧洲穆斯林国外战斗队伍”已参与现代史中的每一次冲突。其中多达500人被认为是英国人。很明显的风险是这些初出茅庐、毫无经验的志愿者们将成长为久经沙场、技巧纯熟的圣战者归来,如卡梅伦所说,这些人已做好准备“在英国大街上对我们开”。Experts disagree on the scale of that threat. But even a very small number of returning extremists could cause considerable harm. After haring back to Whitehall, the prime minister said authorities would redouble efforts to track down British jihadists, and that the grisly would not lead Britain to ramp up its involvement in the conflict. There is a limit to how long Mr Cameron can keep his options open.专家对这一威胁的规模持有异议。但即便归来的极端主义者 数目非常小,也能造成严重的伤害。在急忙赶回白厅后,卡梅伦表示当局将付出双倍努力搜查圣战者,这一可怕的录像也不会使英国进一步介入冲突之中。卡梅伦能保持选择权多久是有限度的。译者:王颖 校对:毛慧 译文属译生译世 /201507/386230Leading Nazis had gathered here to celebrate the 15th anniversary of the Munich Beer Hall Putsch a sacred date for the Nazi party.纳粹头目聚集这里庆祝,慕尼黑啤酒馆暴动的15周年纪念,对于纳粹党而言是个神圣日子。On the evening of 9th November, they learnt that a German diplomat in Paris had been shot by a German-Polish Jew.11月9日晚,他们有消息称一位德国驻巴黎外交官被德裔波兰犹太人杀。Joseph Goebbels, the propaganda minister, a vicious anti-Semite himself, suggested to Hitler that Nazi Stormtroopers be let loose against the Jews of Germany.时任德国宣传部长的约瑟夫?歌堡本身就是邪恶反犹分子,他建议希特勒派纳粹冲锋队对付德国犹太人。This was how Hitlers charismatic leadership could work-he had a vision, he hated the Jews and wanted to get rid of them, but others suggested the ways in which this could be implemented.这是希特勒领导能力得以实践的方法,他憎恨犹太人,想铲除他们,但由其他人提出从而达到了目的。Hitler agreed with Goebbels idea and so, Nazi Stormtroopers ran wild on the night of 9th November, attacking Jews and their property.希特勒和歌堡一拍即合,于是纳粹冲锋队在11月9日晚疯狂袭击犹太人及其住所。Around 25,000 Jews were imprisoned in concentration camps and more than 100 were murdered.约有两万五名犹太人被送进集中营,百多名犹太人遇害。Shortly afterwards, the SS newspaper warned of terrible consequences if a Jew assassinated another leading German.不久,党卫军报刊登,称若再有犹太人刺杀德国高官后果将不堪设想。;There will be no more Jews in Germany.德国将不再有犹太人。;We hope we make ourselves clear!;我们希望你们能听明白这句话!They also threatened...他们还威胁...;Because no power on Earth can stop us, we will bring the Jewish question to its total solution.世上没任何势力能阻止我们,犹太人的问题将得到根治。;The programme is clear-total expulsion, complete separation.;我们的计划很明确-全部驱逐隔离。 译文属201604/438713

Breaking through the city gates, the Ladakhis overcame Guges resistance and took control of the lower part of the citadel.进入城门后拉达克击退古格王朝的抵抗拿下了札布让的底城。But as they chased the retreating soldiers and citizens of Guge up to passage ways and tunnels to its summit, the Ladakhis found themselves sitting ducks.当他们沿着通道及暗道追击溃败的古格王朝士兵及人民时,拉达克人发现自己成为笼中兔。As they snaked towards the summit these passage ways narrowed.他们蜿蜒朝着山顶前进时通道变得狭窄。The Ladakhis had to pass through them almost single file, making them easy targets for Guges forces.拉达克只能单排前进成为古格士兵的囊中物。After taking heavy losses, the Ladakhis retreated to the lower ramparts to regroup.在遭受重挫后拉达克人退回札布让的底部。It became clear to the Ladakhis that a front assault on the citadel would be impossible.拉达克清楚知道要正面攻击碉堡不可能。Instead, they chose to sit and wait.他们选择静观其变。By surrounding the citadel, the Ladakhis were confident they had blocked all avenues of escape and fresh supplies, especially water.拉达克包围札布让围堵所有出入通道企图让古格王朝得不到任何粮食及水补充。How long could Khri bKra shis Grags pa lde and his people hold out in this dry environment?赤扎西扎巴德及他的人民在这样干燥的环境下可以撑多久?But unknown to the Ladakhis, Guge might have had a trickle to up its sleeve.拉达克人不知道古格王朝还留有两手。Deep beneath the citadel are the network of caves that John Bellezza and Tsering Gyalpo found to be most unusual.约翰·贝勒查及和嘉波才让发现札布让地底下有着众多不寻常的洞窟。These were originally thought to be a royal winter retreat.这些洞窟原被认为是皇室度冬之地。To escape the bitter cold of winter, scholars believed the royals family would have come here to keep warm.学者相信皇室来这里取暖躲避严冬。But as John and Tsering explore further, they find evidence that suggests that these caves may have had some other purposes.但当约翰及和嘉波才让进一步调查时他们发现这些洞窟别有用途。 译文属201605/441049

Argentina defaults阿根廷债务违约Eighth time unlucky不走运,第八次了Cristina Fernandez argues that her countrys latest default is different. She is missing the point克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯称,她国家最近的债务违约跟以前可不一样。她没说到点子上ARGENTINAS first bond, issued in 1824, was supposed to have a lifespan of 46 years. Less than four years later, the government defaulted. Resolving the ensuing stand-off with creditors took 29 years. Since then seven more defaults have followed, the most recent this week, when Argentina failed to make a payment on bonds issued as partial compensation to victims of the previous default, in 2001.1824年,阿根廷第一次发行债券,原本预期期限为46年。结果不到四年,阿根廷政府就出现了债务违约。处理跟随之而来与债权人的紧张关系花了29年。从那以后,又发生了七次债务违约。最近一次发生在本周,阿根廷无法偿付重组债券,导致了此次债务违约。这些债券原本是作为对前一次2001年债务违约中受损投资人的部分补偿。Most investors think they can see a pattern in all this, butArgentinas president, Cristina Fernandez de Kirchner, insists the latest default is not like the others. Her government, she points out, had transferred the full 539m it owed to the banks that administer the bonds. It isAmericas courts (the bonds were issued under American law) that blocked the payment, at the behest of the tiny minority of owners of bonds from 2001 who did not accept the restructuringArgentinaoffered them in 2005 and again in 2010. These “hold-outs”, balking at the 65% haircut the restructuring entailed, not only persuaded a judge that they should be paid in full but also got him to freeze payments on the restructured bonds untilArgentinacoughs up.许多投资人认为,他们能从中看出规律了。但是,阿根廷总统,克里斯蒂娜·费尔南德斯·德基什内尔坚称,最近一次债务违约跟以往的完全不同。她说,她的政府,已经向管理债券的全额汇去了所欠的5.39亿美元,阻挠偿付的,是美国法院(这些债券是依照美国法律发行的)。一小撮2001年债券的持有者,不愿意接受阿根廷在2005年和2010年提出的债务重组方案,是他们要求美国法院作出了这样的裁决。这些“钉子户”,不愿意接受重组方案65%的债务削减,他们不仅说了法官裁决阿根廷要全额偿还欠他们的历史债务,而且还让法官冻结了阿根廷对其它重组债务的偿付,直到阿根廷妥协为止。Argentinaclaims that paying the hold-outs was impossible. It is not just that they are “vultures” as Argentine officials often put it, who bought the bonds for cents on the dollar after the previous default and are now holding those who accepted the restructuring (accounting for 93% of the debt) to ransom. The main problem is that a clause in the restructured bonds prohibitsArgentinafrom offering the hold-outs better terms without paying everyone else the same. Since it cannot afford to do that, it says it had no choice but to default.阿根廷称,不可能付钱给那些“钉子户”。这不光是因为这些人都是“秃鹫”,阿根廷官员常这么叫他们,这些人在上一次发生债务违约后,以极大的折扣购入了债券;还因为他们现在把那些已经接受重组方案的债权人(占债务的95%)绑为人质。问题的关键,就在于重组债券中的一项条款,让阿根廷不能在其他债权人未得到同等待遇的前提下,给“钉子户”开出更好的条件。由于无法承受对所有债权人全额偿付债务,阿根廷说自己别无选择,只能违约。Yet it is not certain that the clause requiring equal treatment of all bondholders would have applied, given that Argentinawould not have been paying the hold-outs voluntarily, but on the courts orders. Moreover, some owners of the restructured bonds had agreed to waive their rights; had Argentinamade a concerted effort to persuade the remainder to do the same, it might have succeeded. Lawyers and bankers have suggested various ways around the clause in question, which expires at the end of the year. But Argentinas government was slow to consider these options or negotiate with the hold-outs, hiding instead behind indignant nationalism.然而,不能确定此要求对所有债权持有人同等待遇的条款适用,因为阿根廷不是自愿偿付那些“钉子户”,而是在法庭命令下不得不这么做。而且,一些重组债券持有人已经同意放弃追索权益;如果阿根廷努力劝其它人也放弃追索权益,可能会成功。许多律师和家提出了许多方式绕过争议条款,而且该条款到今年年底就失效了。但是,阿根廷政府没能认真考虑这些选择,也没努力跟“钉子户”谈判,而是躲在满腔义愤的民族主义身后。Dont try to flee, Argentina阿根廷别想着逃避Ms Fernandez is right that the consequences ofAmericas court rulings have been perverse, unleashing a big financial dispute in an attempt to solve a relatively small one. But hers is not the first government to be hit with an awkward verdict. Instead of railing against it, she should have tried to minimise the harm it did. Defaulting has helped no one: none of the bondholders will now be paid,Argentinalooks like a pariah again, and its economy will remain starved of loans and investment.费尔南德斯女士称,美国法院判决造成的后果是不公正的,是为了解决小的金融问题,而触发大的金融争端。她说的没错。但是,这已不是第一次有政府遭遇古怪判决了。与其跟判决对着干,她本该试着将损害最小化。债务违约帮不了任何人:现在所有债权人都不能得到偿付,阿根廷声誉再一次严重受损,其经济依旧得不到贷款和投资。Happily, much of the damage can still be undone. It is not too late to strike a deal with the hold-outs or back an ostensibly private effort to buy out their claims. A quick fix would make it easier forArgentinato borrow again internationally. That, in turn, would speed development of big oil and gas deposits, the income from which could help ease its money troubles.好消息是,多数损害还没有造成。现在跟“钉子户”达成协议,或是私下让他们表面上放弃全额清偿追索,还为时未晚。一次权宜之计能让阿根廷再次在国际市场上借钱更容易。而这,能加快对丰富石油和天然气资源的开发,由之而来的收入,能缓解阿根廷的资金困境。More important, it would help to change perceptions ofArgentinaas a financial rogue state. Over the past year or so Ms Fernandez seems to have been trying to rehabilitateArgentinas image and resuscitate its faltering economy. She settled financial disputes with government creditors and with Repsol, a Spanish oil firm whose Argentine assets she had expropriated in 2012. This weeks events have overshadowed all that. For its own sake, and everyone elses,Argentinashould hold its nose and do a deal with the hold-outs.更重要的是,这能改变阿根廷作为金融流氓国家的形象。过去一年左右,费尔南德斯女士似乎在努力重塑阿根廷形象,努力让摇摇摆摆的经济复苏。她解决了跟政府债权人的金融争端,以及跟西班牙石油公司Repsol的争端,费尔南德斯2012年曾没收该公司在阿根廷的资产。本周的事件让所有这些都蒙上了阴影。为了自己,也为了别人,阿根廷应该捏住鼻子,忍住厌恶,跟“钉子户”达成协议。译者:王力鹏 译文属译生译世 /201506/380401The National Park Service is taking a closer look at whether or not to bring more grey wolves to Isle Royale National Park. Only two wolves remain on the island now.To help make its decision, the park service wants to hear from you. Its accepting public comments on the question right now.At one point, there were as many as 50 wolves on Isle Royale. But Phyllis Green, Superintendent of the Isle Royale National Park, says that number was abnormal.;Fifty was a very unusually high number—probably one of the highest concentrations of wolves ever found per acre,; Green says.The island kept the animals from dispersing, and that causes problems for wolves.;Islands are pretty hard on any species,; she says. ;You kind of have to adapt and survive or leave.;She says oftentimes a species will disappear from an island completely. Thats a risk for wolves on Isle Royale.The proposed courses of actionThe National Park Service plans to assess four different courses of action to help the wolf population.The first option is no action—to let nature take its course. Green says thats typically what the park service opts for.But that could be risky.Green says ;very low, intermittent introduction of wolves naturally; caused wolves to inbreed. Thats likely what made it hard for the animals to sustain their population.For that reason, the park service is considering bringing animals in to reestablish the population.Alternative B does just that. It brings a new group of wolves to the island during a one-time period, which could take a couple years.;And the question is, could you improve upon the start-up point?; Green says. ;Is there a way to introduce a certain number of wolves over a short time period that have enough genetic diversity that they could carry themselves through the next cycle on Isle Royale?;The third option, Alternative C, would bring wolves onto the island as often as needed throughout the next 20 years at least.;So under that scenario youll do some type of a start-up population, or intermixing with the current population—provided theyre still there—and you would add wolves at a certain interval,; Green says. ;But thats still very problematic, because wolves dont exactly greet each other with open arms as often as with bared fangs.;With that in mind, Green says this plan would require ;a pretty good backup strategy.;The final alternative is a bit of a hybrid—the park service would take no action right now. But it could decide to introduce wolves later.;Its going to be a little more complicated than the other two alternatives, because its going to try to be more adaptive and really evaluating whats going on in the park and then adjusting the course forward from there,; Green says.Now the plan is to evaluate the options.;I think its a real positive in our society that were taking a look at how we help the natural world stay intact,; Green says. ;But the natural world also has its own boundaries and processes and I think we need to be respectful of that as we think about whether we should tinker in those processes.;The public is invited to the park services revised scope of the environmental impact statement and to comment.These comments will be added to ones the service has aly received from people in all 50 states, Washington D.C., and 19 other countries.201604/435037

France’s economy法国经济The performance gap绩效差距The French government seems to realise at last that urgent action is needed to restore the country’s competitiveness法国政府终觉悟,恢复国家竞争力迫在眉睫THE end of the early shift, and workers at the Peugeot car factory at Aulnay-sous-Bois, near Paris, are streaming out through the turnstiles. The anger is raw; the disappointment crushing. In July, when the company announced that the plant, which employs 3,000 workers, was to close, President Francois Hollande loudly branded the decision “unacceptable”. Two months and an official report later, his government has now accepted its fate. “Hollande said that he would look after us,” says Samir Lasri, who has worked on the production line for 12 years: “Now we regret voting for him.”早班结束,位于巴黎边上的欧奈苏布瓦市的标致汽车厂的工人们从十字转门里蜂涌而出。他们异常愤怒,失望至极。七月份,该公司宣布将关闭这个拥有3000名员工的工厂时,法国总统弗朗索瓦·奥朗德大声疾呼该决是“不可接受的”。然而,两个月后,一则官方报道称政府已经接受了它关闭的命运。“奥朗德之前说他会照顾我们的活,”已经在生产线工作了12年的萨米尔·拉斯利说,“现在我们后悔给他投票了”。The decision by Peugeot-PSA, a loss-making carmaker, to shut its factory at Aulnay, the first closure of a French car plant for 20 years, and to shed 8,000 jobs across the country has rocked France. It has become an emblem both of the country’s competitiveness problem and of the new Socialist government’s relative powerlessness, despite its promises, to stop private-sector restructuring. Tough as it is for the workers concerned, the planned closure may have had at least one beneficial effect: to jolt the country into recognising that France is losing competitiveness and that the government needs to do something about it.标致雪铁龙集团一直处于亏损之中,他们决定关闭在欧奈的工厂,同时裁掉8000名员工,这是二十年来第一个关闭的法国工厂。他们的决定震惊了整个法国这也象征着法国的竞争力问题和社会主义政府的无能为力,虽然他们一直承诺停止私营企业的重组。对于工人来说,他们的生活非常艰难,但是这个计划中的关闭可能至少会有一个有利影响,迫使法国政府认识到国家正在失去竞争力,并采取相关措施。Over the past 12 years, a competitiveness gap has opened up between France and Germany, its biggest trading partner. This shows both in manufacturing unit-labour costs, which have risen by 28% in France since 2000, but only 8% in Germany, and in France’s declining share of extra-EU exports. A cross-border study of two chemicals firms by Henri Lagarde, a French businessman, points to part of the problem: the German company pays only 17% of its employees’ gross salaries in social charges, next to 38% for its French counterpart. A recent study of competitiveness ranked Germany in sixth place; France came 21st.在过去的12年里,法国和他的最大的贸易伙伴德国的竞争力出现了差距。2000年至今,法国的制造业单位劳动成本上升了28%,而德国只上升了8%,同时法国对非欧盟地区的出口也在下降。德国商人亨利·拉加德做了一项有关两个化学品公司的跨境研究,指出了问题的一部分:德国公司仅用员工薪资总额的17%来交社会负担费用,而他们的法国竞争者却用了38%之多。最新的竞争力排名德国居第六位,法国仅排在第21位。During the presidential election campaign earlier this year, competitiveness scarcely featured—either on the right or the left. Once elected, Mr Hollande gave Arnaud Montebourg, who wrote a best-seller calling for “deglobalisation”, a ministerial job designed to stop industrial closures. Mr Montebourg has duly toured the country promising the impossible.在前些日子本年度的总统大选期间,无论是右派还是左派都没有对竞争力问题足够重视。奥朗德先生在当选后给了阿诺德·蒙特伯格一份部长级的重任以防止工厂倒闭。蒙特伯格曾写了一本畅销书来呼吁“去全球化”,他会按期在全国巡游许诺“工厂关闭”是不可能的。This autumn, however, as factory closures mount, a creeping sense of reality seems to be setting in. Mr Hollande may still be bent on his new 75% top tax rate, yet on other matters the tone has changed. Not only has the Aulnay closure been accepted, but Mr Hollande has talked of “painful” efforts ahead. He warned about 10 billion ( billion) of spending cuts, as well as 20 billion of tax increases, in the 2013 budget. Above all, he called for a “reform of the labour market”—traditionally a taboo for the left.然而,这个秋天,随着关闭的工厂越来越多,人们正开始慢慢地感受到这种现实感。奥朗德先生可能还在一心致力于他的新的75%最高税率,但是其他问题的基调却已经悄然改变。不仅欧奈的关闭已经被接受,而且奥朗德先生已经事先谈到了“痛苦”的努力。他提醒大家在2013年的预算中开将会缩减100亿欧元(约合130亿美元),同时税收将增加200欧元。最后,他呼吁“劳动力市场改革”,这在传统上却是左派的禁忌。Mr Montebourg may still denounce the “greed of the financial system”, but other ministers, notably Pierre Moscovici, the finance minister, and Michel Sapin, the labour minister, sound more reasonable. “We want to be sensibly pro-business,” says Mr Moscovici. “We are very conscious that our economy won’t perform without our companies.” Advisers recognise that labour costs too much and that the level of public spending—at 56% of GDP the second-highest in the European Union—is a problem for France.蒙特伯格先生可能还在指责“贪婪的金融体系”,但是以财政部长皮埃尔·莫斯科维奇和劳工部长米歇尔·萨潘为代表的其他部长的话听起来却更加合理。“我们要让企业感受到我们持他们”,莫斯科维奇先生说,“我们深刻地认识到企业对于经济的重要性,没有企业经济就表现不好。”法国的财政顾问也认识到国家面临着这样一个问题,劳动力花费太高,公共事业出水平占国内生产总值的56%,这在欧盟是第二高的。If there is a new mood, it is partly because of the stagnating economy, and partly because business chiefs have been pressing ministers to stop bashing them. France still has plenty of competitive industrial firms. This summer, Mr Hollande spent three hours visiting a research facility near Paris belonging to Valeo, a successful high-tech car-components supplier with 10.9 billion in annual sales.如果出现什么新情况,那么一部分是因为经济停滞不前,还有一部分是因为商界领袖一直在给部长们施压,让他们停止痛击,法国依然拥有许多有竞争力的工业企业。这个夏天,奥朗德先生花了三个小时参观了位于巴黎附近的法雷奥集团的研究实验室,该集团是一个非常成功的高科技汽车零部件供应商,每年的销售额达到109亿欧元。How far the new realism will translate into bold decisions, however, is another matter. One immediate test will be the 2013 budget, due on September 28th. The French now face the shock of cuts. Mr Moscovici insists that, however difficult, France’s promise to reduce its budget deficit to 3% by 2013 will be respected.然而,他们还面临着另外一个问题,何时才能将这个新的现实主义转化为大胆的决策。一个迫在眉睫的考验就是9月28日就将出台的2013年的预算。法国人民现在正面临着财政缩减的打击。尽管非常困难,但是莫斯科维奇先生还是坚持尊重法国在2013年将预算赤字减少到3%的承诺。Equally hard will be a test of the new team’s resolve to improve competitiveness. Louis Gallois, a former businessman, is due to produce a report next month. He is likely to argue for a “competitiveness shock”, including the transfer of a chunk of payroll charges to other forms of taxation, such as green taxes or the contribution sociale generalisee(CSG), which is levied on not only the payroll but financial returns, pensions and unemployment benefit.同样严峻的考研还有新队伍提高竞争力的决心。路易斯曾是一位商人,他将在下个月做一个报告。他很可能会极力赞成“竞争力冲击”,包括将一大部分的工资费用转变为其他形式的税收,比如环境税和社会保障公款,它不仅针对工资征税,还有金融回报,退休金和失业救济金。Most critical of all, Mr Hollande has given union leaders and bosses until December to negotiate labour-market changes. On the table are various options, including making it possible for firms to reduce hours and salaries in a downturn against a guarantee of job security, along the lines introduced by Gerhard Schrader in Germany in 2003. The CFDT union’s incoming leader, Laurent Berger, also accepts the case for more suppleness in the labour market.最关键的是,奥朗德先生还将工会领导人和老板们关于改变劳动力市场的谈判定在12月。谈判桌上有多种选择,包括通过减少工作时间和降低薪水使公司能在低迷期以保障工作的稳固,根据格哈特·施罗德在2003年提出的方案。即将上任的法国民主联盟领导人洛朗·杰也接受劳动力市场更有弹性的方案。All of which is at least encouraging. Yet it is one thing to recognise a problem, and quite another to do something about it. Much will depend on the attitude of union leaders, who do not enjoy a reputation for co-operation and compromise. But in the end, it will come down to Mr Hollande’s resolve. He promises to pass a labour-reform law anyway, even if no deal is reached. His Socialist Party controls power at all levels across France; he is at the start of a five-year term; and his popularity is aly dropping fast. If he cannot do what is needed this autumn, it is unlikely that he ever will.至少这些措施还是很鼓舞人心的。然而认识到问题只是第一步,更重要的是采取应对措施。这很大程度上取决于工会领导人的态度,虽然他们在合作和妥协方面并非享有盛名。但是归根到底还是由奥朗德先生决定。他承诺无论如何也要通过一部劳动力改革法案,虽然至今还没有达成一致。他的社会党掌握了法国各个层次的权力;他五年的执政期才刚开始;同时他的受欢迎程度正在迅速下降。如果他这个秋天不能有所作为,那么接下来的日子他也不会有什么动作。翻译:姜振南译文属译生译世 /201607/454934The results of this two-tier system have been meagre so far. The frenzy in the biggest cities stems from the central bank’s steady loosening of monetary policy over the past 18 months. Although warranted from an economic perspective, it was inevitable that low interest rates would drive asset prices higher. Initially, much of the credit pumped out by banks ended up in the stockmarket, but following its crash last summer, property beckoned as one of the few decent investment options in China (capital controls, which have been further tightened recently, make it hard for Chinese savers to invest their money abroad).这种分而治之的房地产政策目前看来收效甚微。大城市房价飙涨的根源是央行在过去18月来逐步放宽的货币政策。尽管该政策的目的是为了拉动经济,但低利率不可避免地会拉升固定资产价格。一开始,释放的大部分信贷涌向了股市,然而经历了去年夏天的股灾之后,房地产成为了投资者们为数不多的上佳选择(资本管制最近也逐步收紧,这让中国人很难把他们的存款投资到境外市场)。For speculators looking at property, the excess supply in smaller cities was all too evident, so they turned instead to the megalopolises. Du Jinsong of Credit Suisse describes it as a form of groupthink. “Everybody—investors, developers, policymakers and bankers—thinks that first-tier cities are safe,” he says.对于把目光投向房地产的投机客而言,小城市的房屋供给过剩太明显,所以他们转而看向大城市。瑞士信贷的杜劲松把这种情况描述为集体迷思:“每个人——投资者、开发商、政策制定者和家——都认为投资一线城市更加安全。”Even as the government tries to restrain the excesses, however, it does not want to snuff out the rally in the big cities altogether, for they tend to influence sentiment elsewhere. There are signs that this is beginning to happen. Housing prices started rising month on month in the biggest cities a year ago. In midsized cities (in China, those with populations of 5m-10m), prices have been rising for the past four months. In smaller cities (mere hamlets of 1m-5m), gains have been evident only for the past two months (see chart).即使政府希望抑制这种过量投资,但并不打算把涌进大城市的各路资金全部赶走,以防他们对其他敏感领域施加影响。这种趋势已经可见端倪。大城市的房价在过去的一整年中连月增长;中等城市(人口在五百万到一千万之间)的房价在过去四个月持续增长;而小城市(人口在一百万到五百万之间)的房价只在过去两个月有明显增长。If this upturn lasts, some investors reckon it will spur construction. Commodities used to build apartment blocks, such as iron (girders) and copper (wires), have recovered slightly from their recent swoon, partly in the hope that China’s property market is also stirring (see article). Indeed, a series of mini-cycles in the Chinese housing sector over the past decade followed this sort of pattern: rising housing sales led to new building starts, which in turn pushed commodity prices higher.如果情况能持续好转,一些投资者认为它将会刺激建筑行业。如铁梁、铜线这类用于建造公寓的材料商品,都已渐渐从最近的低迷期得以复苏。部分以期中国房地产市场也将处于动荡。的确,中国房地产行业过去十年一系列小周期活动都遵循这种模式:房产销售上涨带动新建筑的开发,新建筑的开发反过来推动材料价格上升。Figures from the China Index Academy, a data provider, show that the stock of unsold homes has decreased recently, from nearly 30 months’ worth of sales early last year to 15 now. “A housing market with rising volume and prices clearly does not support the view that, on a macro level, China’s housing market is oversupplied,” notes Liang Hong of China International Capital Corp, an investment bank.根据中国指数研究院提供的一官方数据显示,未售房屋的存量在最近得以减少,从去年初近30个月的销售量,减少至目前的15个月。“这个存量和价格并升的房地产市场显然并不能从持宏观上中国房地产市场产能过量的观点,”中国国际金融公司(投行)梁宏如是说道。But there is a further vast increment of supply on the verge of coming to market, because developers slowed the pace of construction in recent years and in some cases halted it altogether.但是大量的供房即将上市,因为开发商近年放缓了大兴土木的节奏,一些建筑都已全部停工。 译文属译生译世 /201604/437565

There are many endurings mysteries about the great barrier reef,particularly at night,but this is one of the more enchanting ones.大堡礁有着无数的未解之谜,尤其是它的傍晚,而待会儿见到的则是最为魔幻的一个未解之谜。Watch this.注意看。This coral is fluorescing under ultraviolet light,its this amazing light show,and it covers pretty much the whole of the reef crest.珊瑚在紫外线照射下变得荧光闪闪,简直是奇妙的灯光节日。荧光基本上布满了整个珊瑚礁的顶部。Look at this,vivid,vivid colors,it doesnt look real,it looks like some bizarre,sort of is what it looks like.看看这个,多么生动鲜明的颜色呀。简直不像真的,感觉更像是某种奇异的西兰花。One theory is that this magical colors are in some way caused by the corals sunscreen.有理论认为这些魔幻般的色可能是珊瑚虫分泌的遮阳剂造成的。But dispite lots of very clever people looking into it,no one really knows why this happens.虽然许多专家在不断地研究这个问题,但至今还没有人确切地知道这是怎么一回事。And the same goes for much of the night time activities here.这里的夜生活也充满奇幻色。201411/343258

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