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2019年06月27日 17:13:28 | 作者:康互动 | 来源:新华社
When Samsung Electronics introduced its sleek, high-end Galaxy Note 7 smartphone in August, one of its senior executives called it “the most intelligent smartphone that we have ever created.”三星电子(Samsung Electronics)在八月推出光鲜亮丽的高端智能手机盖乐世Note 7(Galaxy Note 7)时,该公司的一名高管称它是“我们造出的最智能的智能手机”。Today, that model — which the South Korean electronics giant was counting on to help it close the gap with Apple, its biggest rival — looks more like an expensive problem that will not go away.这家韩国电子巨头本指望它能帮自己缩小与最大的竞争对手苹果(Apple)之间的差距。但现在,这款手机看上去更像是一个代价巨大、挥之不去的问题。Samsung has temporarily halted production of the Galaxy Note 7, a person familiar with the decision said on Monday, amid reports that a number of the devices had caught fire. The decision comes just five weeks after Samsung said it would recall 2.5 million Galaxy Note 7 phones after reports of battery fires, suggesting that it has not been able to fix the problem.一名熟悉相关决定的人士周一表示,在得到不少盖乐世Note 7着火的报告后,三星已经暂时停止生产这款手机。就在五周前,三星在得到电池着火的报告后表示将召回250万部盖乐世Note 7,停产的决定意味着它无法解决相关的问题。On Tuesday, the company asked retailers and carriers to stop selling the phones until the problem was fixed, and said “consumers with either an original Galaxy Note 7 or replacement Galaxy Note 7 device should power down and stop using the device.”周二,该公司请求零售商和运营商停止销售这款手机,直到问题得到解决,并表示“不管是原来的盖乐世Note 7还是换货后的盖乐世Note 7,用户均应关机并停止使用”。Samsung had initially said that the problem was solved, after allowing consumers to trade in their phones for new ones. But production was halted after telecommunications companies in the ed States and Australia said they would not offer the Galaxy Note 7 following reports of fires involving new phones in which the problem was supposedly fixed.起初,三星允许消费者以旧换新,称问题已得到解决。但在号称已解决问题的新手机起火的报道出现后,美国和澳大利亚的电信公司表示将停售盖乐世Note 7,三星随即将其停产。In a disclosure to the South Korean stock exchange on Monday, Samsung said it was “temporarily adjusting the Galaxy Note 7 production schedule in order to take further steps to ensure quality and safety matters.” It said it hoped to provide an update within a month.在周一提交给韩国股票交易所的情况说明中,三星称自己“临时调整盖乐世Note 7的生产计划,以便采取进一步的措施,确保产品质量和安全”。该公司表示希望在一个月内能就此事的进展做出一个说明。Samsung made the decision to halt production for consumer safety reasons and in cooperation with the authorities in the ed States and China, according to the person familiar with the process.据熟悉相关程序的前述人士表示,三星是出于消费者安全的考虑,配合美国和中国当局做出停产决定的。The problems call into question Samsung’s campaign to catch up with Apple. While Samsung is the world’s largest smartphone company by market share, Apple has a strong hold on the expensive end of the market with the iPhone.相关问题引发了对三星追赶苹果的行动的怀疑。尽管按照市场份额来衡量,三星是全球最大的智能手机公司,但苹果凭借iPhone牢牢控制着高价位市场。Samsung is also grappling with problems on another front. Last week, a large American hedge fund, Elliott Management, called for the company to overhaul its structure, putting pressure on Samsung’s leaders to justify their actions.三星在另一个领域也面临着问题。上周,美国大型对冲基金埃利奥特资本管理公司(Elliott Management)要求三星改革公司结构,这让三星的高层面临压力,要明自己的行动的合理性。Samsung had been regaining some ground in the high-end market recently with its latest Galaxy phones, which feature curved edges and offer a more premium feel than its budget phones. The Galaxy Note 7 — with its 5.7-inch screen and a price tag exceeding 0 for a phone not tied to a specific carrier — was supposed to add to that momentum.近来,凭借最新的盖乐世系列手机,三星在高端市场重新获得了一席之地。盖乐世系列的边缘呈弧形,给人的感觉比该公司旗下的平价手机更高端。配备5.7英寸屏、裸机售价超过800美元的盖乐世Note 7本应增强这一势头。When the company announced the recall last month, it identified “a battery cell issue” and said it had stopped using batteries from that supplier, which it did not identify by name. But the recurring problem led industry experts to wonder whether the problem went beyond sloppy production and resulted from a faulty battery or software design.上月宣布召回时,三星确认是因为“一个电池问题”并表示已停止使用来自涉事供应商的电池,但三星未公布该供应商的名字。这个问题反复出现,导致行业专家怀疑该问题是否并非只是生产环节的马虎,而是电池或软件设计存在缺陷。The Galaxy Note 7 boasted a higher-capacity battery to help its increasingly sophisticated features, like an iris scanner for added security. It also supported fast and wireless charging technologies.为了持越来越复杂的功能,如增强安全保护的虹膜扫描仪,盖乐世Note 7的电池容量更大。它还持无线快充技术。Samsung is by far South Korea’s largest and most profitable company, and its smartphones have been one of its main sources of revenue in recent years. The crisis threatens to undermine the brand name the company has taken decades to build.三星是韩国迄今为止最大、最赚钱的公司。近年来,智能手机一直是它的主要收入来源之一。这场危机可能会破坏该公司用数十年时间建立起来的品牌。Last week, Pak Yu-ak, an analyst at Kiwoom Securities Company in Seoul, the capital, estimated that the initial recall was the big driver behind a nearly 40 percent drop in operating profit for Samsung’s IT and mobile device division in the third quarter compared with the second quarter, though he predicted a fourth-quarter rebound.上周,在韩国首都首尔的建佑券(Kiwoom Securities Company)分析师朴裕乐(Pak Yu-ak,音)估计,起初的召回是三星信息技术和移动设备部门第三季度营业利润环比下降近40%的重要原因,不过他预计第四季度会有回升。But that was before major telecom companies began saying they would stop offering the Galaxy Note 7. Lee Se-cheol, an analyst at NH Investment amp; Securities in Seoul, said that if the sales of the Samsung model were to be suspended for the fourth quarter, it would cost 0 million in lost revenue, making the company more dependent on its semiconductor business for profit.但这是在主要的电信公司开始表示将停售盖乐世Note 7之前。首尔NH投资券公司分析师李世哲(Lee Se-cheol,音)表示,如果第四季度停止销售盖乐世Note 7,会带来6.3亿美元的收入损失,致使三星更加依赖半导体业务盈利。Samsung initially won plaudits for the scale of its Sept. 2 recall, the largest ever in the smartphone industry. But the recall has been plagued with problems, including communications issues between Samsung executives and safety officials in the ed States.起初,三星因为9月2日宣布的召回的规模而赢得赞誉。这是智能手机行业迄今为止规模最大的召回。但召回出现了诸多问题,包括三星高管和美国安全官员之间的沟通问题。Last week, a Southwest Airlines flight in the ed States was evacuated after a Galaxy Note 7 began smoking inside the plane. The owner and his family told the news media that the phone was a replacement model. Samsung said it would investigate the incident.上周,因为飞机上的一部盖乐世Note 7手机开始冒烟,西南航空(Southwest Airlines)一架航班上的乘客被疏散。冒烟手机的所有者及其家人对新闻媒体表示,手机是更换后的新机。三星表示将调查此事。On Sunday, the American wireless carrier ATamp;T said it would stop selling or replacing Galaxy Note 7 smartphones because of reports of fires. Another major carrier, T-Mobile, also said it was temporarily halting sales and exchanges of new Galaxy Note 7s.周日,美国无线运营商ATamp;T表示因为收到手机起火的报告,将停止销售或更换盖乐世Note 7智能手机。另一家主要的运营商T-Mobile也表示将暂停销售和更换盖乐世Note 7新机。SK Telecom and other South Korean mobile carriers have not taken similar steps yet, saying that they were closely monitoring the situation.SK电信(SK Telecom)和韩国其他移动运营商尚未采取类似的举措。它们表示正在密切关注相关情况。Three of Australia’s biggest telecom companies — Telstra, Optus and Vodafone Australia — said they had stopped shipping Galaxy Note 7 phones to customers after reports that the replacement model had caught fire in the ed States.澳大利亚排名靠前的三家电信公司泰尔斯特拉(Telstra)、奥普图斯(Optus)和沃达丰澳大利亚(Vodafone Australia)表示,看到美国出现更换的新机着火的报道后,它们已停止向消费者提供盖乐世Note 7。“We have asked Samsung to provide us with an update on their investigations as a matter of priority and will update our customers as soon as we learn more,” said Steve Carey, a spokesman at Telstra, Australia’s largest carrier. There have been no reported fires in the handsets sold in Australia, Mr. Carey said.“我们首先要求三星向我们介绍调查的最新进展,一旦了解到更多情况,我们将告知消费者,”澳大利亚最大的运营商泰尔斯特拉的发言人史蒂夫#8226;凯里(Steve Carey)说,并表示尚未收到澳大利亚境内售出的盖乐世Note 7着火的报告。 /201610/470824法国当选生活质量最高的国家 伊拉克垫底International Living magazine -- a US leading resource for helping people live and travel overseas -- has released its 26th Annual Quality of Life Index. According to IL's comprehensive analysis, France again offers the greatest Quality of Life of any country, whilewar-tornIraq remains in last place.Despite high taxes, bureaucracy, and a high cost of living, France returns after taking over the top position last year."France has a good climate, unspoiled countryside, and great health care. And its capital, Paris, is arguably the world's most beautiful and romantic city on earth," said Laura Sheridan, Managing Editor of International Living magazine, who conducted the study. "Add to all this the world-competitive infrastructure and you can understand why we'd name France the world's best place to live."To produce the annual index, International Living considers nine categories: Cost of Living, Culture and Leisure, Economy, Environment, Freedom, Health, Infrastructure, Safety and Risk, and Climate. International Living uses statistics from a number of official government, non-profit, and media sources for much of the number crunching.The ed States -- which had ranked at the top of the charts for an impressive21 consecutive yearsuntil being dethroned in last year's survey -- regained its footing, and climbed back to the number 5 slot from number 7 in last year's survey.International Living's 2007 Quality of Life Index Highlights:Leaders1. France2. Australia3. Netherlands4. New Zealand5. ed StatesBottom Five195. Iraq194. Somalia193. Yemen192. Sudan191. AfghanistanOther Notables8. Italy11. Germany22. Canada25. Mexico34. Panama37. ed Kingdom108. Cuba116. China116. RussiaOther Highs and LowsLowest cost of living: Nauru (it's an island in the Pacific)Best Infrastructure: ed StatesMost Corrupt: HaitiBest for culture: ItalyBest climate: ZimbabweBest to register a new company: AustraliaLongest life expectancy: Andorra(PRNewswire) /200803/32397Few consumers had even heard of Huawei in 2011, the year in which its board decided to focus on breaking into the smartphone market in a big way.2011年那会儿,还没有多少消费者听说过华为(Huawei),就在这一年,华为董事会决定集中精力,大举进军智能手机市场。The company’s portfolio of cheap, low-tech devices had led many to mark the group down as just another “me-too” Chinese white-label manufacturer. But six years on, Huawei has achieved its ambition. As well as now being one of the world’s leading suppliers of telecoms equipment, ranking alongside Sweden’s Ericsson, it has also become the third-biggest vendor of smartphones by market share, according to research company Gartner.华为推出了一系列低价、低技术含量的手机产品,让许多人以为该集团不过是又一家跟风的中国“白标”制造商。但6年过去,华为实现了自己的雄心壮志。根据研究公司Gartner的数据,华为现在不仅是全球领先的电信设备供应商,与瑞典爱立信(Ericsson)齐名,还成为按市场份额计全球第三大的智能手机供应商。The Chinese company has aspirations to be number one as it moves to make more expensive devices aimed at western markets. In 2011, it shipped 1m handsets. Last year, this figure rose to more than 139m.这家中国企业渴望成为第一,它已在针对西方市场制造价位更高的设备。2011年华为手机发货量为100万部,去年这一数字超过了1.39亿。“Smartphones are becoming some kind of commodity [at the middle and lower end] but technology is evolving,” says Richard Yu, chief executive of Huawei’s consumer business since 2011.华为消费者业务首席执行官余承东(Richard Yu)表示:“智能手机正成为某类商品(就中低档来说),但技术还在发展。”他自2011年起开始担任这一职务。The P9, launched last year, was Huawei’s first premium handset to break the sales mark of 10m units. The smartphone, which includes an advanced camera developed in partnership with Leica, was launched with the price of £480 for the most basic model.去年推出的P9是华为首款突破1000万部销量的高端手机。这款智能手机配备了与徕卡(Leica)合作开发的高级摄像头,发售时基本款定价为480英镑。However, Mr Yu says that smartphone sales are not the limit of Huawei’s ambitions, as the company looks to move into artificial intelligence and the realm of everyday connected devices, known as the internet of things.但余承东表示,华为所追求的并不限于卖智能手机,该公司还希望进军人工智能和日常连接设备——即物联网——领域。While smartphones will stay a core part of the business, Huawei is investing more in services that the phones can deliver as a means to drive future sales.华为仍将把智能手机作为一块核心业务,但目前已在加大投资研发能够在手机上提供的务,以此作为推动未来销售增长的手段。The goal is to create new uses for smartphones, for instance by building applications around virtual and augmented reality — either with the addition of goggles that immerse the user in a virtual world, or by imposing virtual dressing on real-world views.其目标是开创智能手机的新用途,例如开发虚拟现实、增强现实应用——或是通过眼镜使用户沉浸在虚拟世界,或是将虚拟装覆盖在真实世界影像上。Mr Yu says Huawei is investing in VR, which he predicts will become integrated within smartphones.余承东说华为正在投资虚拟现实,他预测该技术将被整合到智能手机上。Even more important, he says, will be artificial intelligence linked to smartphones.他说,更重要的是将人工智能与智能手机联系起来。Huawei has plans to rival the big western technology groups such as Apple and Amazon in creating voice-controlled search and response assistants. Mr Yu says that Huawei is investing “huge money” in research and development in this field. Future virtual assistants will adapt themselves to a user’s preferences, their actions and reactions based on data received from smartphones that are packed full of sensors.华为已有开发语音控制搜索及应答助理的计划,希望与苹果(Apple)、亚马逊(Amazon)等西方科技巨头一较高下。余承东表示华为在该领域的研发上投入了“巨资”。未来的虚拟助理将能够调整自身去适应用户的偏好,它们的动作和反应基于装有传感器的智能手机所接收的数据。Customers will no longer touch a screen to access services, they will just talk to their device. “There will be a smart and natural interaction with human beings,” Mr Yu says. “Huawei is working more and more on AI and VR. The smartphone becomes my personal assistant.届时用户将不再需要以触屏方式来使用各项务,他们只需与自己的设备交谈。余承东说:“设备与人之间将进行聪明、自然的互动。华为越来越多地致力于人工智能和虚拟现实。智能手机已经成了我的个人助理。”“Behind the smartphone are big data and AI processing,” he adds. “The phone in the future is like a robot.”他说:“智能手机的背后是大数据和人工智能处理。未来的手机就像一个机器人。”One reason for this strategic shift is that its phone sales are being challenged by low-cost rivals in Shenzhen, where Huawei has its headquarters. Some analysts also warn that the smartphone market is becoming saturated.这一战略性转变的原因之一是,华为在手机销售方面日益受到深圳低成本竞争对手的挑战,深圳是华为总部所在地。一些分析师还警告说智能手机市场正日趋饱和。For now, however, Huawei is the top-selling smartphone maker in China, according to research company Counterpoint. Overseas shipments account for nearly 50 per cent of its total handset sales.不过根据研究公司Counterpoint的数据,目前华为是中国销量第一的智能手机制造商,海外发货量占其手机总销量的近一半。Mr Yu adds that there are still ways to boost sales by improving the design of smartphones, not least by upgrading their digital cameras further.余承东表示,还是有办法来扩大手机销售,比如通过改进智能手机的设计,尤其是进一步升级手机的数码摄像头。He says that work is also being done to improve battery life, a frequent demand of device users across many brands.他表示华为也在致力于延长电池寿命,这是许多品牌设备用户的常见要求。Huawei has experimented with wearables. Its Huawei Watch 2, which uses the Android operating system, has online connectivity and acts as a fitness monitor, was launched at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona this week.华为已试水可穿戴设备领域,华为Watch 2搭载安卓(Android)操作系统,可以连网,还能当做健身监测器,该设备于本周在巴塞罗马世界移动通信大会(Mobile World Congress)上发布。The company still faces some hurdles on its way to the top sales spot, however. Its name is still not as well known as those at the pricier end of the market. Mr Yu also says the company needs more time to build penetration in the US, where it is “behind” compared to other parts of the world.不过,在迈向全球销售榜首的道路上,华为依然面临一些障碍。它仍不如市场上那些高端品牌知名。余承东还表示华为需要更多时间扩大在美国的渗透,与全球其他地区的情况相比,华为在该市场“落在后面”。 /201703/495288

The fact that the Financial Times special series on robots has been framed around the question “Robots: friend or foe?” is fascinating to me. I understand that change is scary, and that the cyborg from The Terminator is really scary. But my ing of the evidence is that the rapid changes we are seeing in artificial intelligence, sensor development and many other fields are not sending us hurtling towards a future in which the machines become self-aware and take over. Worrying about that future is so misplaced that, as the AI pioneer Andrew Ng puts it, it is like worrying about overpopulation#8201;.#8201;.#8201;.#8201;on Mars.英国《金融时报》关于机器人的特别系列报道一直围绕着这样一个问题:机器人是敌是友?这让我很感兴趣。我知道变化是可怕的,我也知道《终结者》(Terminator)中的半机器人确实可怕。但我读到的据表明,我们在人工智能(AI)、传感器开发以及其他很多领域看到的快速变化,并没有在把我们快速推向一个机器产生自我意识并接管一切的未来。担心这种未来毫无意义,就像人工智能先驱吴恩达(Andrew Ng)所说的那样,这就好像担心……火星上人口过多。A much more proximate and real threat, and hence a scarier one, is that of economic dislocation. Robots (a term I am using here as shorthand for the modern, rapidly expanding toolkit of digital technologies) are quickly learning lots of skills — everything from understanding natural language to diagnosing disease to driving cars — that used to be the preserve of human beings alone. These skilful machines are going to sp throughout the world’s economies in the years to come, and they are going to automate some people, perhaps many of them, out of their jobs.一种更紧迫且更切实(因此也更可怕)的威胁是经济可能出现混乱。机器人(我姑且使用这个词代指快速扩张的现代数字技术工具)正快速学习大量曾经是人类专属的技能——从理解自然语言到诊断疾病、再到驾驶汽车。未来数年,这些技术高超的机器将出现在全球各个经济体中,他们将用自动化取代人工,致使一些(或许多)人失业。Surely this means that robots are our foes? No, it absolutely does not. To believe otherwise is to reduce us humans to the status of mere labourers — and that is an offensively reductive view of our species.这当然意味着机器人是我们的敌人喽?不,完全不是这样。认为是肯定的,就是把人类贬低为只不过是体力劳动者,这未免太小瞧我们这个物种了。For one thing, many people are not workers at all; they are children or pensioners, the sick or infirm. For these groups, technological progress is a virtually unalloyed good. It will allow the elderly to lead more autonomous lives (think of a self-driving car that will let them visit friends and relatives, for example), while letting their families closely monitor them and intervene if they fall or become disorientated. It will let children learn what they want, at their own pace. It will let us tailor medical treatments to individuals, rather than simply doing what works best on average.首先,很多人根本不是劳动者;他们是儿童或退休人士、病人或残障人士。对于这些人而言,技术进步是近乎纯粹的福音。它将让老年人能过上更自立的生活(比如,设想一下无人驾驶汽车带着他们探亲访友),同时让他们的家人能密切监控他们的状况,在他们摔倒或迷路时进行干预。它将让孩子们能按照自己的进度学习他们想学的知识。它将让患者能获得最适合自己的医学治疗,而不是仅仅获得通常而言最有效的治疗。I struggle to see how technological progress could be negative, on balance, for any of these groups. Yes, children can spend too much time staring at their smartphones, and parents should ensure their screen time is limited. But we survived the advent of television, a technology perfectly designed to turn us into zombies who cease to engage with each other in any way. I am confident, therefore, that the kids will be all right.总的来说,我想不出对所有这些群体而言,科技进步何以会是一件不好的事情。确实,儿童可能会花费太多时间盯着他们的智能手机,父母应控制他们玩手机的时间。但电视这种原本足以让我们变成彼此不进行任何互动的僵尸的技术诞生了,我们安然无恙;因此,我相信,孩子们会没事的。But what about those of us who actually do work for a living? Even for us, robots are not our enemies — for two important reasons. First, they are not going to put us all out of work any time soon. There are still a lot of things that technology cannot do — from clearing a table to coaching a team to writing a novel. And even the biggest techno-optimists do not think that these things will be 100 per cent automated in the near future.但我们这些真正在为生计工作的人呢?即便对于我们,机器人也并非敌人,原因有两个。首先,他们不会很快让我们都失业。仍有很多事情是机器做不了的——从收拾桌子到教一个班的学生写小说。就连对技术发展最乐观的人也不认为,这些工作将在不远的未来实现100%自动化。It is true that a lot of the jobs that technology cannot do today do not pay very well (largely because lots of people can do them, and this large supply of potential labour keeps wages down). The best way to address this challenge, I believe, is with a negative income tax that provides low-income workers with an earnings boost.确实,机器现在做不了的很多工作都薪水不高(这主要是因为可以做这些工作的人很多,大量的潜在劳动力供应让薪资高不起来)。我认为,解决这一挑战的最佳办法是将收入所得税降至负值,为低收入员工增加收入。The second and much more important reason that robots are not our foes is that they make us richer overall. By increasing our capabilities and productivity, they create more bounty and abundance. We like to communicate, learn, entertain ourselves, travel and consume goods and services. Technological progress lets us do more of all of these things for a given amount of money (or, increasingly these days, for no money at all), and at higher levels of quality.机器人并非敌人的第二个也是更为重要的原因在于,他们让我们总体变得更为富有。通过提高我们的能力和生产率,他们创造了更富足的生活。我们喜欢交流、学习、、旅行以及消费产品和务。技术进步将让我们能用同样的钱(乃至免费——按照如今的趋势),以更高的质量做更多我们喜欢的事情。It is true that the way most of us gain access to much of this bounty is by getting paid for our labour. It is also true that this “labour bargain” is becoming a tougher one for more and more people as their skills become less valuable, because of both globalisation and technological progress. We need to figure out how to deal with this situation This will be one of the most important policy arenas over the coming decades.确实,我们多数人享受到这种富足的方式是通过获取劳动报酬。此外,确实,对于越来越多的人而言,这种“便宜劳动力”正变得愈发难以消受,因为由于全球化和技术进步,他们的技能变得不那么有价值了。我们需要弄清楚如何应对这种情况。这将是未来数十年最重要的政策领域之一。But we also need to keep in mind that this is a situation brought about by the fact that technology is letting us do and create much more with much less drudgery and toil. If we cannot figure out how to deal with this, and how to make sure that the fruits of robots’ labour are shared in a way that reflects our shared values and protects our most vulnerable, then shame on us. In that case, we will have met the real foe in that case, and it will be us.但我们还需要记住,这种情况源于这一事实:技术让我们得以费少得多的力气创造多得多的价值。如果我们无法弄明白如何应对这种形势,如何确保以反映我们共同价值观、保护弱者的方式分享机器人的劳动成果,那么我们应该感到羞愧。如果是那样的话,我们已遭遇真正的敌人,那就是我们自己。 /201605/446149

Government 美国政府 "Of the people, by the people, and for the people." That's how Abraham Lincoln described the American government in his Gettysburg Address. These simple phrases capture the essence of American democracy. Instead of ruling over U.S. citizens, the government is ruled by them. Elected officials are known as public servants who represent their constituents. Americans can get involved in government by voting, by writing letters to their representatives and even by organizing peaceful demonstrations to make their voices heard. Each American citizen has a vested interest in how he or she is governed. Former President Theodore Roosevelt expressed the American view of government well: "The government is us." 「民有、民治、民享」,这是亚伯拉罕.林肯在盖茨堡演说时,描绘的美国政府。这简短的几个字道出了美国民主的真谛。美国政府不是统治人民而是受人民所统治。民选的官员被认为是人民的公仆,他们代表的是他们的选民。美国人可经由投票,向他们的代表陈情、甚至于组织和平的示威活动,来发表心声,参与政事。每一个美国公民都有一份保护自身利益的权利与义务,来决定他们的政府该如何执政,前总统泰迪.罗斯福深刻地表达了美国人对政府的看法:「政府就是我们。」 At first glance, it might seem that the U.S. president, as "leader of the free world," is the "ruler" of America. On Inauguration Day, the swearing in of President Bill Clinton for his second term will reflect the pomp and circumstance of a coronation ceremony, with dignitaries from around the world in attendance. Even as far back as George Washington, who once rejected a suggestion to become "King of America," people have sought to ascribe far-reaching powers to the president. But the Constitution ensures that the president will not become an all-powerful ruler. 乍看之下,身为「自由世界领袖」的美国总统似乎是美国的「统治者」。在就职日,来自世界各地达官显要的出席,使柯林顿总统的第二任就职宣誓仪式,如同国王加冕典礼一般的华丽与隆重。即使远朔自华盛顿总统,他曾经拒绝了成为「美国国王」的建议,人们还是想要把无比的权力赋予总统。但是美国宪法确保了总统不会成为一个集权的统治者。 The U.S. government, as outlined by the Constitution, is divided into three branches: legislative, executive and judicial. The legislative branch passes the laws, the executive enforces the laws and the judicial interprets the laws. The legislative branch is comprised of the two houses of Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Thanks to CNN, C/SPAN and the nightly news, many lawmakers have almost become celebrities in their own right. The executive branch is represented by the president, who is called the chief executive or chief of state. Besides that, as commander in chief of the armed forces, the president carries more than a little clout in world affairs. The judicial branch is made up of the Supreme Court and about 100 other federal courts. The nine Supreme Court justices hold office for life. 美国宪法概略的将政府分为三部份:立法部门、行政部门及司法部门。立法部门通过法律:行政部门执行法律而司法部门诠释法律。立法部门由国会的参议院及众议院所组成。承蒙CNN及C/SPAN和夜间新闻之抬爱,这些议员们都因个人的论调、举止成了名人。行政部门由总统代表,他被称为最高行政长官、或是国家元首。除此之外,身为三军司令,美国总统在世界局势所有的影响力也是不小的。司法部门是由最高法院及大约100个其它的联邦法院所组成。九位最高法院的法官是终身职。 /200803/32921

SEOUL, South Korea —Five yearsago, Sun Mi Stapel, a claims handler at a Dutch insurance company, begansearching for her South Korean birth family.韩国首尔——五年前,在一家荷兰保险公司任核保员的善美·施塔珀尔(Sun Mi Stapel)开始寻找在韩国的亲生父母。Stapel first turned to the Dutch adoptionagency that had placed her with her adoptive parents in Krommenie, theNetherlands, where she grew up. 施塔珀尔首先去找了一家荷兰领养中介公司,当初她就是通过这家公司被荷兰克罗默尼的养父母领养的,她在那里长大。Then she tried Korea Social Service, whichhad handled the Korean side of her adoption. 然后她又找到了在领养中负责在韩事务的韩国社会务公司(Korea Social Service)。Last year, she finally obtained heradoption files, but they were missing vital information.去年,她终于拿到了领养文件,但是其中丢失了一些关键信息。She traveled to Seoul, appearing on amorning television show with her baby photos and asking viewers to call ahotline with any information. 她来到首尔,拿着自己幼时的照片出现在一个早间电视节目上,请求观众通过热线电话提供有关信息。She registered for a national database formissing people. 她在一个国家失踪人口数据库做了登记。She distributed fliers in the neighborhoodaround her orphanage in Incheon, where she was born, and visited nursing homesand community centers there in hopes of finding someone who knew her parents.她到了仁川,在自己当初所在的孤儿院周遭散发传单,她就是在那里出生的,她还去了养老院和社区中心,以期找到认识她父母的人。No one did.没有人了解情况。So on a recent Tuesday afternoon, Stapel,46, went to a guesthouse for adoptees in Seoul, where a volunteer rubbed theinside of her cheek with a cotton swab, dropped the swab in a tube and shippedit to a lab in Texas, where her DNA will be analyzed and uploaded to a websitethat scans submitted samples for genetic matches.于是,在最近一个周二的下午,46岁的施塔珀尔来到首尔一家面向被领养人的招待所,一名志愿者用棉签在她口腔内侧刮了刮,把棉签扔进一根细长的保存瓶里,然后寄到德克萨斯的一座实验室,在那里,她的DNA经分析后被上传到一个网站,和已提交的基因进行比对。The result could link her to her birthfamily and fill in some of the blanks of her personal history.比对结果也许能帮她找到自己的亲生父母,填补她的个人历史中的某些空白。I want to know the simple things, she said.我想知道的东西很简单,她说。When is my real date of birth? Who is myfather? Who is my mother? Do I have siblings? Do I look like somebody?我的真实生日是几号?我父亲是谁?母亲是谁?我有兄弟吗?我长得像谁?Many South Korean adoptees who have thesame questions are turning to DNA testing to circumvent what has long been atortuous and often fruitless process.许多怀着同样问题的韩国被领养人选择了DNA测试,以绕过一个漫长曲折且往往徒劳无获的过程。For years, South Korea was the world’s leadingbaby exporter. 韩国多年来一直是全球最大的婴儿出口国。Since the 1950s, it has sent about 200,000children abroad for adoption, including about 150,000 to the ed States.自上世纪50年代起,该国共有约20万名儿童被外国领养,其中约有15万名前往美国。Every year adoptees return, looking forinformation about their past. 每年都有被领养者返回韩国,寻找有关自己过往的信息。But South Korean laws block them fromobtaining their full birth records without their birth parents’consent. 但因为韩国法律的限制,在没有获得亲生父母允许的情况下,他们无法获得自己完整的出生记录。And government adoption files are oftenfalsified, incomplete or missing, making birth parents impossible to trackdown.而政府的领养文件往往有虚假成分、不完整或是丢失了,这让他们很难找到亲生父母。From 2012-15, fewer than 15 percent ofadoptees who asked to reunite with their birth parents were able to do so,according to Korean government figures.韩国政府统计的数据显示,从2012年至2015年,要求与父母团聚的被领养者中只有不足15%的人做到了这一点。For many, DNA testing offers a way aroundthe bureaucratic hurdles and flawed records.对很多人来说,DNA检测提供了一种绕过官僚障碍和瑕疵文件的办法。Stapel was one of a few dozen adoptees whotook free DNA tests made available in Seoul this month during the InternationalKorean Adoptee Associations Gathering, which meets every three years.本月,三年一度的国际韩国被领养人协会大会(International Korean Adoptee Associations Gathering)举行期间,几十名被领养人接受了免费的DNA检测。施塔珀尔就是其中之一。Monica Toudahl Knudsen, 33, who grew up inthe Jutland peninsula, in Denmark, also took the test. 33岁的莫妮卡·托达尔·克努森(MonicaToudahl Knudsen)也接受了这项检测。She has been searching for her birth familysince 2012.她在丹麦的日德兰半岛长大,自2012年开始就一直在寻找自己的生身父母。According to her adoption file, her parentswere teenage sweethearts who could not afford to raise her. 领养文件显示,她的父母当时是一对十几岁的情侣,无力抚养她。On a previous trip to Seoul, she hadvisited the site of the midwife clinic where she was born. 上一次去首尔时,她曾经到访自己出生的那个助产士诊所所在地。It now houses a cafe and fried chickenrestaurant.如今那里是一间咖啡馆和一个炸鸡店。She feels grateful for her life in Denmark,where she is a chef. 她在丹麦做厨师,对自己现在的生活充满感恩。If she is ever able to meet her birthparents, she said, I just want to thank them for letting me go.她说,如果能见到亲生父母,我只想谢谢他们送走了我。The DNA testing movement has been largelyfinanced by Thomas Park Clement, a Korean adoptee who now lives in Manhattanand in Bloomington, Indiana. 这项DNA检测活动主要是由托玛斯·帕克·克莱门特(Thomas Park Clement)资助。他也是一名韩国被领养人,如今在曼哈顿和印第安纳州布鲁明顿两地生活。A scientist who founded Mectra Labs, amedical manufacturing company, he has pledged to spend million on DNA kitsto give away.这名科学家是医疗设备制造公司梅茨特拉实验室(Mectra Labs)的创立者。他承诺付100万美元购买成套DNA检测务,用于捐赠。I have throughout the years experienced somany of my fellow Korean adoptees’frustrations with birth relative searches, he said in a recentinterview. 这些年来,我目睹那么多同为韩国被领养者的人在寻找亲生父母方面遭遇挫折,他在最近接受采访时说。DNA is shortcutting the search process andbringing all parties in direct communication with each other.DNA提供了一条捷径,可以缩短寻找的过程,让各方进行直接的交流。He has donated 2,550 kits to Koreanadoptees and Korean War veterans in the ed States. 他捐献了2550套DNA检测务给韩国被领养人和美国的朝鲜战争退伍军人。Some of the veterans are the fathers of thefirst wave of South Korea’s international adoptees. 这些退伍军人中,有一些是第一波被跨国领养的韩国人的生身父亲。He has also given 450 test kits to325Kamra, a volunteer organization started last year, to distribute in SouthKorea.他还捐赠了450套检测务给去年成立的志愿者组织325卡姆拉(325Kamra),让它针对韩国进行分配。When testing works, it is remarkablyefficient.DNA检测起效的时候,效率是非常惊人的。This month, 325Kamra announced its firstmatch between a Korean birth mother and an American adoptee. 本月,325卡姆拉宣布了该机构配对成功的第一对——一名韩国生身母亲和一位身在美国的被领养人。Within 48 hours, the adoptee, Kyung EunDavidson, 33, of Everett, Washington, was speaking to her mother for the firsttime in 30 years.不到48小时,生活在华盛顿州埃弗雷特的被领养人、33岁的京银·戴维森(Kyung Eun Davidson)便和她的母亲说上了话,这是30年来的头一遭。It’s been an amazing,crazy and wonderful experience, Davidson told The Korea Herald.那是一种让人惊奇、有些疯狂同时也很棒的体验,戴维森对《韩国先驱报》(The Korea Herald)讲道。Adoptees are not the only ones placingtheir hopes in DNA tests.被领养者并不是唯一将希望寄托在DNA检测上的人。Last month, Song Chang-sook, 89, traveled200 miles from Pusan with his caregiver to take a DNA test in Seoul. 上个月,89岁的宋章肃(Song Chang-sook,音)与他的护理员跋涉200英里,从釜山来到首尔接受DNA检测。Having heard about the testing on a morningtelevision program, he was searching for the three sons he relinquished foradoption more than 40 years ago.他在一档早间电视节目中听说了这个检测项目,之前他一直在寻找自己在40多年前送养的三个儿子。When his wife died of typhoid fever in1970, his mother-in-law decided that the children should be given up foradoption rather than raised by a single father. 在他的妻子于1970年死于伤寒时,他的岳母坚持认为,三个孩子应该被送出去,而不是由一个单身父亲抚养。He gave up his three sons: Won Ho, born in1965; Won Young, born in 1967; and Won Hee, born in 1968.他放弃了自己的三个儿子:生于1965年的元镐(Won Ho,音)、1967年的元融(Won Young,音)和1968年的元熙(Won Hee,音)。Five years later, he returned to theadoption agency, Holt International, asking for their whereabouts. 五年后,他返回领养机构霍尔特国际(Holt International),询问他们的下落。He inquired many more times after that. 此后,他又问过很多次。At one point, someone told him that hissons were living together in France. 曾经有人告诉他,三个儿子一起生活在法国。But Holt was prohibited from disclosingpersonal information about the three boys. 但霍尔特被禁止泄露三个男孩的个人信息。The 2012 adoption law that gives adopteesthe right to petition for their birth records offers no such benefit to theparents.2012年的领养法允许被领养者申请获得自己的出生记录,但没有赋予送养的父母同样的权利。Song thinks about the last time he saw hischildren, on Nov. 3, 1971. 宋章肃时常想到自己最后一次见到孩子们的时候,那是1971年11月3日。The year before, his oldest son, Won Ho,had been hospitalized for a month with a broken shoulder from a car accident. 之前的一年,他的大儿子元镐曾因在车祸中肩部骨折而住了一个月的院。 /201609/463857

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    关键词:哈尔滨无痛人流咨询哪家好

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