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哈尔滨道里区中心医院不孕不育科导医咨询

2020年01月20日 03:26:11 | 作者:大河媒体 | 来源:新华社
One of the least pleasant things about being human is the appearance at adolescence of pimples. 最恼人的一件事就是青春期脸上长痘痘。 Not only do they make their entrance just at the time when people are most self-conscious, but they come and go for the rest of your life. 在人们最有自我意识的时候会冒痘痘,而且痘痘可能会在你脸上保留一辈子。It would almost be better to have a hairy face. 也许脸上长满毛会更好。Ironically, the general covering of our bodies in hair---what we call ;fur; on other animals---is at the root of our problem with acne. 讽刺的是,我们身上的体毛,就是我们所说的其他动物的“皮毛”——就是我们脸上长粉刺的根源所在。In the course of evolution human beings lost their entirely hairy faces and now have a lot of exposed skin there: even a bearded man with bushy eyebrows has much of his face bare. 在进化的过程中,人类完全失去了他们毛茸茸的面孔,进而暴露出大部分的皮肤:甚至是浓眉大眼的长满胡须的男人,他的脸都是光滑的。The structures in the facial skin that once gave rise to hair, however, have not disappeared entirely: many still contain tiny vestigial hairs which do not grow. 面部皮肤结构一旦催生出毛发,就不能完全消失:很多还包含着微小残留的长不出来的毛发。That means there is nothing to open up the pore itself; and that means the pore is a great place for oils, dirt and bacteria to get clogged. 那就意味着和毛孔本身无关,而且意味着毛孔能被油脂,污垢和细菌堵塞。You can get zits anywhere vestigial follicles become clogged. 残留毛囊堵塞的地方就会长有青春痘。The big culprit on faces, though, isnt dirt so much as an internally-produced substance called sebum that makes the skin cells shed inside the pores. 不过脸部的罪魁祸首与其说是不干净,倒不如说是一种内部产生的物质,皮脂,使得皮肤毛孔内的细胞脱落。These dead cells, unable to flake away, collect until they become an irritation to the pore. 这些死细胞,无法自动脱落,一直累积直到其对毛孔产生刺激作用。At this point the body reacts in a miniature version of the way it deals with any other invasion: it sends white blood cells to the site to attack the invading body. 此时人体会减弱其他任何形式的入侵,从而它会将白细胞送至机体来抵抗受侵细胞。The result is a mild inflammation at the scene of battle. That inflammation is the zit. 结果就是轻度炎症在作怪。而那炎症就是青春痘。So evolution, while having cleaned our hairy faces, gave us pimply skin instead. 所以进化在清理我们多毛的面孔的同时,也会使我们的皮肤长有粉刺。201308/252859

Business商业报道Solar power in India印度太阳能Waiting for the sun等待着艳阳Is the sun the answer to Indias energy problems?太阳能是印度能源问题的解决办法吗?ON A salt plain near the border with Pakistan lies half a billion dollars worth of solar-energy kit paid for by firms from all over the world.靠近巴基斯坦边界的一块盐地,安装了来自全球的公司价值五亿美元的太阳能设备。A million panels stretch as far as the eye can see.目所能及的就有一百万块太阳能板了。Past a dishevelled brass band is a tent crammed with 5,000 people who cheer when Narendra Modi, the chief minister of Gujarat, declares the solar park open:穿过一群散乱的铜管乐队就是一个挤满了正在欢庆的5000人帐篷区,此时,古吉拉特邦的首席部长纳伦德拉·莫迪宣布太阳能电厂正式运行,I pray, sun god, that today Gujarat will show the way to the rest of the world for solar energy.我希望太阳神庇护我们,今天古吉拉特邦将向世界其他地方展示通向太阳能的道路。Despite the uncomfortable cult of personality around Mr Modi, Gujarat is an easy place to do business.除了对莫迪的个人崇拜令人感到不舒外,古吉拉特邦还是一个容易经商的地方。And solar power would appear to be an obvious winner for India.而太阳能仿佛令印度成为了最大的赢家。The country has plenty of sun and flat, idle land.印度境内有充沛的阳光和许多平坦闲置的用地。India is energy-hungry, but electricity supply is sporadic.而它又是一个能源缺乏的国家,电力供应时常不足。Costly diesel generators are popular. Solar power could replace them.连昂贵的柴油发电机在这里也很畅销。And solar parks, which look like giant Lego kits, are easier to build than conventional power plants.这方面太阳能可以替代。至于看上去像巨大的乐高积木桶的太阳能发电厂,比起建造传统的发电厂要容易多。The new park, in a place called Charanka, has just over 200 megawatts of capacity running, making it the biggest site in India.最新的电厂,建在Charanka,拥有超过200兆瓦发电量,使其成为印度最大的电力厂。It took 16 months to build. No one builds nuclear power stations nearly that fast.它花了16个月去建造,没有人能用这速度建造出原子能发电站。Two other factors make an Indian solar boom seem possible.还有两个原因使印度的太阳能得到广泛使用成为可能。Conventional energy generation, which in India means burning cheap but dirty local coal, is a mess.传统能源的生产十分混乱,在印度是通过燃烧便宜但污染大的煤炭来发电的。Power stations charge local electricity boards 3-4 rupees per kilowatt hour.发电站以每度电约3~4卢比卖给当地的供电局。The state coal monopoly is unable to dig up enough of the black stuff, forcing power firms to buy pricier imported coal.国家垄断了煤炭,却无法开采足够的量,这迫使能源公司购买更贵的进口煤炭。Hopes that India might find abundant natural gas off its coast have been dashed.印度期望能在远离海岸线的地方找到丰富的天然气的愿望已经破灭。Many observers think the price of conventional power will have to rise to 5-6 rupees.许多观测者认为传统能源价格将上升5~6卢比。Meanwhile, the cost of solar equipment has fallen by a third since 2010, reckons Alan Rosling of Kiran Energy,与此同时,一间由美国私募基金注资的太阳能公司—Kiran能源的阿兰?罗斯林指出,自2010年以后,a solar firm backed by American private equity.太阳能装备的花费已经下降了三分之一。Cheaper solar and pricier conventional power have persuaded many that solar will soon be competitive without subsidies.相对便宜的太阳能与较贵的传统能源令更多的人在没有补贴的情况下仍选择更有竞争力的太阳能。V. Saibaba, the boss of Lanco Solar, a firm that makes and operates solar parks, says that by 2016 Indian solar will match the price of conventional electricity.负责建造与运营太阳能发电厂的兰科太阳能公司的领导V. Saibaba说,到2016年印度的太阳能价格将接近传统电力的价格。That should mean a building boom.这意味着太阳能发电厂的建造潮将到来。Sunil Gupta of Standard Chartered, a bank, reckons Indias share of new global solar installations will rise from 1% this year to 5% by 2015.渣打的Sunil Gupta指出,印度的太阳能设备安装量在全球的份额将从今年的1%上升到2015年的5%。Indias central government has set a target for 20,000MW of installed solar generation by 2022, from under 1,000MW today.印度政府设定了一个指标,到2022年,安装的太阳能发电量将从现在的1000百万瓦以下上升到20,000百万瓦。That would still represent a miserly 5% or less of total power-generation capacity in India,这显得有点保守,因为这只是印度总发电量的5%,甚至更少。and cost perhaps billion-40 billion to build—a fraction of the investment in new coal-fired plants.投资约300亿美元~400亿美元去建造太阳能发电厂,而这只是相当于投资于新建的火力发电站的一小部分。So plenty of folk think the official target will be smashed.所以很多人认为官方目标将难以达成。D.J. Pandian, a civil servant in charge of energy policy in Gujarat, believes his state alone will easily reach 10,000MW of capacity in a decade.D.J. Pandian,一位负责古吉拉特邦能源问题的官员则相信,单单古吉拉特邦在十年内就将轻易地达到10,000百万瓦的发电量。But not everyone agrees.但不是每一个人都认同。Half of these plants wont be here in ten years, says a German boss at the new solar park—bad news,这些厂的一半在十年内都不会建在这里,一位在新的太阳能发电厂的德国领导说。since the contracts are for 25 years.他指出,坏消息是,因为合同是25年,Too many firms have cut corners, he reckons.导致太多公司节省成本。A Chinese executive raises his eyebrows at Indias plans to force solar firms to buy some equipment locally.一位中国执行官听了印度计划迫使太阳能公司购买当地的某些设备后扬起了眉毛。The supply chain and economies of scale are not there, he says.供应链以及经济规模还不理想。他说。An American manager scoffs: Weve all been coming to India for years and theyll never get there…一位美国经理调侃到,我们全部来印度已经多年了,清楚他们还没有达到那程度,They dont have the infrastructure.他们没有基础设施。The difficulty of getting plugged into the grid and a shortage of water to clean panels are common worries.难以接入电网以及因水的短缺而致难以清理太阳能板是常见的忧虑。Solar faces two other problems.太阳能普及面对两个问题。First, Gujarats state government has guaranteed high prices of 15 rupees for the first 12 years of operation to solar producers,第一个是,古吉拉特邦的政府要求确保太阳能生产商每度电15卢比的高价,作为第一个12年内的运营成本,which should mean they make money.这也意味着他们可以盈利。But at the national level there is a separate system.但在国家层面上仍有一个分流制。It relies on reverse auctions in which those solar producers who commit to producing power at the lowest cost win the right to operate.那些太阳能制造商是依靠逆向拍卖选出的,谁能用最低的成本生产能源,谁就能获得运营的权利。In the second national solar auction, of 350MW, in December, the winning firms committed themselves to selling solar power for as little as 7.5 rupees.在12月的第二个国家级太阳能运营拍卖会,其产能为350百万瓦,竞拍成功的公司已经承诺,他们将用低至每度7.5卢比的价格卖太阳能。Many people doubt that it is possible to make money at these prices.很多人怀疑按这些价格到底能不能实现盈利。An Indian engineer says the auction was a farce and that it is impossible to build a solid plant and operate it for less than 10 rupees.一位印度工程师说拍卖会只是一场闹剧,建立一个固定的工厂并以低于每度10卢比的价格运营它,这是不可能的。Firms bidding below, say, 8.5 rupees must assume that technology will improve, equipment prices will keep falling,参与投标的厂商们也说,要是技术得到提升,而设备价格又持续下降,or that they can make their sums work by borrowing cheap dollars rather than dear rupees.或者说他们能通过借到廉价的美元而不是昂贵的卢比来总结工作。只有这样,每度电8.5卢比才显得有可能。Second, if prices do not fall steeply, there may be little appetite for solar power.此外,如果价格没有快速下降,可能很少人会愿意使用太阳能。The grid is rickety.电网也变得摇摇欲坠。Many states distribution firms are financial zombies.许多国家的流通企业都是金融僵尸。Today the cost of solar subsidies is hidden—pooled with the overall generation bill in states such as Gujarat or,今天太阳能补贴的费用被隐藏了—像古吉拉特邦,统计在全部的账单中,或许,for projects under the national scheme, buried in the finances of a big state-owned conventional power firm.根据国家计划的项目,埋藏了一个大型的传统国有能源企业的资产。Such bureaucratic subterfuge works on a small scale.像这些官僚式的托词只影响了一小范围。But if the bill for solar swells, it is not hard to imagine the kind of public backlash against subsidies that has hit cash-strapped Europe.但要是太阳能的账单变大,不难想象,公众对补贴的不满将冲击欧洲的经济。Indias politicians may then start to ignore contracts.印度的政客可能将开始不履行合约。To solve Indias energy problems, solar firms must deliver blindingly low prices.要解决印度的能源问题,太阳能公司必须盲目地实现低价卖电。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201306/244631

Water gets into a fishs body through osmosis, the process in which water diffuses from a higher to a lower concentration.水通过渗透作用进入鱼儿的身体,在这一过程中,水从高浓度的地方扩散至低浓度的地方。For example, if there is more water outside of a cell than inside, water will try to flow into the celluntil there is the same concentration of water on either side of the cells membrane.比方说,如果细胞外的水多于细胞内,水就会流入细胞内,直到细胞膜内外的浓度相同。The body of a fish acts the same way, either absorbing or losing water depending on its surroundings.鱼儿的身体与细胞一样,吸水还是失水取决于它生存的环境。Whether a fish absorbs or loses water is based on the fact that all fish must maintain a certainamount of salt in their bodies to stay healthy.不管鱼儿吸水还是失水,事实上,所有的鱼要想保持健康其体内就必须维持一定量的盐分。Fish that live in fresh water have a higherconcentration of salt in their bodies than the surrounding water.淡水鱼体内盐的浓度要高于周围的水。Consequently, water continuously flows into the fishs body to attempt to dilute the amount ofsalt in the fish until it is equal to the amount of salt in the surrounding water.因此,水就不断地进入鱼儿的体内以稀释盐份,直到鱼儿体内与外界的盐的浓度持平。Since fish cannotallow their salt content to be diminished, their kidneys work overtime to expel excess water in theform of urine.因为鱼儿自身无法减少体内的盐分,所以他们的肾就要不断工作以将多余的水以尿液的形式排出体外。Ocean fish have the opposite problem.海鱼的问题则恰恰相反。Surrounded by salt water, their bodies contain a relativelylower concentration of salt than the ocean water.由于被盐水包围,他们体内盐的浓度与海水相比相对较低。In this case, osmosis causes the fish toconstantly lose water in order to equalize salt concentration inside and outside the fish.在这种情况下,渗透作用使得鱼儿不停地失水以平衡体内外盐的浓度。To partially compensate for the water loss, ocean fish actually drink water through their mouths.为了补偿失去的部分水分,海水鱼通常要用嘴喝水。To get rid of the excess salt they take in by drinking seawater, they excrete some salt throughcells in their gills.而为了去除喝海水带来的多余盐分,它们会通过腮里的细胞排出一些盐分。201403/279137

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