许昌市去痣多少钱一颗
时间:2019年09月20日 10:08:47

For many of us, it is the rocket fuel that gets us going first thing in the morning.对我们许多人来说,早起第一件事就喝咖啡则如同火箭燃料一般,能让我们清醒起来动起来。But one expert has argued that to get the maximum effect of caffeine, it#39;s better to hold on a few hours - because coffee is most effective if consumed between 9.30am and 11.30am.但是有专家认为,要想获得咖啡因的最佳效果还得再等上些许时间。因为在上午9:30-11:30这个时间段喝咖啡才是最有效的。Steven Miller, a neuroscientist from the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences in Maryland, says it is best to drink coffee when the body’s levels of the hormone cortisol are low because caffeine interacts with the hormone.马里兰州健康科学统一务大学的神经学家史蒂芬·米勒认为,最好在身体中的荷尔蒙皮质醇水平偏低时喝咖啡,因为这时咖啡因和荷尔蒙相互作用。He explained that people who drink coffee when their cortisol levels are high –namely, between 8am and 9am –develop a tolerance to caffeine, meaning it becomes less effective.他解释道,当人们在上午8-9点中皮质醇水平较高时喝咖啡,身体对咖啡因有耐受性,并不是很有效。Cortisol controls the body clock and causes people to feel wide awake, The Telegraph reports. The body’s levels of the hormone are usually high just after a person wakes up but start to fall about an hour afterwards.据《每日电讯报》报道,皮质醇控制人体生物钟,让人们感觉很清醒。人体内的激素水平在刚刚睡醒后通常较高,但大约一小时后便开始下降。Mr Miller argues that it is during this drop in cortisol levels that people get the most benefit from the caffeine in coffee –it gives them a boost as it encourages cortisol production when their cortisol levels start to drop and they do not become resistant to its benefits.米勒先生认为,正是因为这种皮质醇水平下降,人们从咖啡中所含的咖啡因获得了最大益处——因可以振奋精神,在皮质醇激素下降时刺激皮质醇产生,而且人体对咖啡因的吸收不会受到皮质醇的抵制。He explained that cortisol levels also peak at lunchtime and between 5.30pm and 6.30pm, meaning that these would also not be good times to drink coffee.他解释道,皮质醇水平在中午以及下午5:30-6:30之间达到峰值,这也就意味着这两个时间段也不是喝咖啡的最佳时间。Writing on his blog he said: ‘If we are drinking caffeine at a time when your cortisol concentration in the blood is at its peak, you probably should not be drinking it.他在客中写道:“如果当我们的皮质醇浓度在血液中达到高峰时喝了咖啡,那么你可能不应该在这个时候喝咖啡了。‘This is because cortisol production is strongly related to your level of alertness and cortisol peaks for your 24 hour rhythm between 8 and 9am on average.“这是因为皮质醇激素的生产与人的警醒度紧密相关,在一天24小时的生物钟里,早上8-9点皮质醇达到顶峰。”He added that people who drink a coffee first thing in the morning, when their cortisol levels are naturally high, will soon find themselves needing to make their coffee stronger and stronger to get the desired effect.他补充道,人们早起第一件事就是喝咖啡,他们的皮质醇水平自然就高了,很快他们就会发现自己需要喝咖啡来达到所需的效果。However, he did accept that cortisol levels at different times of day vary from person to person meaning that the best time of day to drink a coffee also differs between people.不过,他确实赞同每个人在一天中的不同时间段所接受的皮质醇水平因人而异这个说法,即每天喝咖啡的最佳时间也因人而异。For example, people who get up very early may find their cortisol levels drop earlier than those of people who get up late.例如,起的很早的人可能会发现他们的皮质醇水平比那些起的晚的人的皮质醇水平下降的早。He says it helps turn energy into sugar to be utilised by cells in the body and that it also plays a role in controlling the body clock.他说,这有助于利用体内细胞把能量转化成糖,并且对控制人体生物钟也起作用。 /201311/266006

In 1848, George Foster, a reporter for The New York Tribune who spent his nights searching for good stories in the city’s seedier quarters, marveled at the way a bartender made a drink: “With his shirt sleeves rolled up, and his face in a fiery glow [he] seems to be pulling long ribbons of julep out of a tin cup.”1848年,《纽约论坛报》(The New York Tribune)的记者乔治·福斯特(George Foster)晚上在纽约脏乱的角落寻找好故事,一个酒保调制酒水的方式让他感到惊讶:“他把衬衣袖子卷起来,一脸兴奋,从一个锡质杯子中倒出冰镇薄荷酒,仿佛拉出长长丝带一样。”This is perhaps the first known description of a cocktail shaker. At the time, drinks were either stirred with long-handled spoons or tossed back and forth between two glass tumblers, which made for excellent showmanship but not great mixing (not to mention the mess). Eventually, says David Wondrich, a cocktail historian whose books include “Imbibe!” and “Punch,” someone “came up with the bright idea of sticking a tin cup on top of a glass and shaking with ice, which forms a seal. By the 1850s, they were making custom shakers entirely out of metal — sterling, alloy, brass and silver-plated.” The Parisian shaker, which was popular in Europe, was an elegant, urn-shaped variation. It comprised two pieces without a strainer and came onto the bar scene roughly 20 years later. “The Europeans had seen what we were doing,” Wondrich says, “and they thought it was dead cool. Everyone went crazy for American drinks, and they started importing the gear.”这可能是对鸡尾酒摇壶的最早描述。当时,酒水要么用长柄勺搅拌,要么用两个大玻璃杯来回倒,后者适合进行精的表演,但混合得并不好(更别提有时会弄得一团糟)。鸡尾酒史学家大卫·旺德里奇(David Wondrich)曾出版《饮酒!》(Imbibe!)和《潘趣酒》(Punch)等书。他说,最后有人“想出了一个聪明的主意,在玻璃杯口附一个锡杯,加冰摇晃,形成一个密封罐。到19世纪50年代,他们完全用金属制作定制摇壶,比如纯银、合金、黄铜和镀银。”当时欧洲盛行的巴黎摇壶呈优雅的瓮状。它由两部分组成,没有过滤器,大约在19世纪70年代出现在酒吧里。“欧洲人见到我们的做法,”旺德里奇说,“他们觉得它酷毙了。当时所有人都为美国酒水着迷,开始进口这种工具。”Throughout the 1870s, inventors sought to improve on the basic design. One featured a plunger system for mixing six tumblers at once; another had air vents. But none of these took. Then in 1884, Edward Hauck of Brooklyn patented the three-part metal shaker with a built-in strainer and a little top — a configuration that has remained essentially unchanged to this day. It came to be known as the cobbler shaker (the sherry cobbler, made of sherry, sugar, ice and orange or lemon, was among the most popular cocktails of the era). When stainless steel was invented in the early 20th century, it quickly became the shaker material of choice, an honor it continues to enjoy.19世纪70年代,发明家们一直努力在此基础设计上进行改进。其中一款有个活塞系统,一次能混合六杯;还有一款有透气孔。但它们都没有流行开来。1884年,布鲁克林的爱德华·豪克(Edward Hauck)为三件套金属摇壶申请了专利,它有个内置过滤器,还有个小盖子——直到现在总体上都是采用这种构造。它被称为寇伯乐摇壶(雪利寇伯乐[sherry cobbler]是用雪利酒、糖、冰、橙汁或柠檬汁做成的,是那个时代最流行的鸡尾酒之一)。20世纪初不锈钢出现后,很快成为制作摇壶的材料,直到现在也是首选材料。Although shakers remain a crucial part of the bartender’s kit, they can be overused. Martinis should be stirred — James Bond notwithstanding — as should old-fashioneds and manhattans. When it comes to newer-fangled additions to the cocktail list, it’s hard for even an expert to categorize. “People are shaking up all kinds of crazy stuff these days,” Wondrich says. “Sometimes I’ve watched, scratching my head, and hoped for a beer.”虽然摇壶仍是酒保用具的重要组成部分,但它们可能被滥用了。马提尼酒应该搅拌——詹姆斯·邦德(James Bond)除外——那些老式鸡尾酒和曼哈顿鸡尾酒也应该搅拌。但是新加入鸡尾酒单的一些饮品连专家都不知道该怎么归类。“如今人们摇晃各种疯狂的玩意,”旺德里奇说,“有时我看得一头雾水,心想还不如来杯啤酒呢。” /201409/331972


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