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Renewable energy in Scotland苏格兰的可再生能源之路Caution to the wind小心风力How independence might threaten one of the SNP’s favourite industries独立是否会威胁苏格兰民族党的柱产业之一Twenty minutes from the centre of Glasgow, the tussocky expanse of Eaglesham Moor is popular with dog-walkers and cyclists. These days they enjoy some 90km (56 miles) of paths that have been built on the moor around Whitelee, Europe’s second-biggest onshore wind farm, by the operator, ScottishPower. The site’s appeal is twofold: it is close to a large number of electricity-consuming homes; and a barren moor makes a less controversial place to scatter 215 turbines than, say, a picturesque Highland mountainside. Whitelee’s success—it has expanded twice since starting operations in —reflects the growth of Scotland’s renewable-energy industry as a whole.距格拉斯哥市中心20分钟路程的地方,有一处由伊格尔沙姆沼泽蔓延开的草丛一直备受遛者和自行车爱好者的追捧,而这些天他们又可以尽情漫步在新修建的96千米(56英米)长的沼间小径上,这些小路位于欧洲第二大陆上风电场怀特里附近,由苏格兰电力公司建造。选址在这里具有双重意义:它既靠近需要大量消耗电力的住宅区,同时与如画的苏格兰高地山腰相比,它贫瘠的沼泽地质也是分散安置215个风力涡轮机的不二选择。怀特里风电场的成功——自年开始运营至今已扩大了2倍规模,整个反映了苏格兰再生能源产业的发展。In 2011, for the first time, renewables were the second-biggest source of electricity generated in Scotland, accounting for 27%, behind nuclear power but ahead of coal and gas; in England, renewables generated only 6% of the total. Stand, buffeted, on Eaglesham Moor and you get an inkling of why: around a quarter of all Europe’s wind energy crosses Scotland’s land mass and surrounding waters. Factor in its potential in tidal and wave energy, plus an expertise in North Sea oil and gas that can be transferred to greener industries, and the notion of Scotland as a “Saudi Arabia of renewables” does not seem too far-fetched.2011年,可再生能源的发电量第一次占据了苏格兰总发电量的27%,成为苏格兰电力的第二大来源——位于核电之后,煤气电力之前;而在英格兰,可再生能源的发电量只占据了6%。如果你置身于伊格尔沙姆沼泽,也许就能对其原因略窥一二了,全欧洲的风能大约有四分之一是从苏格兰的陆地和周围水域穿过的。正是因为有它潜在的潮汐能和波能,再加上能将北海里的油气资源转移到绿色产业中的专利技术,苏格兰被称为“可再生能源中的沙特阿拉伯”也就不难理解了。The political climate helps, too. At Westminster, bickering within the coalition, especially over wind farms, has stymied progress over renewables. By contrast, the Scottish National Party (SNP), which runs Scotland’s devolved government, has spent years talking up the country’s renewable-energy prowess and British dependence on it. With some justification: Scotland exported 26% of the electricity it generated to the rest of Britain in 2011, and transfers to England are at a record high. The SNP touts energy as a central plank of an independent Scotland’s economy, should voters opt for separation in next year’s referendum.然而,政治气候也在其中起了推波助澜之用。在威斯敏斯特,联合政府内部经常有争吵,尤其关于风力发电厂。这已经阻碍了可再生能源产业的进步。相比之下,苏格兰民族党,也就是苏格兰自治政府的执政党,几年来一直致力于可再生能源技术的进步,以期获得英国政府对其电力输出的依赖。公平地来说:就2011年一年,苏格兰就向英国其他地区输入了其总电量的26%,达到了对英格兰输电量的最高值。如果在下一年的独立公投中苏格兰人赞成脱离英国独立的话,能源产业有望成为苏格兰独立经济体的核心产业。Alex Salmond, the first minister, vows that Scotland will generate the equivalent of 100% of its electricity needs from renewable sources by 2020. That pledge might be tough to meet should oil and gas prices fall, making renewables look costlier; but his administration has at least backed his words with action. Within the devolved arrangements, planning decisions are Scotland’s main lever over energy policy. Since 2007, when Mr Salmond first took office, his ministers have approved many more applications for large wind farms (ie, those with a generating capacity of over 50MW) than the Westminster government has for England and Wales. Foreign firms have noticed this enthusiasm for the sector: Areva, Gamesa and Samsung have all said they will open factories making kit for offshore turbines in Scotland.苏格兰首席部长萨尔蒙德(Alex Salmond)许诺,到2020年苏格兰有望实现电力完全无碳化。但如果油气价格下跌,可再生能源随之上涨,这一承诺便很难实现。不过,萨尔蒙德当局政府仍为实现这一目标付诸实践。在任期间,苏格兰将谋划决策作为控制能源政策的主要手段。自2007年萨尔蒙德先生第一次上台起,当局政府通过了大量的大型风力发电厂的申请(例如,产能功率大于50MW),远远超过了威斯敏斯特政府供给给英格兰和威尔士的发电厂数量。苏格兰政府对能源板块的大力扶持吸引了全球许多知名企业关注:法国的阿海珐集团、西班牙的歌美飒公司以及韩国的三星公司已经决定在苏格兰开设工厂建设海上发电基地。But external factors have helped, too. In particular, a European Union directive requires Britain to derive 15% of its energy demand from renewables by 2020. Generators of such energy get subsidies from a Westminster scheme funded by consumers throughout Britain. That is a major boon to Scotland’s renewables industry. It is also, potentially, the cause of its biggest worry—one among several.其中同样也有外部作用,尤其是欧盟促进可再生能源使用指令,其要求到2020年,英国必须有15%的电力来源于可再生能源。为此,英国制定由消费者投资的威斯敏斯特计划,向可再生能源发电厂颁发特殊津贴。这对也的确是一个促进苏格兰的可再生能源产业发展的重大利好消息。然而,这也产生了一个潜在的问题——几个中最严重的问题。Not everyone is as sanguine about wind farms as the ramblers on Eaglesham Moor. Elsewhere, the proliferating turbines are contentious. As in England, the two strands of environmentalism—the push for green energy and the desire to keep nature pristine—still conflict. Moreover, for most other sites, transmission costs are high. National Grid, which operates the British transmission system, charges electricity generators according to their location relative to demand; Scotland’s windiest spots tend to be remote. Meanwhile, as Professor Paul Younger of Glasgow University points out, Scotland still needs to plug an impending gap in its supply of “baseload” energy (power that is available day and night, regardless of the weather). Buying more gas is the likeliest solution对于风力发电厂,不是每一个人都如同伊格尔沙姆的漫游者一样乐观。在其他地方,涡轮机数量的增加是备受争议的。在英格兰,两派环境保护论仍然争论不休——一方希望推动绿色能源发展,另一方则希望保持自然的纯洁性。此外,对大多数其他地方来说,输电费用也很昂贵。负责英国电力运输的国家电网,根据电厂与需求地的远近来收取费用;而苏格兰风力最强点则位置偏远。同时,正如格拉斯哥大学的Paul Younger教授所说,弥补“基本装载”能源的供给仍是苏格兰的当务之急(指无论天气好坏,白天晚上都能利用的能量)。要解决这个问题,购买更多的天然气是最优选择。Beggar they neighbour乞求他们的邻居But, despite the SNP’s enthusiasm for both, the biggest shadow over Scotland’s renewables industry is cast by independence. A separated Scotland would probably remain part of the same British energy market: all sides benefit from a system that allows the easy transmission of electricity from England’s power stations to Scotland when the winds are calm up north, and from Scotland’s wind farms to the south on days when they have excess capacity.但是,尽管苏格兰民族党既大力扶持可再生能源产业,又持独立,独立问题还是使苏格兰的可再生能源产业笼罩在大片的阴影之下的元凶。脱离英国的苏格兰可能还会保留部分英国能源市场:要想双方实现共赢,只有建立一个这样的系统才有可能,当北部无风时,则允许由英格兰发电站向苏格兰自由运输电力,当北部风电厂发电量过剩时,就从北部运往南部。The worry is the impact that independence might have on how Britain applies that EU directive. At the moment, no one knows exactly what that will be; but Britain’s government might well prefer to invest in its own renewables industry rather than subsidising Scotland’s, or to buy cheap renewable energy from elsewhere in Europe. Scotland’s competitively priced onshore-wind power would probably find a buyer, but more expensive offshore, tidal and wave energy could be a harder sell.担忧的是,若苏格兰脱离了英国而独立,那么英国要如何实现欧盟促进可再生能源使用指令所指定的指标?到那个时候,没有人会知道将会变成什么样;但是英国政府也许宁愿加大对本国可再生能源产业的投资,也不会向苏格兰寻求帮助,或者从欧洲其他地方购买廉价的可再生能源。而苏格兰的陆上风能由于价格具有竞争优势也许容易找到买家,不过更为昂贵的近海风能、潮汐能以及波能就很难卖出了。Fergus Ewing, Scotland’s energy minister, suggests that England, which itself faces an energy shortfall, will need Scottish power regardless: “England will need Scottish energy to keep the lights on by 2015,” he says. But it would be ironic if independence were to undermine one of the SNP’s flagship industries.苏格兰的能源部长费格斯·尤因 (Fergus Ewing)指出,面临的能源短缺的英格兰无论怎样都会需要苏格兰的能源:“英格兰一直到2015年都需要来自苏格兰的能源把灯点亮,”他说道。如果因为独立而破坏了苏格兰的柱产业之一,可真是令人啼笑皆非。翻译:朱大素译文属译生译世201610/470647It is also the largest green turtle breeding ground in the world. 这里还是世界上最大的绿海龟繁殖地。Having mated ashore, thousands of females pull themselves up the beach to lay their eggs. 它们在浅海交配,成千上万只雌海龟游到岸边产卵。 The record is 26,000 turtles in a single night. 一晚上就有多达26000只海龟。They turn a remote desert island into a clowded frenzied nocturnal activity.它们把一个偏僻荒芜的小岛变成了狂热喧闹的夜店。Wind and waves have created an island that for a amoment at least has just right conditions to support this incredible spectacle. 海风和海浪造就了这个岛屿,至少在这一刻,这里才能承载这种壮观的景象。But the island still changes every year, every season, and the reef itself never stays the same for long. 岛屿仍然在变,每一年,每一季,珊瑚礁也在不停的变。Twice a day, life along the length of the Great Barrier Reef has to cope with complete upheaval, as the rhythm of the moon causes tides to flood and drain the reef.一天2次,大堡礁海岸线沿岸的生命不得不面对彻头彻尾的巨变,因为月亮周期的变化使得潮涨潮落。201410/335260

For Peggy Orenstein, an American journalist, these are symptoms of a larger and more pernicious problem: “the pressure on young women to reduce their worth to their bodies and to see those bodies as a collection of parts that exist for others pleasure”. In “Girls amp; Sex”, a wise and sharply argued look at how girls are navigating “the complicated new landscape” of sex and sexuality, Ms Orenstein notes that unlike past feminists, who often protested against their sexual objectification, many of todays young women claim to find it empowering. “There are few times that I feel more confident about my body than when I wear a crop top and my boobs are showing and my legs are showing,” says Holly, a college student. “I never feel more liberated.”对于佩吉·沃伦斯坦一个美国记者来说,这些都是更大更具危害性问题的表现—“年轻的女孩儿背负着一定的压力,她们将自己的价值体现仅限于自己的身体且视自己的身体为满足别人乐趣的一部分”。《女孩与性》讲述了女孩儿如何在性别和性相关“这个复杂的新领域”定位,见解独到。沃伦斯坦还提到,现在很多年轻女性声称性物化给了她们自主权,而不是像过去的女性那样反对性物化。大学生霍莉说道:“当我穿露脐装秀胸秀腿的时候我觉得很自信,无拘无束,其他时间很少有这种感觉。”This hardly seems like progress, particularly when only certain bodies, those that are sexy to men, are allowed to be a source of pride. (Even Meghan Trainors body-positive anthem, “All About That Bass”, celebrates fuller bodies because “boys, they like a little more booty to hold at night.”) Yet both authors argue that girls are embracing their own sexualisation in part because they are living in a culture that prioritises women being “hot”. Just listen to Donald Trump, Americas Republican presidential front-runner, or try to find a female news presenter wearing a dress with sleeves.这看起来并不像是进步,尤其是当特定的身材—那些男性觉得性感的身材,可以被当作是自豪感的来源的时候。(即使梅根·特雷纳的那首正能量满满的身材颂歌“All About That Bass”赞美了更丰满的身材,理由是“男孩们晚上更喜欢肥硕的屁屁(此处为歌词)”)然而作家们还是声称女孩子们在某种程度上还是喜欢自己的性化,因为她们生活在优待身材“火辣”的女性的文化中。听听美国共和党总统竞选人唐纳德·特朗普说的吧(特朗普在竞选中攻击希拉里,更是搬出希拉里的丈夫、前总统克林顿来反击她的“性别歧视”批评。其本人有性别歧视倾向),或者试着找找那些穿长袖裙的新闻女主播吧。Both books also blame the “ever-broadening influence of porn”. The internet has made pornography more widely available than ever before. Few view it as realistic, but many consult it as a guide—which makes sense in a country where parents rarely talk candidly about sex with their children, especially their daughters, and few schools fill the gap. Educators commonly advocate abstinence and only 13 states require that sex education even be medically accurate.两本书也批评了“色情文学越来越广的影响力”。互联网使得色情书籍比以前更容易获得。在一个父母很少和孩子特别是女孩儿开诚布公地谈论性而且很少有学校会有相关教育的国家,很少有人正视互联网对色情书籍可获得性的事实,但是又有很多人视互联网为指南。教育者们一般只是提倡节欲,而且只有13个国家会要求医学上较为准确的性教育。The problem is that much of this pornography is not only explicit but also violent, which can influence expectations. A study of Canadian teenagers found a correlation between consuming pornography and believing it is okay to hold a girl down for forced sex. Pornography also tends to present womens sexuality as something that exists primarily for the benefit of men. Ms Orenstein notes that most of the young women she interviewed had removed all of their pubic hair since they were about 14 in order to cater to the fickle, porn-bred tastes of young men. They also tended to prioritise their partners physical pleasure over their own.问题是很多色情文学直接,暴力,这些会影响他们的未来。一项关于加拿大青少年的调查研究发现消费色情文学与认为可以击倒女生并对其施暴这样的观点存在着一定的联系。而且色情文学倾向于将女性的性欲描述为主要为满足男性而存在的一种事物。沃伦斯坦提到她采访的很多年轻女性14岁左右就去除了阴毛以迎合那些浮躁的有着色情口味的年轻男人。他们还倾向于更看重另一半身材带来的欢愉而非他们自己的。For anyone raising a daughter, these books do not make for easy ing. Expect plenty of stories about binge drinking, random hookups, oral sex and misjudged sexting. Intellectually, many young women believe they can achieve whatever they set their minds to, but most still struggle to obey a sexual double-standard that gives them little room between being chided as “sluts” or “prudes”. As one teenage girl tells Ms Orenstein, “Usually the opposite of a negative is a positive, but in this case its two negatives. So what are you supposed to do?”对于那些有女儿要抚养的家长来说,这些书籍并不容易阅读。有很多关于酗酒、随机配对、口交和乱性的故事。理性地说,很多年轻女性认为对她们想要的东西志在必得,但是大多数人还是会挣扎着遵循性别上的双重标准——这使得她们被批为“”和“故作正经的绿茶婊”,因此她们在这两者之间受到了很大的限制。就像一个青少年女孩告诉沃伦斯坦的那样,“消极的反义通常是积极,但是在这个方面是两个消极。所以你还能怎么做呢?” 翻译:李晶晶amp;周玮 校对:赵容 译文属译生译世 /201604/438286

Because of the Flint water crisis, the U.S. EPA wants more transparency about where the nations lead lines are. Specifically, the EPA wants to know how many lead service lines there still are underground, and they want to know exactly where they are. As we reported Tuesday, many Michigan cities do not know this basic information, its not just Flint.The EPA also wants water systems to post the results from water tests to prove cities are in compliance with the Lead and Copper Rule.This week, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality gave the feds an update on these requests.In a letter to the EPA, MDEQ officials say theyre closing some well-known loopholes in the way many Michigan cities test for lead. Specifically, theyre recommending cities use large-mouthed water bottles to collect water samples and theyre getting rid of a recommendation to flush water lines for a few minutes before it sits overnight for sampling the next morning.Theyre hiring a corrosion control treatment specialist, to help communities who need technical expertise. MDEQ is also asking cities to prove theyre testing at the homes theyre supposed to; these are typically homes with lead service lines or lead solder.Before the Flint water crisis, MDEQ used to just trust cities when they said theyre testing the highest risk homes. That came back to haunt them in Flint, because the city was not testing the right homes.The EPAs request for increased transparency for the public is proving to be more ;controversial.;The EPA maintains cities should aly know where and how many lead lines they have. But the agencys request goes further than that. The EPA would love to see cities post this information online: how many lead lines there are in a city, a map of where they are, even the results from those individual high risk homes where testing is done once every few years.MDEQ says it is aly hard for cities to get enough people living in these higher risk homes to do this testing. Theres no forcing them. These people volunteer. MDEQ says that posting the test results from those homes online, in such a public way, ;may result in further difficulty getting residents to participate in the sampling.;The state isnt the only one concerned about peoples privacy. Many water system operators weve talked to over the past few weeks said the same thing.Jeff Castro, the director of Ypsilanti Community Utilities Authority, brought this up. He says residents should be able to find the make up of their own service line. But in Ypsilanti, there are only about three dozen lead lines left.;I feel pretty strongly that thats information for our customers only. I dont think theres any need to apply three dozen customers online so 25,000 other customers can see where they dont want their children to play at or a house they dont want to buy,; Castro said.Castro says if they had way more lead lines or none at all hed be more comfortable putting this information on the web, because it wouldnt single certain homes out as badly. If the EPA mandates that the information be posted, hed comply. But for now, thats not something hes willing to do.Privacy isnt the only concern. Some people were worried about security; there was talk of potential terrorists using water system maps to do harm. Others were worried about property values. One guy worried that someone could make a quick buck if they had a list of homes with lead service lines and went around scaring them into spending thousands of dollars to replace the line.Still, others arent that worried at all.Art Krueger supervises Traverse Citys water treatment plant. He says they aly have a digital map of their water system (to his knowledge, Traverse City doesnt have any lead service lines on city property - although there could be some on private property). He says it wouldnt be that hard for them to post the information online. He understands some people might have privacy concerns, but he says you could get ahold of the lead test results if you filed a public records request.;Its public information likely anyway. If someone wanted to really find out what addresses we were testing, correspondence is going back and forth to the DEQ; they could probably get a copy of those addresses.;Regulators and operators ar0e trying to hash out a middle ground where theres increased transparency without compromising too much privacy. That said, this business of posting information online, this is all a request from EPA. It is not a mandate. Changes in federal law are coming next year, but its not clear this increased transparency will be a part of that.201604/436151

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