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楼主:医苑门户 时间:2019年08月24日 13:40:33 点击:0 回复:0
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TED演讲集 那些匪夷所思的新奇思想201609/463943Im putting my wilderness survival skills to the test in a man-made underground labyrinth.我将我的野外生存技能运用在 这个人造的地下迷宫Theres another tunnel leading off this way.这里有另一个隧道Theres putrid sewage up to my waist,and I need to be careful where I put my feet.腐臭的污水深及腰部 我需要小心下脚之处Theres a step here.Its shallower here,but the stench of sewage is still overpowering.这儿有个台阶 这儿更昏暗了 但污水的恶臭依然排山倒海Stinks. It smells like a sewer here.太臭了 闻起来像是下水道的味道Sewers are like underground highways linking urban areas,so theyre good for getting from place to place.下水道就像是连接都市的地下高速公路 所以这是个很好的逃生途径But there are some serious drawbacks.但是也有一些严重的缺点Bacteria from human excrement can actually get into your body through so many different ways.事实上人类粪便中的细菌 可以通过不同方式进入你的体内You know, not only through cuts and grazes,but also actually through your nose and your mouth just by breathing it in.你知道 不仅通过割伤和擦伤 还会通过鼻子和嘴巴的呼吸进入身体Diseases like cholera and typhoid can be carried in sewage bacteria,污水细菌可以携带霍乱和伤寒这样的疾病so I want to limit my exposure as much as possible.所以我要尽量少将自己暴露在这种环境下Its also worth keeping the torch low, actually.事实上保持火把处在低处也是很必要的Excrements gonna give off methane,and thats lighter than air,粪便会释放出甲烷 甲烷比空气轻 so its gonna rise, and you often get trapped pockets of it.And methanes highly explosive.会升起 你常常会身陷其中 而且甲烷是高度爆炸性的物质Poisonous gases like ammonia and hydrogen sulfide may also be present,so I dont want to hang around.氨和硫化氢等有毒气体也会存在 所以我可不想到处闲逛But these tunnels run for miles in all directions,and exits are few and far between.但是这些隧道西面八方绵延数英里 出口却寥寥可数Lets go this way.I can feel a cold airflow,and Im gonna follow it.我们走这边 我能感觉到一股冷空气 我要顺着它走Theres also a light source coming from this side tunnel.那儿还有一丝光源从这边的隧道透过来201610/471468But right when Rockefeller sees the future of the oil industry...就在洛克菲勒看清了石油工业的未来时… No man could earn a million dollars honestly.没人能够诚实地赚到一百万美元An outside threat emerges.外部威胁出现了 I will tear down these trusts!我要毁掉这些托拉斯Who could destroy everything he and his rivals have built.这将有可能摧毁他和他的对手们 所建立起来的帝国 Do you hear me Carnegie?听到了吗 卡内基Do you hear me Rockefeller?听到了吗 洛克菲勒 As the 20th century approaches.随着二十世纪的临近J.P. Morgan and John Rockefeller have been locked in a battle pitting electricity against kerosene.J·P·根和约翰·洛克菲勒陷入了电同煤油的战争之中 Their rival, Andrew Carnegie, has stayed out of the fray.他们的对手安德鲁·卡内基则没有参与这场争夺Hes been quietly building his steel empire bigger than ever.他静静建立起了一个比任何时候都更强大的钢铁帝国 Including landing lucrative contracts with the U.S. Navy to provide steel for warships.包括获得利润丰厚的美国海军战舰用钢合同Making him one of the countrys first defense contractors.这也让他成为了国内第一个国防契约获得者 The great business icons its not that they were worth hundreds of millions, or billions, or trillions of dollars, its that they moved society forward.这些伟大的商业人物关键并不在于他们价值数亿 数十亿 甚至数万亿美元 而在于他们推动了社会进步Whatever their motivations, whatever it was, they being here and their lust for success, for power, for money, for fame moved us forward.无论动机是什么 他们的存在以及他们对成功 权力 金钱 名声的欲望让我们能够前进 201606/449745【新闻精讲】Pollinators Shape Plants to Their PreferenceHoneybees are the charismatic microfauna of the pollination world. But flies, bumblebees, butterflies and moths—they all pollinate, too. With varying degrees of success. The poorer ones are technically referred to as inefficient pollinators. ;Those that do visit but transfer very little pollen in their visit.; Florian Schiestl, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Zurich.Schiestl and his colleague grew field mustard plants, and exposed them to two types of pollinators: efficient bumblebees and inefficient hoverflies. After just 11 generations, they found that the plants visited by bumblebees were taller, twice as fragrant, and reflected more UV light—a visual signal for bees. And those factors made the progeny even more attractive to bumblebees at the end of the experiment: a sign the plants had adapted to their pollinators preferences.But the plants that got a fly-by from the flies? They grew shorter. Less fragrant. And actually adapted to do more self-pollination. Because hoverflies are lousy pollinators. The study is in the journal Nature Communications. [Daniel D. L. Gervasi and Florian P. Schiestl, Real-time divergent evolution in plants driven by pollinators]So with honeybees in peril, what happens if we lose them? “This will trigger an evolutionary response in the plants. For example, if flies take over as more important pollinators, as they used to be in the past, then very likely well have some evolutionary change going on.;And if the change is self-pollination, that could be trouble. ;Self-pollination leads to reduction of genetic variability in the population, and this can be a problem for the plants, because they have a reduced ability to evolve resistance against diseases.; Meaning that if we lose the pollinators, it’s the plants genomes that may go to seed.【视频讲解】Honeybees are the charismatic micro-fauna of the pollination world. But flies, bumblebees, butterflies and moths—they all pollinate, too.蜜蜂是传粉者世界中的最具魅力的小动物群,但是苍蝇,大黄蜂,蝴蝶和飞蛾也会传粉Charismatic 有魅力的例:With her striking looks and charismatic personality, she was noticed far and wide.她以出众的相貌和富有魅力的个性闻名遐迩。Micro-fauna 微动物群the flora and fauna of the African jungle.…非洲丛林的植物群和动物群。Bumble1. 咕咕哝哝; 笨手笨脚例:he bumbled his way through his speech2. 发嗡嗡声 BumblebeeMoth 飞蛾With varying degrees of success. The poorer ones are technically referred to as inefficient pollinators.成功授粉效率是不同的。成功率比较低是在学术上称之为“低效授粉者”Technically专业的 (语言)例:The technical term for sunburn is erythema.晒斑的专业术语是红斑。Pollinate给#8226;#8226;#8226;传授花粉例:Many of the indigenous insects are needed to pollinate the local plants.需要很多种土生昆虫给当地植物授粉。很容易搞混乱的单词 Pollutant;Those that do visit but transfer very little pollen in their visit.; Florian Schiestl, an evolutionary biologist at the University of Zurich.苏黎世大学进化生物学家, Florian Schiestl说,这钟低效传粉者会经常采花但是很少传粉。Transfer转移(If you transfer something or someone from one place to another, or they transfer from one place to another, they go from the first place to the second.)例:Arrange for the transfer of medical records to your new doctor.安排把医疗记录转给你的新医生。Those低效传粉者Schiestl and his colleague grew field mustard plants, and exposed them to two types of pollinators: efficient bumblebees and inefficient hoverflies.Schiestl和他同事种植芥末,并且只让这些植物接触两种授粉者:高效蜜蜂和低效食蚜虻Mustard1. 芥末2. 未能达到要求; 不如所期待地那么好例:He just wasnt a good student. He wasnt cutting the mustard and we let him go.他不是什么好学生。不合格,我们就让他走了。Hoverfly食蚜虻是指雙翅目(Diptera)食蚜虻科. (Syrphidae)中的一群昆蟲,其幼蟲生活在蚜. 蟲群當中,是蚜蟲的捕食性天敵After just 11 generations, they found that the plants visited by bumblebees were taller, twice as fragrant, and reflected more UV light—a visual signal for bees.在经过11代以后,他们发现,被蜜蜂光顾的植物更高,更香,而且能反射更多的紫外线,这对于蜜蜂来说是明显的视觉信号Fragrant芳香的例:...fragrant oils and perfumes.…香精油和香水。Reflect反射例:The sun reflected off the snow-covered mountains.阳光从被雪覆盖的山峦反射回来。And those factors made the progeny even more attractive to bumblebees at the end of the experiment: a sign the plants had adapted to their pollinators preferences.这些因素使得植物的后代对于蜜蜂更加有吸引力,这是植物适应传粉者的偏好Progeny(人的)后裔; (动物的)后代例:...the freed slaves and their progeny....被释放的奴隶和他们的后代。Preference偏爱例:It upset her when men revealed a preference for her sister.当男人们显露出偏爱她的时候,她很不高兴。But the plants that got a fly-by from the flies? They grew shorter. Less fragrant. And actually adapted to do more self-pollination. Because hoverflies are lousy pollinators. The study is in the journal Nature Communications.但是这些得到食蚜虻的植物如何呢?他们长的更低,而且不香。实际上,适应了更多的自花传粉。实际上适应更多的自花传粉。因为食蚜虻是非常糟糕的传粉者。这项研究发表在《自然》杂志fly-by 低空飞行Lousy1. 糟糕的At Billys Café, the is limited and the food is lousy.比利餐馆饭菜品种有限,质量也很糟。2. 极不舒的例:I wasnt actually sick but I felt lousy.我其实没有生病,但感觉很不舒。So with honeybees in peril, what happens if we lose them? “This will trigger an evolutionary response in the plants.假如蜜蜂处于濒危甚至灭绝,那么后果是什么呢?肯定要对于至于产生进化性反应Peril极大危险(Perils are great dangers.)In spite of great peril, I have survived.尽管危险巨大,我还是活了下来。Trigger引起(原本是扳机的意思)例:...the incident which triggered the outbreak of the First World War.…引起第一次世界大战爆发的事件。For example, if flies take over as more important pollinators, as they used to be in the past, then very likely well have some evolutionary change going on.;比如说,假设,如过去一般,苍蝇成为了主要传粉者,然后,最有可能产生持续的进化性变化Take over1. 接管 (公司)例:Im going to take over the company one day.我总有一天会接管这家公司。2. 取代 replaceCars gradually took over from horses.汽车逐渐取代了马。And if the change is self-pollination, that could be trouble. ;Self-pollination leads to reduction of genetic variability in the population, and this can be a problem for the plants, because they have a reduced ability to evolve resistance against diseases.;假如这种进化成了自花传粉,那么就麻烦了。自花传粉导致基因多样性减少,对于植物本身来说,也是噩耗。因为他们减少抵抗疾病的能力Meaning that if we lose the pollinators, it’s the plants genomes that may go to seed.也意味着,如果失去传粉者,植物基因组将退化Resistance 抵抗例:A CBS correspondent in Colombo says the troops are encountering stiff resistance.哥伦比亚广播公司驻科伦坡的一名记者报道说,军队正遭遇顽强的抵抗。go to seed 退化I almost didnt recognize John. Hes really gone to seed since his wife left him.201704/504808Its the clothes, not the celebrity, and not the spectacle.最重要的是衣不是那些名人或是时装秀。Its as true today as it ever was. He who seeks beauty...Will find it.他一直是这样的。寻找美的存在也将找到它。We cannot base New York Citys entire economy...on Wall Street and real estate.我们不能把整个纽约的经济都建立在华尔街和房地产商身上。Its a rally to save, or protect, the garment industry from disappearing.他们在努力拯救和保护这个正在退步的政府。But Im afraid its too late.不过我觉得有点晚了。All the jobbers are gone. Theyve all more or less moved out.这些批发商都走了。90-95% of the clothes Americans wear...are made outside of America.90~95%美国人穿的衣都不是在美国做的。Michael!Michael。Mr. Cunningham, they would like you up there.Cunningham先生,他们希望你到那边去。How are you? -Great. Good.You? -Good to see you.近来如何?-很好,很好。你呢?-很高兴见到你。Im hanging out behind the scenes.我不在那儿干了。I think Ill take one of those pea coats. Made in America?我觉得那我可以要一件这样的外套…美国制造么?Get y for the best part of the pea coat.来看看这衣最好的地方。Cashmere and neoprene. -Oh, too rich for me.羊绒和氯丁橡胶。-哦,这对我太奢侈了。David Wolfson is one of the last...;jobbers;? What do you call yourself, David?David Wolfson大概是这儿的最后一个批发商或者你自己怎么称呼?Oh, contractor. -Contractor. Excuse me. Ill get it straight.哦,承包商。-承包商…抱歉,我理解错了。There were thousands of them 30 years ago, and theres now maybe 45.大概三十年前,这儿有很多批发商现在…大概只剩45家了。Oh, look at this.哦,看这边。201609/460808

21 activists were arrested on Saturday for blocking freight trains in Washington that transport oil and coal in the Northwest. 周六,华盛顿的21名活动分子因阻碍货运火车在西北地区运输石油和煤炭而被捕。The Fossil Fuel Resistance Network blocked the tracks for about three hours before police arrested 21 people who refused to leave. 化石燃料阻碍网络封锁轨道约3个小时,直至警方逮捕21名拒绝离开者。This was the groups first protest. 这是该组织的第一次抗议。About 100 demonstrators participated in the event altogether, some holding signs that said, ;I stand against oil trains.; 大约100名示威者参加了这一事件,一些人拿着标语说:“我抵抗石油列车。”Five freight trains were delayed due to the protest, but they were able to move eventually.由于抗议,五列货运火车晚点了,但最终恢复了运行。译文属。 /201606/450163

In the Britain of King William III,turning up late could get you killed.在威廉三世统治时期的英国 迟到可是会掉脑袋的The busniess of state was meant to run like clockwork.国事的处理都须如时钟般精准Time was money. Money was power.时间即金钱 金钱即权力In the Highlands of Scotland, though,而在苏格兰高地the timeless tradition of the clans still ruled.毫无时间观念的部落仍占据主导To Williams annoyance,some clans remained obstinately loyal to his predecessor,令威廉三世不悦的是 有些部落仍一意孤行效忠他的前任James II,the Stuart king driven out in 1688.詹姆斯二世 那位1688年时被驱逐的斯图亚特国王Even worse, those Jacobites had won a short-lived victory over Williams troops at the Battle of Killiecrankie.更可恨的是 詹姆斯党人 在基莱战役中击败了他的军队 迎得了短暂的胜利Williams right-hand man in Scotland, the Lord Advocate,威廉在苏格兰的得力助手 苏格兰检察总长believed it was high time to teach the clans a lesson in loyalty.相信是时候教教这些部落何为忠诚了The chiefs were given a deadline to pledge an oath of allegiance January 1st, 1692.部落首领被要求向他们的君主宣誓效忠 最后期限是1692年1月1日Acknowledge William as your lawful king.承认威廉三世登上皇位的合法性Those who make the pledge will be rewarded,those who dont, punished.顺王者昌 逆王者亡The Chief of the MacDonald clan of Glencoe missed his appointment by five days.而格伦科的麦克唐纳部落首领 比最后期限晚到了五日 /201705/508074

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