2019年12月13日 08:50:30|来源:国际在线|编辑:医苑卫生
Andy Grove, who died on Monday at 79, was not one of the technology industry’s household names. But the chemical engineer who turned Intel from a brilliant science project into the first industrial giant of the personal computing era has long been guaranteed a revered place in Silicon Valley lore. 安迪#8226;格罗夫(Andy Grove)于本周一逝世,享年79岁。格罗夫并非科技业家喻户晓的名人之一。但这位化学工程师让英特尔(Intel)从一个卓越的科学项目转变为个人计算机时代的首个行业巨头,一直在硅谷传说中享有尊崇地位。 Grove, who joined Intel in 1968, rose to become chief executive at the peak of its PC industry power, from 1987-98, and served as chairman until 2004. 格罗夫在1968年加入英特尔,在1987年至1998年英特尔在个人计算机行业的影响力达到巅峰时担任首席执行官,并担任董事长直至2004年。 He did as much as almost anyone to shape the computing world that has emerged over the past half century — and, in the process, to define the business culture that has taken such a powerful grip on modern management thinking. 他对塑造成长于过去半个世纪的计算机世界所做的贡献不亚于任何人,并且在这个过程中定义了深谙现代管理思想的企业文化。 His personal idiosyncrasies, insecurities and passions coalesced into a powerful brew. They included an iconoclastic disregard for the normal conventions of business and a win-at-all-costs determination; a relentless addiction to pre-emptive corporate reinvention and the merits of moving fast; a taste for gutsy, bet-the-farm risks; and an eye for the kind of industry domination that new digital technologies made possible. 他的个人特质、不安全感和热情汇聚成了强大的力量。他有着对企业常规惊世骇俗的蔑视,以及不惜代价获胜的决心;他极度痴迷于对企业进行先发制人的改造,并且行动迅速;他勇于孤注一掷地冒险;他渴望利用新的数字科技来获取行业主导地位。 “Many of the senior statesmen in the Valley worked for him, many of the [venture capitalists] worked for him,” says David Yoffie, an Intel director from the late 1980s and a professor at Harvard Business School. “In some sense, his career was the story of Silicon Valley.” 从上世纪80年代末就担任英特尔董事的哈佛商学院(Harvard Business School)教授戴维#8226;约菲(David Yoffie)表示:“硅谷的许多资深人士都曾为他工作过,许多(风险资本家)也为他工作过。从某种意义上说,他的职业生涯就是硅谷的故事。” Grove was the classic outsider who found himself in the computing world that came to life in the 1960s. He was born András Gróf in Hungary on September 2 1936. His father was conscripted into a Jewish labour battalion during the second world war while he and his mother moved around Hungary to avoid detention and the fate that befell many Hungarian Jews who were rounded up and sent to Auschwitz. 格罗夫是一个典型的外来者,在上世纪60年代计算机世界诞生时,便投身其中。他于1936年9月2日出生于匈牙利,原名安德拉什#8226;格罗夫(András Gróf)。他父亲在二战期间被征到犹太人劳工营,而他和母亲辗转于匈牙利各地以免遭到拘捕,像许多匈牙利犹太人那样被抓起来送往奥斯维辛集中营(Auschwitz)。 It was after the Hungarian uprising of 1956 was brutally suppressed by the Soviet Union that Grove fled the country, escaping by foot into Austria and then a new life in the US. 正是在1956年匈牙利起义被苏联残酷镇压之后,格罗夫逃离了匈牙利,徒步逃到奥地利,随后到达美国,开始了新生活。 He never went back. Instead, arriving in Silicon Valley at the start of the 1960s, he was catapulted into a future that he helped to invent. 他从未再回去过。实际上,在上世纪60年代初抵达硅谷之后,他就投身于一个自己参与创造的未来。 Grove was one of the great business communicators, despite a thick accent that remained with him and a hearing impediment from early in life. 格罗夫是伟大的商业沟通者之一,尽管他一直带着浓重的口音,而且从早年起就有听力障碍。 He also translated his thinking into some of the most influential management books of the late 20th century. One — Only the Paranoid Survive — became a mantra not just for Grove but for the whole of Silicon Valley, where the threat of being disrupted by the next new upstart engendered persistent anxiety. 他还将自己的想法写成书籍,其中一些成为20世纪末最具影响力的管理类书籍。其中的《只有偏执狂才能生存》(Only The Paranoid Survive)不仅是格罗夫的理念,而且还成为了整个硅谷的理念——在硅谷,被下一个新秀企业颠覆的威胁让人持续陷入焦虑。 As he wrote in the opening lines: “The more successful you are, the more people want a chunk of your business and then another chunk and then another until there is nothing left.” Many managers may sense this truism. Few have the guts to do something about it. 正如他在该书的开篇所写:“你越成功,就有越多的人想抢走你的一部分生意,再抢走一部分,直到你一无所有。”许多经理人可能觉得这是老生常谈。但很少有人有勇气就此做些什么。 The paranoia was not just for show. “I sat in many, many meetings with Andy while he looked at the worst outcome, and what could possibly go wrong,” says Mr Yoffie. He adds that it was this refusal to rest on past success — and the ability to see how the various pieces of the business world would fall into place — that enabled Grove to take the pre-emptive actions needed to put Intel at the top of its industry. 这种偏执不仅仅是为了秀给别人看。“我与安迪开过很多很多次会,他会考虑最糟糕的结果,以及哪里可能出错,”约菲说道。他补充说,正是由于格罗夫拒绝停留在过去的成功,并且能够看清商业世界拼图中的不同碎片将如何落到正确的位置,所以他能够采取让英特尔走上行业巅峰所需的先发制人的措施。 Perhaps the most significant was Grove’s determination to make Intel the sole source for the new PC microprocessors, rather than just one of several suppliers — a move that was to give the company unassailable economies of scale and cement its lead. 或许最为重要的是格罗夫决心让英特尔成为新的个人电脑微处理器的唯一供应商,而不是几家供应商之一,此举令该公司获得无懈可击的规模经济并得以巩固其领先地位。 IBM, at the time its biggest customer and the originator of the PC, was against the move. But Grove remained firm and the rapid emergence of a new industry, led by Compaq Computer, provided a y market. IBM’s grip on the computing world was broken and Intel — along with Microsoft — had turned itself into one of the tech industry’s dominant monopolists. 当时英特尔最大客户、个人电脑鼻祖IBM反对此举。但格罗夫意志坚定,由康柏电脑(Compaq Computer)率领的新行业的迅速崛起提供了一个现成的市场。IBM对计算领域的控制被攻破,英特尔(与微软(Microsoft)一道)把自己变成了科技行业占主导地位的垄断者之一。 Grove showed a similar determination when, assailed by competition from Japan, he decided to abandon memory chips, the company’s original business, to bet everything on microprocessors. 在遭遇来自日本的竞争之际,格罗夫显示出了类似的决心,他决定放弃内存芯片业务(这是该公司的原始业务),全盘押注于微处理器。 But if he got the big strategic decisions right, Grove was as well known for a relentless attention to detail and a mercilessly demanding management style. Hired as Intel’s first employee by founders Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce, it was his ability to get things done that made him invaluable. 但除了做出正确的重大战略决策,让格罗夫出名的还有他对细节的强烈关注以及毫不留情的苛刻管理风格。他是英特尔创始人戈登#8226;尔(Gordon Moore)和罗伯特#8226;诺伊斯(Robert Noyce)聘用的该公司第一位员工,正是他把事情做成的能力使他成为无价的人才。 He had followed a postgraduate degree at the University of California, Berkeley with a job as a research scientist at Fairchild Semiconductor, Silicon Valley’s original chipmaker. But he came into his own as an operational genius, turning the cottage industry that was chipmaking into one of the most demanding of high-tech sectors. 在加州大学伯克利分校(University of California, Berkeley)获得硕士学位后,他曾在硅谷最早的芯片制造商飞兆半导体(Fairchild Semiconductor)担任研究员。但他却作为一位经营天才脱颖而出,把作坊式的芯片制造业转变为了要求最为苛刻的高科技行业之一。 As with Steve Jobs at Apple, Grove’s rages became famous, and his treatment of subordinates could be vicious. But the tempers never undermined his drive. “He had a talent for pushing people harder than they had ever been pushed before — and for making people want to please him,” says Mr Yoffie. “He was such a hard man to please.” 就像苹果(Apple)的史蒂夫#8226;乔布斯(Steve Jobs)一样,格罗夫的火爆脾气很是出名,他对待下属的态度极其严厉。但这种脾气从未削弱他的鞭策力。“他有一种天分,能够给员工从未遇到过的严厉鞭策,并让员工愿意取悦他,”约菲表示,“他是一个很难取悦的人。” /201603/433287By next May, none of Singapore#39;s public servants will have access to the internet while at work.从明年5月开始,新加坡的公务员在办公期间将不允许上外网。The city-state, which prides itself on strong law and order, is cutting off online access for government workers from about 100,000 computers, according to the Straits Times.据《海峡时报》报道,新加坡这个以其强大的法律和秩序而自诩的城邦国家,将切断10万台政府公务员办公电脑的外网访问权限。A memo is being sent to all government agencies, outlining the new policy, which has been introduced to increase security, according to a statement from the Infocomm Development Authority.据新加坡信息发展局的一项声明指出,此通知已经传达到所有的政府部门,引入此新政策目的是为了保障信息安全。;The Singapore Government regularly reviews our IT measures to make our network more secure,; the statement said. ;We have started to separate internet access from the work stations of a selected group of public service officers, and will do so for the rest of the public service officers progressively over a one-year period.;声明写道:“新加坡政府定期检查我们的信息技术措施,让网络更安全。我们已经开始陆续推行这项措施,一部分公务员现已不能使用公务电脑上网。这项措施在接下来的一年内将会陆续推广到各个部门。”The Straits Times reports that workers will be able to access the internet on their private devices.不过《海峡时报》称,公务员倒是可以通过个人设备上网。The move was criticized online as being a retrograde step and one that could lead to wider restrictions on internet freedom in the city-state.此举措被网友批评是在倒退,并且会给该城邦的互联网自由带来更大范围的限制。Step 1: Public servants will not have internet access. Step 2: Singapore will not have internet access.那就是,第一步:公务员不能上外网。第二步:新加坡所有公民不能上外网。 /201606/450474

What#39;s Confucius Thought of Eating儒家学派对饮食的看法It is said of Confucius that,“He did not eat rice which had been injured by heat or damp and turned sour, nor fish or flesh which was past its best. He did not eat what was discolored or what was of a bad flavor, nor anything that was ill-cooked,or was not in season. He did not eat meat which was not cut properly. Nor what was served without its proper sauce. . . He did not partake of wine and dried meat bought in the market. He never used ginger when he ate. he did not eat much.”孔子曰:“食饐而餲“,“鱼馁而肉败不食”,“色恶不食”,“臭恶不食”,“不时不食”,“失饪不食”,“沽酒、市脯不食”,“不撒姜食,不多食“。However, at one point Confucius himself said“With coarse(grain)to eat, with cold water to drink and my banded arm for a pillow, I can still find joy in the middle of these things.”然而孔子也曾说:“饭蔬食饮水,其肱而枕之,乐亦在其中矣。” /201607/445322

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