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2019年12月14日 13:54:30

芜湖妇幼保健人民中医院男科专家If you thought erasable ink was cool, wait until you hear about today’s topic on A Moment of Science: electronic ink.如果你觉得可擦墨水很酷的话,那就等你听完今天所讲的这个话题---电子墨水后再下结论吧。To begin with a slightly technical explanation, electronic ink consists of three parts: millions of tiny, microscopic capsules, an oily liquid filling the capsules, and negatively charged colored chips or spheres floating inside the capsules. Electrical charges cause the colored chips or spheres to arrange themselves into letters, numbers, and other characters when the ink is sp on a surface.理论上来讲,电子墨水主要由三部分组成:数以百万的细小微型胶囊,填充胶囊的油状液体以及浮在胶囊里的带有负电荷的色芯片(或球体)。当墨水洒在物体表面时,色芯片在电荷的作用下就会形成字母、数字或文字。If that description is slightly confusing, try imagining electronic ink as consisting of millions of clear beach balls. Each ball contains hundreds of white Ping-Pong balls floating in blue dye. The Ping-Pong balls make the top of the beach ball appear white, while the bottom appears blue.如果我这么讲你有点难以理解的话,那就把电子墨水想象成是由数以百万的沙滩球组成。每个沙滩球球内都含有数百个白色的乒乓球浮在蓝色液体中。乒乓球会让沙滩球顶部呈现白色,而底部呈现出蓝色。Now imagine that you’ve sp millions of these beach balls on a wide, flat surface and gone up in a helicopter for a bird’s-eye view. You see an all-white field. Using a device to control the movement of the Ping-Pong balls, you cause some of them to sink, revealing the blue dye. With precise control, you could use the resulting patterns of light and dark to create characters.现在想象一下你将这些沙滩球放在一个宽而平的表面上,然后乘上直升机从上面俯瞰。你会看到一片白色。然后,你用设备来控制乒乓球的运动,让某些球下沉,呈现出蓝色。通过准确的控制颜色的深浅,你就可以写出字了。In a nutshell, that’s how electronic ink works. So what’s it good for? Electronic books, for one. In the near future we may leaf through a volume written with electronic ink that contain hundreds of different texts. With the push of a button, Shakespeare may morph into Dr. Seuss. Another push and the ink re-arranges itself into Crime and Punishment. No matter how it’s used, electronic ink is sure to jolt our understanding of the printed page.简单来说,这就是电子墨水的工作原理。那么电子墨水有什么好处呢?就拿电子书来举个例子,在不远的将来,我们可能会阅读用电子墨水写成的书卷,这些书卷包含着数百种书籍。只要轻轻一摁,莎士比亚就会变成瑟斯士,再摁一下,就会变成罪与罚。电子墨水无论怎么样被使用,它终将颠覆我们对于印刷页面的理解。芜湖县包皮手术多少钱Coffee rust咖啡锈病Roya flushed“罗亚”蔓延How Colombia fought the fungus哥伦比亚如何抗击叶锈病真菌WHEN Jesus Maria Aguirre saw his coffee bushes wither away, he knew that he had lost the sole source of income for his family. “We would go to collect coffee and would come back with our baskets nearly empty,” says the Colombian grower, recalling the pernicious effects of the “coffee rust” fungus, or roya.当赫苏斯·玛利亚·阿吉雷看到了他的咖啡树日渐枯萎时,他意识到,这下他的家庭失去了唯一的收入来源。“我们去田里采咖啡豆,结果只能篮子空空地回来。”这位哥伦比亚的种植者在回想起这种咖啡锈病真菌,或被称为“罗亚”所带来的恶性影响时这样说到。The fungus stunts the growth of the fruit of arabica coffee plants. It infected about 40% of Colombias crop between 2008 and 2012. Production plunged from a high of 12.6m 60kg bags a year in 2007 to just 7.7m bags in 2012. As supply from Colombia shrank, international buyers turned to growers elsewhere.这种真菌阻滞了阿拉比卡豆咖啡树果实的生长。在2008年至2012年间,它已经使哥伦比亚40%的作物受到了感染,产量因此由2007年的峰值1260万袋60公斤的咖啡豆暴跌至2012年的仅770万袋。随着哥伦比亚的咖啡供应量的萎缩,国际上的咖啡买家开始向其它咖啡生产地寻求供应。What Mr Aguirre went through then is now the lot of farmers throughout Central America, the Dominican Republic, southern Mexico and Jamaica. Production there fell by 30% between 2011 and 2013 because of roya, reckons the International Coffee Organisation. USAID thinks it has caused billion of economic damage in Latin America since 2012. This time Colombians are the ones taking advantage.当时阿吉雷先生所遭受的窘境现在已经席卷了中美洲、多米尼加、南墨西哥以及牙买加。据国际咖啡组织估计,由于受“罗亚”影响,这些地区的咖啡产量在2011年至2013年间已下跌了30%。美国国际开发署认为,自从2012年起,这种锈病已经导致了拉丁美洲范围内高达10亿美元的经济损失。不过这次,哥伦比亚的种植户却可以置身事外甚至因此获利。On his farm on the slopes of the countrys central mountain range, Mr Aguirre today presides over 1.5 hectares (4 acres) of healthy bushes plump with red berries. For yields to recover, he had to yank up fungus-prone bushes and plant a new variety that promised to fight off the blight. He was one of thousands of farmers who joined in a countrywide scheme run by the Colombian Coffee Growers Federation, which represents more than 500,000 independent growers. By June 2014 more than 3 billion bushes had been replanted.现如今,在阿吉雷先生位于哥伦比亚中部山脉山坡上的农场里,他照料着超过1.5公顷的种满红色果实的健康的咖啡树。当初为了使产量恢复,他不得不剔除了易感真菌的植株并且种植了一种据信可抗枯萎的新品种。阿吉雷先生是全国范围种植计划的数千参与者之一,这个计划是由哥伦比亚咖啡种植者联合会运作的,这个联合会代表了超过50万的独立种植户。截至2014年6月,这种新植株已重新种植了超过30亿棵。Three-quarters of them were replaced with a roya-resistant variety known as Castillo, which had been developed in the labs of Cenicafé, the coffee federations research arm, after 13 years of selective breeding. Lindsey Bolger, head coffee buyer for Keurig Green Mountain, a roaster in the ed States, said the industry was “on pins and needles” about whether the Castillo would work. It has. Colombia produced 11.5m bags in the 12 months to June 2014, up by 31% on the previous 12-month period, according to the coffee federation. Buyers are coming back.这些咖啡树中的四分之三被一种被称为“卡斯蒂罗”的 “抗罗亚”品种替代,此品种是由哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室经过13年精心选育开发出来的。林塞·尔捷,美国绿山咖啡烘焙公司的首席采购,在谈及“卡斯蒂罗”能否担任恢复产量重任时,形容咖啡产业对此是“如坐针毡”。事实上,“卡斯蒂罗”做到了。据咖啡联合会数据,截至2014年6月的12个月内,哥伦比亚出产了1150万袋咖啡豆,比上个同期的产量增长了31%。采购商们又把目光开始投回哥伦比亚。Fernando Gast, Cenicafés director, says seeds of the Castillo coffee plants have been sent to Mexico, El Salvador and Costa Rica for evaluation. But he warns that Colombias success story is not directly transferable to Central America. The Castillo variety was created for Colombias needs and may not adapt to Central Americas soil and climate, he says.费尔南多·加斯特,哥伦比亚国家咖啡研究中心实验室主任,表示“卡斯蒂罗”的种子已被送往墨西哥、萨尔瓦多以及哥斯达黎加进行进一步评估。但是他也警告说,哥伦比亚的产业复苏经验并不可被中美洲地区直接套用。“卡斯蒂罗”品种是为了满足哥伦比亚的需求而研发生产的,所以可能并不适合在中美洲的土壤及气候环境条件下种植。Cenicafés 89 researchers cannot rest easy, either. They are working on a project to map the coffee genome. That should help them develop new varieties that will not only resist roya, which is continuously evolving, but will also be less susceptible to erratic weather. The search for a stronger brew is never over.实验室的89位研究人员们也还不能高枕无忧。他们现在正在进行一个绘制咖啡树基因谱的项目,这将有助他们培育新的变种,这种变种不仅能抵抗“罗亚”及其以后可能出现的其它变种,还能更不易受到不稳定天候影响的新品种植株。对于更优良品种的研究总会一直进行下去。 /201407/316599Lets begin with a cleaning tip:有个去污点子:If you have some tarnished orcorroded brass that you want to clean, an old brass candlestickfor example, you can use Coca-Cola, or any other cola softdrink, and that brass will come clean.如果你想要清除铜锈,例如铜烛台,可以使用可口可乐或者其它可乐饮料,清洗后的烛台光亮如新。And if Cola is such an effective cleaner of corroded metal , what is it doing to the inside ofyour stomach?如果可乐能有效清洁金属锈斑,那么可乐对人体的胃会产生什么影响呢?Cola cleans brass because its mildly acidic.可乐能清洁铜锈是因为可乐呈弱酸性。Heres what happens:When brass or another metal alloy becomes tarnished, this means that therehas been a chemical reaction between the oxygen in the air and one of the metals in the alloy.铜或其它金属合金生锈是因为空气中的氧气和合金中的某种金属发生了化学反应。Oxygen atoms combine with metal atoms to form whats called an oxide, and this oxide is whatmakes the metal appear tarnished.氧原子结合了金属原子,形成所谓的氧化物。氧化物就是金属锈。Acids, like the weak acid present in your can of Coke, can reactwith oxides to effectively reverse the process of tarnishing.而酸,比如可乐中的弱酸,和氧化物产生化学反应,能有效避免生锈。The acid dissolves the metal oxides thatmake the tarnish, leaving only shiny metal behind.酸可以分解金属氧化物,化学反应后的金属锃亮。You can try this at home, even if you dont have a brass candle stick.即便家里没有铜烛台,你可以做这样的试验:Leave a tarnished oldpenny in a glass of cola overnight.晚上,将一枚旧硬币丢进装有可乐的杯里。In the morning it will be shiny and fresh.第二天早上,硬币就变得闪亮如新。If the acid in cola is so good at attacking tarnished metal, what might it do to your insides?如果可乐能有效清洁金属锈斑,那么可乐对人体的内脏会产生什么影响呢?Actually, your stomach aly contains its own supply of acid which it uses to digest food.事实上,人体的胃里就有分泌的酸液来消化食物。This stomach acid is a great deal stronger than the acid in a can of Coke.胃酸的酸性比一听可乐还强。Indeed, stomach acidwould be an even better tarnish remover than cola!说真的,胃酸甚至比可乐更能除锈。 201407/314575芜湖男科医院好

芜湖冶男科那家医院比较好芜湖包皮环切手术多少钱Even without the guidance of organized religion, some animals instinctively know that its a good thing to help others.即使没有类似人类宗教的指引,有些动物仍能本能地救助处于危难中的其它动物。For example, when a bird spots a predator, instead of just flying away, it calls out in alarm and warns everyone in the vicinity.比如,一只小鸟发现了捕食者,它就会发出叫声以警示和提醒附近其它的小动物们。When a dolphin is injured, other dolphins help it swim up to the surface and get some air.如果一只海豚受伤了,那么其他海豚也会帮助它一直游到岸边以呼吸新鲜空气。And in a lab experiment that was set up so that one rat had to sit on a platform or else his rat friends would get an electrical shock when they tried to feed, the rats quickly learned to cooperate and take turns sitting on the platform.在类似试验中,一只老鼠必须要坐在一个平台上以防止它的朋友们试图进食时被电击,很快老鼠们就学会了如何协作,它们轮流坐在平台上以防止同伴被电击。You might think that evolution would work against this kind of altruism since, instead of concentrating on their own survival, animals spend time and energy helping others.因为这些动物们不仅仅只关心自己的生命,也会花费时间与精力去帮助其他动物。所以,你可能会认为进化过程会有悖于这种利他主义。But evolutionists suggest that when animals help animals who are their genetic relatives, or who are likely to return the favor later on, they are actually helping their species to survive the process of natural selection.但进化论者认为,当动物们在帮助那些遗传亲属,或可能会在稍后回报其所提供的这种帮助时,它们实际上是在帮助它们的种群能够在自然选择的过程中存活下来。Some animals will even sacrifice their own lives to insure the survival of the larger group. The worker honeybee, for example, will die defending her hive if necessary.某些动物甚至会牺牲自己的生命以保全更大种群的存活。比如说工蜂,在保护蜂巢的过程中就会不惜牺牲生命。Even acts that seem selfish may end up helping the group in the long run. For instance, when there isnt enough food to go around, wasps and termites will cannibalize their nest-mates. Gruesome as this may seem, it insures the colonys survival through tough times.甚至,某些看上去貌似自私的行为实际长远看来也有助于种群存活。比如说,当附近没有足够的食物时,黄蜂和白蚁就会对它们同族的伙伴进行蚕食。也许听上去很可怕,但实际上这保了艰难时期种群的存活。Although here at A Moment of Science, we dont condone human cannibalism, we still hope that these examples of altruism in animals will give you some food for thought.我们《科学一刻》栏目虽然不能宽恕人类自相残杀的行为,但我们希望,这些存在于动物之间的利他主义将会带给大家一些发人深省的思想。 /201308/253096芜湖治疗前列腺增生大概要多少钱芜湖的医院排名

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