楼主:飞生活 时间:2019年07月23日 09:31:20 点击:0 回复:0
China sent two maritime surveillance vessels close to the Japanese-controlled disputed Senkaku islands yesterday, writes Kathrin Hille. Xinhua, the official news agency, said Beijing would “conduct missions to safeguard China’s sovereignty depending on the situation”.中国昨天派遣两艘海监船驶近日本控制、但存在争议的尖阁诸岛(Senkaku Islands,中国称“钓鱼岛及其附属岛屿”)。官方的新华社表示“中方将采取必要措施维护主权”。The move came in response to Monday’s announcement by Japan of an agreement with the owner of some of the islands to buy them. While the plan is seen in Japan as a way of cooling tension by preventing the nationalist governor of Tokyo from acquiring the islands, the move has infuriated China, which also claims them.中方此举是对周一日本宣布与部分岛屿所有者达成购岛协议的回应。尽管该计划在日本被视为一种给紧张局势降温的方式,阻止有民族主义倾向的东京都知事买下相关岛屿,但此举激怒了宣称对这些岛屿拥有主权的中国。Before deploying the ships, Beijing had announced territorial baselines for the islands. “This kind of administrative act signals an effort to manage the potential for escalation,” said Taylor Fravel, a Chinese security policy expert at MIT. “On the other hand, it could result in more incidents between Chinese and Japanese vessels.”在部署海监船之前,中国政府宣布了有争议岛屿的领海基线。“这类行政措施是一个信号,表明官方在控制事件升级的空间,”麻省理工学院(MIT)中国安全政策专家傅泰林(Taylor Fravel)说,“但另一方面,此举可能导致中日船只之间发生更多冲突。” /201209/199361An unusual somberness fell over the normally raucous Chinese Internet on Friday as news sp that one of the country#39;s most influential tech figures and biggest social media stars has been diagnosed with cancer.周五,随着中国最具影响力的科技人物、最知名的社交媒体明星之一被诊断罹患癌症的消息传开,通常喧嚣的中国互联网上出现了少有的忧郁气氛。Lee Kai-fu, former head of China operations for Google, first suggested that he had been hit with the disease in a somewhat cryptic post on his verified Sina Weibo microblog feed late Thursday night.前谷歌(Google)大中华区总裁李开复(Lee Kai-fu)上周四晚间在其新浪认微账户中发布了一篇隐晦的微,最先暗示自己罹患癌症。#39;The world is mutable and life has limits, #39; he wrote. #39;It turns out that everyone is equal in the face of cancer.#39;他写道:世事无常,生命有限。原来,在癌症面前,人人平等。In a second, more detailed post Friday morning, he revealed that he had lymphoma, a type of blood cancer that affects white blood cells. Mr. Lee, 52, confirmed the diagnosis in an email.在上周五早间另外一篇更为详细的微中,他披露自己罹患淋巴癌。淋巴癌是一种影响白血球的血癌。52岁的李开复在一封电子邮件中实了自己被诊断罹患癌症。By Friday evening, the two posts had been reposted a total of more than 250, 000 times and garnered more than 300, 000 comments. The news was also the most-searched topic on China#39;s biggest search engine, Baidu.截至上周五晚间,这两篇微共被转发超过25万次,有30多万条。这一消息也是中国最大的搜索引擎百度(Baidu)上的最热搜话题。Mr. Lee, who is Taiwanese, is one of the most celebrated executives in the Chinese tech world, thanks largely to his work heading up the China operations of Microsoft and later Google. Microsoft sued him in an effort to keep him from moving to Google, which he left in 2009 to launch venture-capital fund Innovation Works.李开复是台湾人,他是中国科技圈中最知名的高管之一,这主要是因为他曾担任微软(Microsoft)中国业务负责人,之后还曾担任谷歌大中华区总裁。微软曾起诉李开复,以便阻止他加盟谷歌。2009年,李开复离开谷歌,成立了风投基金创新工场(Innovation Works)。In his email to China Real Time, Mr. Lee said the cancer had made him second-guess the physical sacrifices he had made during his career. #39;I naively used to compete with others to see who could sleep less. I made #39;fighting to the death#39; a personal motto, #39; he wrote. #39;It#39;s only now, when I#39;m suddenly faced with possibly losing 30 years of life, that I#39;ve been able to calm down and reconsider. That sort of persistence may have been a mistake.#39;李开复在致“中国实时报”(China Real Time)栏目的电子邮件中说,癌症令他反思自己在职业生涯中身体健康上做出的牺牲。他写道,我曾天真的和人比赛谁的睡眠更少。努力把“拼命”作为自己的一个标签。只有到现在,当我突然面对也许会失去30年生命的可能时,我才冷静下来反思。这种以健康为代价的坚持,不一定是对的。In recent years, Mr. Lee has become at least as well known for his activity on Sina Weibo, China#39;s equivalent to Twitter, where he has more than 51 million followers. (He also posts in English on Twitter , where he has just over a million followers.)近年来,李开复在新浪微上的活动也使他声名远扬。他在新浪微上有逾5,100万粉丝。他也在推特(Twitter)上发布英文微,他在推特上只有100多万粉丝。The executive is a leading member of the so-called #39;Big V#39; class of commentators on Weibo, influential users whose accounts are stamped with the letter #39;V#39; to indicate their verified status. Propaganda authorities have recently taken aim at the Big Vs -- particularly those, like Mr. Lee, who have been critical of censorship -- urging them to be more #39;constructive#39; in what they say online.李开复是新浪微上所谓的“大V”人士中的一位主要人物。“大V”指的是那些账户有“V”字认、颇具影响力的用户。宣传部门最近将矛头对准“大V”,特别是像李开复这样批评审查制度的“大V”,敦促他们的网络言论要更“有建设性”。Mr. Lee#39;s accounts on Sina Weibo and a similar service run by Tencent were suspended for three days in February, shortly after he posted a message questioning the management of a state-run search engine.今年2月,李开复曾发布一篇微,对一个国有搜索引擎的管理提出质疑,之后不久他的新浪微账户和腾讯微账户被禁言三天。Though conservative Internet users have on occasion been viciously critical of the U.S.-educated Mr. Lee, whom they see as an agent of the West, response to the news of his cancer was overwhelmingly sympathetic Friday as microbloggers flooded his feed with get-well messages.尽管保守的互联网用户认为在美国受过教育的李开复是西方的代言人,并时不时强烈抨击他,但上周五对他患癌消息的绝大多数都充满同情,微用户的中满是祝福的信息。#39;Seeing all this concern and support, I#39;m genuinely moved!#39; he wrote in response. #39;Illness is a part of life. I plan to face life#39;s vagaries with a more positive mindset.#39;他回复道:看到里这么多网友的问候和关心,真的很感动!病痛也是生活的一部分,我会选择更加积极的心态来面对生活起伏。His new plan: #39;Sleep enough, adjust my diet and start exercising again.#39;他的新计划是:保充足的睡眠,调整饮食,重新开始锻炼。 /201309/256467Online, English has become a common language for users from around the world. In the process, the language itself is changing.英语已经在网络上成为全球范围内的通用语言。在此过程中,英语本身也在不断发生着变化。When America emerged from the ashes of a bruising war with Britain in 1814, the nation was far from united. Noah Webster thought that a common language would bring people together and help create a new identity that would make the country truly independent of the British.1814年英美战争结束后,当美国从废墟中发展起来时,还是个四分五裂的国家。美国辞典编纂家诺亚-韦伯斯特认为,统一语言将会使人们更有凝聚力,并获得新的身份,这有助于美国真正的脱离英国而独立。Webster#39;s dictionary, now in its 11th edition, adopted the Americanised spellings familiar today - er instead of re in theatre, dropping the u from colour, and losing the double l from words such as traveller. It also documented new words that were uniquely American such as skunk, opossum, hickory, squash and chowder.《韦氏词典》现在已经是第11版了,它采用我们现在熟悉的美式拼写——theatre中的re变为er,去掉colour中的u,把一些单词中的两个l如traveller变为一个l。词典中也收录了一些美国独有的新词汇,如skunk(臭鼬), opossum(负鼠), hickory(山核桃), squash(南瓜)和 chowder(杂烩)。An American Dictionary of the English Language took 18 years to complete and Webster learned 26 other languages in order to research the etymology of its 70,000 entries.韦伯斯特花了18年时间写成《美国英语词典》,为了研究词典中的70000个单词的词形变化,他学习了26种语言。The internet is creating a similar language evolution, but at a much faster pace.互联网为类似的语言演变创造了一个平台,但速度更快。There are now thought to be some 4.5 billion web pages worldwide. And with half the population of China now on line, many of them are written in Chinese.现在在全球范围内共有45亿个网页。在中国,如今有一半的人都是网民,他们中很多人使用中文上网。Still, some linguists predict that within 10 years English will dominate the internet - but in forms very different to what we accept and recognise as English today.不过一些语言学家预测,10年内英语将成为互联网的主导语言,但形式将和网民今天接受和认可的英语有很大不同。That#39;s because people who speak English as a second language aly outnumber native speakers. And increasingly they use it to communicate with other non-native speakers, particularly on the internet where less attention is paid to grammar and spelling and users don#39;t have to worry about their accent.这是因为将英语作为第二语言的人数已经超过以英语为母语的人数。而且非英语国家的人进行交流时都使用英语,尤其是在互联网上,人们不太注重语法和拼写,使用者也不用担心口音问题。;The internet enfranchises people who are not native speakers to use English in significant and meaningful ways,; says Naomi Baron, professor of linguistics at American University in Washington DC.“网络让那些非英语国家的人们在重要和意义重大的场合中更自由的使用英语,”位于华盛顿地区的美利坚大学的语言学教授内奥米-巴伦说。Users of Facebook aly socialise in a number of different ;Englishes; including Indian English, or Hinglish, Spanglish (Spanish English) and Konglish (Korean English). While these variations have long existed within individual cultures, they#39;re now expanding and comingling online.社交网络的用户使不同形式的英语社会化,包括印度英语,西班牙式英语和韩式英语。虽然这些变化一直存在于各国的文化中,但如今网络使它们相互融合。;On the internet, all that matters is that people can communicate - nobody has a right to tell them what the language should be,; says Baron. ;If you can talk Facebook into putting up pages, you have a language that has political and social standing even if it doesn#39;t have much in the way of linguistic uniqueness.;“在互联网上,最重要的是人们可以相互交流——没有人有权利规定该使用何种语言,”巴伦说。“如果你能说脸谱网建立网页,你的语言就有了政治和社会地位,即使它在语言方面并没有太多的独特性。”Some words are adaptations of traditional English: In Singlish, or Singaporean English, ;blur; means ;confused; or ;slow;: ;She came into the conversation late and was blur as a result.;有些单词与传统英语出入较大:在新加坡英语中,“blur” 意为“困惑的”或“缓慢的”,例句:“聊天的时候她很迟才加入讨论,因此有些困惑。”Others combine English words to make something new. In Konglish, ;skinship; means intimate physical contact: handholding, touching, caressing.此外,合成词也可以产生一些新的词汇。在韩式英语中,;skinship;意为身体的亲密接触:握手、抚摸和爱抚。Technology companies are tapping into the new English variations with products aimed at enabling users to add words that are not aly in the English dictionary.科技公司正在开发英语新变化的相关产品,旨在帮助用户增加现在英语字典中不存在的单词。And most large companies have English websites, while smaller businesses are learning that they need a common language - English - to reach global customers.大多数大公司都有自己的英文网站,小企业也意识到他们需要一种通用语言,也就是英语,来争取全球范围内的客户。;While most people don#39;t speak English as their first language, there is a special commercial and social role for English driven by modern forms of entertainment,; says Robert Munro, a computational linguist and head of, a language technology company in California.“虽然大多数人的母语都不是英语,但现代方式让英语发挥着特殊的商业和社会作用,” 加利福尼亚一家名为Idibon的语言公司的老总,计算机语言学家罗伯特-芒罗说。;The prevalence of English movies in regions where there is not much technology other than cell phones and DVDs makes English an aspirational language. People think it#39;s the language of the digital age.;“在一些除了手机和DVD外没有其他什么高科技产品的地区,英语电影的流行让英语成为一种时尚。人们认为这是数字时代的语言。”In previous centuries, the convergence of cultures and trade led to the emergence of pidgin - a streamlined system of communication that has simple grammatical structure, says Michael Ullman, director of research at Georgetown University#39;s Brain and Language Lab.过去几个世纪,文化和商贸的融合导致了洋泾浜语的产生,这是一种简洁实用的交流语言,语法结构简单,乔治城大学大脑和语言实验室的主任迈克尔-厄尔曼这样解释道。When the next generation of pidgin speakers begins to add vocabulary and grammar, it becomes a distinct Creole language. ;You get different endings, it#39;s more complex and systematised. Something like that could be happening to English on the web,; he says.下一代的洋泾浜语言使用者还会为其继续增加词汇和语法,它会变成一种截然不同的克里奥尔语。“洋泾浜语会有不同的形式,会更加复杂和系统化。对于英语,这种变化会发生在互联网上,”他说。 Take Hinglish. Hinglish is a blend of Hindi, Punjabi, Urdu and English and is so widesp that it#39;s even being taught to British diplomats.以印式英语为例,印式英语是北印度语、旁遮普语、乌尔都语和英语的混合语,它使用很广泛,甚至被教给英国外交官。Mobile phone companies are also updating their apps to reflect its growing use.移动电话公司也在不断更新应用程序,以体现他们日益增多的功能。In Hinglish, a co-brother is a brother-in-law; eve-teasing means sexual harassment; an emergency crew responding to a crisis might be described as #39;airdashing#39;, and somewhat confusing to football fans, a #39;stadium#39; refers to a bald man with a fringe of hair. There#39;s even a new concept of time - ;pre-pone;, the opposite of postpone, meaning ;to bring something forward;.在印式英语中,co-brother意为夫、夫或小舅子;eve-teasing意为性骚扰;紧急救援队对突发事件的反应可能会被描述为 airdashing,而令球迷有些困惑的是,stadium指的是头发稀疏的秃顶男人。就连表示时间都有新的概念——pre-pone,延期的反义词,意为“提前”。The increasing prevalence of the internet in everyday life means that language online is not a zero sum game. Instead, it allows multiple languages to flourish.互联网在日常生活中的日益普遍意味着语言并非一场零和弈。相反,它让不同的语言蓬勃发展。;Most people actually speak multiple languages - it#39;s less common to only speak one,; says Mr Munro. ;English has taken its place as the world#39;s lingua franca, but it#39;s not pushing out other languages.;“实际上,很多人都会说多种语言,只会说一种语言的人是很少见的。” 芒罗先生说。“英语已经成为世界的通用语,但它并不排挤其他语言。”Instead, other languages are pushing their way into English, and in the process creating something new.相反,其他语言正在融入英语当中,在此过程中也在不断产生新的东西。 /201212/215213

New data from a Chinese think tank suggests that the government has succeeded in tamping down on inequality, flying in the face of academic evidence and sparking fresh controversy over the divide between China#39;s haves and have-nots. 中国一家智库机构的新数据显示,政府成功地抑制了贫富差距的扩大。这与学术据不符,并再次引发有关中国贫富差距问题的争论。 The calculation by the International Institute for Urban Development in Beijing puts China#39;s Gini coefficient a widely used measure of inequality at 0.438 in 2010. That means China is fractionally more unequal than in 2005, when the Gini coefficient came in at 0.425 according to data from the World Bank. 根据北京国际城市发展研究院(International Institute for Urban Development)的计算,2010年中国的基尼系数为0.438。这意味着中国贫富差距较2005年只是略有扩大。据世界(World Bank)数据,当年中国的基尼系数是0.425。 The Gini coefficient is a measure of income distribution. A score of 0 would represent perfect equality, a score of 1 would mean one individual controlled 100% of income. South Africa, with a score of 0.631 and Colombia at 0.559 are amongst the most unequal societies in the world according to World Bank data. The es States has a gini coefficient of 0.408 in 2000, according to the World Bank. 基尼系数是一个反映收入分配差异程度的指标。如果该系数为0,则代表完全平等,如果系数为1,则代表某一个人掌握了100%的收入。据世界数据,南非的基尼系数为0.631,哥伦比亚为0.559,都属于世界上最不平等的社会之列。世界数据显示,2000年美国的基尼系数为0.408。 Zhu Yinghui, a researcher at the institute, said that China#39;s wealth gap raised concerns about China#39;s development path. #39;The income gap between urban and rural, between communities, and lack of middle class are factors that could affect social stability,#39; she said. 北京国际城市发展研究院的研究员朱颍慧说,贫富差距问题引起了人们对中国发展道路的担忧。她说,城乡之间、社区之间的收入差距,中产阶级的缺失,都是可能影响社会稳定的因素。 Gauging China#39;s level of inequality is made more difficult by uncertainty about household income. Calculations based on National Bureau of Statistics data show the top 10% of households control around 32% of income. But China#39;s statisticians acknowledge that difficulty collecting data on the income of the rich introduces uncertainty into the official numbers. 由于家庭收入状况不明,测量中国贫富差距的难度较大。按国家统计局的数据计算,最上层10%的家庭控制了大约32%的财富。但中国统计人员承认,由于获取富人收入数据存在困难,官方数据不太可靠。 An academic survey of more than 8000 households across China conducted in 2011 suggests a much greater level of inequality, with the top 10% controlling 56% of income. #39;That makes China more unequal than the ed States and even more unequal than African societies#39; said Gan Li a Professor at China#39;s South Western University of Finance and Economics and Texas Aamp;M University in the U.S. who led the survey. 2011年对中国各地8,000多户家庭的学术调查显示收入差距要大得多,最上层10%的家庭掌握了56%的财富。中国西南财经大学兼美国德州农工大学(Texas Aamp;M University)教授、调查牵头人甘犁说,这使中国的收入分配不平等状况差于美国,甚至比非洲国家还要差。 The CIA also publishes a calculation of the Gini coefficient, which it puts at 0.48 in China in 2009 substantially higher than the institute#39;s calculation for 2010. The CIA put the Gini coefficient for the U.S. at 0.45 in 2007. 美国中央情报局(CIA)也有基尼系数公布,中国在2009年的系数是0.48,远远高于北京国际城市发展研究院计算的2010年系数。根据CIA计算,美国在2007年的基尼系数是0.45。 Growing inequality reflects a combination of factors. #39;China started out thirty years ago with everyone equally poor, as incomes rise it is natural that inequality should as well,#39; said Louis Kuijs, China economist at RBS. #39;But that benign inequality has been accentuated by policies that benefited factory owners, not the mass of workers,#39; he added. 贫富差距的扩大是多种因素的综合反映。苏格兰皇家(RBS)中国经济学家高路易(Louis Kuijs)说,30年前的中国大家都一样穷,随着收入增加,贫富差距自然也应该扩大,但有利于工厂老板而不利于广大工人大众的政策,加重了这种本属良性的贫富差距。 A growing divide between have and have-nots has far reaching implications for China#39;s future growth. #39;The main conclusion is that redistribution of income is the key to raising China#39;s consumption,#39; said Texas Aamp;M#39;s Mr. Gan. That#39;s because low-income households spend a higher share of their income than rich households. 贫富差距的扩大,对中国将来的经济增长有着深远的影响。甘犁说,主要结论是收入再分配是提高中国消费水平的关键。这是因为低收入家庭出占收入的比重大于富裕家庭。 Household consumption in China came in at just 34.9% of gross domestic product in 2011, down from 46.0% in 2000 and substantially below the 70% rate in the U.S. With investment producing diminishing returns and export growth falling close to zero in July and August, raising consumption has become crucial to keeping growth on track. 2011年中国家庭消费只占国内生产总值(GDP)的34.9%,低于2000年的46.0%,远低于美国的70%。随着投资回报越来越低、7月至8月的出口增速接近于零,增加消费已经成为保增长的关键。 Inequality in the distribution of income also raises fears of social instability. But Martin Whyte, a professor at Harvard who has conducted extensive survey work on social attitudes in China, said the link was not straightforward. #39;It is subjective popular perceptions of fairness or unfairness, not objective income and wealth trends that contribute to instability,#39; he said. #39;Its cases like Bo Xilai that call attention to corrupt gains that get ordinary Chinese people angry about social injustice.#39; 收入分配不平等也会引起社会不稳定的忧虑。但对中国社会心态做过广泛调查的哈佛大学(Harvard)教授怀默霆(Martin Whyte)说,这种关联不是直接的。他说,导致不稳定的是民众主观上对公平或不公平的看法,而不是客观上的收入与财富趋势;让中国老百姓对社会不公感到愤怒的,是薄熙来案等让人注意到贪腐收入的案件。 /201209/201160

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