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上海冰点脱毛哪里好、上海腋下永久脱体毛哪家医院好上海哪里祛眼袋好 Until recently most of the world yearned for the US to become a more normal country. It had seen enough of George W Bush’s freedom agenda to put it off American exceptionalism for good. People should be careful what they wish for. Donald Trump may be the most gaffe-prone and offensive US presidential nominee in history. But he is also the first to scorn the belief that America’s mission should be to uphold universal values. It is not clear he even thinks such values exist. Hillary Clinton, on the other hand, is their unabashed cheerleader. “I believe with all my heart that America is an exceptional country,she said in June. “We are still, in Lincoln’s words, the last best hope of earth.”直到最近,世界大部分地区都渴望美国变成一个更平常的国家。他们受够了乔治#8226;W#8226;布什(George W Bush)在全球推动自由的议程,以至对美国例外论心生反感。人们应该小心自己的期盼。唐纳德#8226;特朗Donald Trump)可能是美国历史上最出言不逊——以及最具攻击性——的总统候选人。但他也是第一个对以下信念——美国的使命应是维护普世价值观——表现出不屑的总统候选人。我们甚至不清楚他是否认为存在这些价值观。另一方面,希拉里#8226;克林Hillary Clinton)则是这些价值观的坚定拥护者。“我由衷地相信美国是一个例外的国家,”她6月时表示,“我们仍是——用亚伯拉罕#8226;林肯(Abraham Lincoln)的话说——地球上最后、最好的希望。”Long-suffering US realists those who argue that America should merely pursue its national interests must wonder what they did to deserve such a champion. Mr Trump vows to avoid foreign entanglements, such as pre-emptive wars in Iraq. That is what realists want to hear. Ditto for Mr Trump’s view that America’s allies should pay for more of their defence, or that China is entitled to occupy atolls in a sea named after it. Why should America always play the referee? But Mr Trump inevitably spoils things by adding his own gloss promising a nuclear attack on Isis, for example, or claiming that President Barack Obama founded the terrorist group. The key to successful realism is tactical guile and deep knowledge of the world. Mr Trump epitomises the opposite. With friends like Mr Trump, realists need no enemies.长期不如意的美国现实主义者——那些主张美国应该只追求本国国家利益的人士——一定惊讶于他们做了什么才会出现这样一位现实主义的拥护者。特朗普誓言要避免对外干涉,例如对伊拉克进行的先发制人的战争。这正是现实主义者希望听到的。他们也认同特朗普的其他一些观点:美国的盟友应更多地承担本国的防务开,或是中国有权占有以其国名命名的海域内的岛礁。为什么美国总要担当裁判?但特朗普的口无遮拦不可避免地把事情搞糟了,例如,他许诺要对“伊斯兰国ISIS)进行核打击,或是宣称美国总统巴拉#8226;奥巴Barack Obama)创立了该恐怖组织。成功的现实主义的关键是在战术上的狡诈和对世界的深刻理解。特朗普恰恰是反面的典型代表。有了特朗普这样的队友,现实主义者不需要敌人。There is also the likelihood that he will lose to Mrs Clinton in November. Mr Trump’s defeat would probably come in spite of his foreign policy instincts, rather than because of them. For years, the US public has said it is tired of military adventures, thinks Nato allies should shoulder more of the burden and that America’s global role should be more modest. Nation-building is no longer an election winner, if it ever was one. Mr Trump’s “America firstslogan might have unfortunate antecedents (it was picked up by Fascist sympathisers in the early 1940s), but many Americans are happy with its current meaning. If he loses it will be because of his manifestly unpresidential temperament and a tendency to insult almost every group in America.而且,特朗普可能1月的大选中输给希拉里。尽管在外交政策方面直觉不错,他还是可能会落败——他的失败倒不是因为这些直觉。多年来,美国民众已经表示出了对军事冒险的厌倦,他们认为,北约盟国应该承担更多的责任,美国扮演的全球性角色应该更加适度。国家建设议题不再是竞选中的制胜法宝(如果曾经是的话)。特朗普的“美国第一”的口号或许有令人遗憾的先例(上世纪40年代初法西斯主义的同情者提过),但许多美国人对其现在的含义感到满意。如果特朗普失败了,原因在于他明显毫无总统气质以及他侮辱美国几乎所有群体的倾向。Unfortunately for realists, their ship may go down with him, which means the USS Exceptionalist would set sail again under Mrs Clinton next January. Where was it during the Obama years? Mr Obama’s foreign policy has been neither exceptionalist nor realist but a hybrid of the two. A few weeks after he took office, I asked whether he subscribed to the school of US exceptionalism. Mr Obama replied that he was a US exceptionalist in much the same way that “Brits subscribe to British exceptionalism, and Greeks subscribe to Greek exceptionalism His creed, in other words, was avowedly subjective. Given how harshly Mr Obama’s critics have questioned his patriotism, his answer today may be less ambivalent. It is hard to imagine Mrs Clinton saying that. A true exceptionalist leaves no room for doubt. They believe the US stands taller and sees further than other nations, as Madeleine Albright, the former secretary of state, once said.对现实主义者而言,不幸的是,他们的大船或将与特朗普一同沉没,这意味着,“美国例外号巨轮”将于明月在希拉里的领导下再次起航。那么在奥巴马执政时期这艘船在哪里呢?奥巴马的外交政策既非美国例外主义,也非现实主义,而是两者的混合。奥巴马上任几周后,我问他是否信奉美国例外论。奥巴马回答说,他信奉美国例外论就像“英国人信奉英国例外主义,希腊人信奉希腊例外主义”。换句话说,他的政治纲领公开地带有主观性。鉴于奥巴马的批评者对他的爱国主义的强烈质疑,如果是今天回答上述问题,他的会更为明确。很难想象希拉里会那样说。一个真正的美国例外论者不会留下任何被质疑的余地。正如美国前国务卿马德琳#8226;奥尔布赖Madeleine Albright)曾经说过的,他们相信美国比其他国家站得更高、看得更远。What would this mean for a Clinton administration? Unexpected events would dictate much of her presidency, as is always the case. Ronald Reagan’s struggle with the Soviet Union’s “evil empirewas rendered moot by the rise of Mikhail Gorbachev. Bush junior took office promising a humbler foreign policy. He pivoted quickly to hubris after the 9/11 attacks. Mr Obama promised to wind down the wars in Afghanistan and Iraq. He will leave office with thousands of US soldiers in each country. Bill Clinton, meanwhile, vowed to uphold human rights and confront the “butchers of Beijing To his lasting regret, he turned a blind eye to the 1994 genocide in Rwanda. This was largely because of what he learnt from another event the “Black Hawk downdebacle in Somalia. He also brought China into the World Trade Organisation. In each case, however, the president’s philosophy shaped how they responded to events.这对希拉里政府将意味着什么?像以往一样,不可预测的事件将主导她大部分总统任期。罗纳德#8226;里根(Ronald Reagan)与苏联“邪恶帝国”的较量因米哈伊#8226;戈尔巴乔Mikhail Gorbachev)的崛起而失去意义。小布什上任时曾承诺实行谦和的外交政策/11恐怖袭击发生后,他的态度迅速地转向了自大。奥巴马承诺逐步结束在阿富汗和伊拉克的战争。到他离任时,这两国还将驻扎有数千名美军士兵。比#8226;克林Bill Clinton)曾誓言要维护人权,对抗“北京的屠夫”。让他始终感到懊悔的是,他对1994年卢旺达种族屠杀不闻不问。这主要是因为他从另一事件中学到教训——在索马里的“黑鹰坠落”事件。他还将中国带入了世界贸易组WTO)。然而,每一起事件中,美国总统的信念决定了他们会如何做出回应。Many assume that Mrs Clinton would simply pick up the baton from Mr Obama, since she was his first secretary of state. But serving a president is very different from being one. On each military question that arose in Mr Obama’s first term, Mrs Clinton took the hawkish view. Sometimes she was on the winning side, such as on intervention in Libya. At others, such as on whether to arm Syrian rebels, her advice was overruled. In spite of her early involvement in the Iran nuclear talks, it is doubtful if she would have signed Mr Obama’s deal.很多人认为,希拉里可能将只是延续奥巴马的执政方针,因为她是奥巴马手下的第一任国务卿。但是,效力于总统与自己当总统迥然不同。对于奥巴马第一任期出现的所有军事问题,希拉里都持强硬观点。有时她可以占上风,例如对利比亚的干预。有时——比如是否武装叙利亚叛军——她的建议被否决了。尽管参与了早期的伊朗核谈判,但如果还在国务卿之位的话,她是否会签署奥巴马的伊朗核协议值得怀疑。Her campaign rhetoric is also strikingly different from Mr Obama’s. In 2008 he pledged to revive America’s moral authority in a world reeling from Mr Bush’s wars of choice. She vows to engage with a dangerous world with all the tools at her disposal. It is a different sensibility.希拉里的竞选言辞也与奥巴马截然不同008年,奥巴马誓言在一个受到小布什“可打可不打的战争”冲击的世界里恢复美国的道德权威。而希拉里发誓要用所有可以诉诸的手段介入一个危险的世界。这是一种不同的觉悟。Mr Obama once summed up his approach to foreign policy as “don’t do stupid shit In a rare critical moment, Mrs Clinton said Mr Obama’s maxim did not amount to an organising principle. She was right, of course. But in these hazardous times, the instinct to first do no harm may be worth more than we can appreciate.奥巴马曾将自己的外交政策方针总结为“不做蠢事”。希拉里有一次罕见地对奥巴马提出批评,说他的座右铭并不等同于组织原则。当然,她说的没错。但在这些危急时期,首先不为害这种本能的价值可能超出了我们能理解的范畴 /201608/461123Emperor Akihito of Japan indicated in a rare public address on Monday that he wants to abdicate the throne, which would make him the first Japanese monarch in 200 years to step down. Here are five essential facts about one of the world’s oldest and most cloistered royal families.周一,日本明仁天皇在一次罕见的公开讲话中暗示自己有意退位,这将使他成为该国200年来首个在世退位的君主。日本皇室是世界上最古老也最低调的皇族之一,以下是关于它的五个基本事实。A Lengthy Dynasty古老的君主制度The imperial house of Japan is the oldest continuous monarchy in the world.日本天皇制是世界上传承未间断的最古老君主制度。Akihito is the 125th emperor in a line that extends back to the country’s founding in 600 B.C. by the Emperor Jimmu, who legend holds was descended from the sun goddess. Though evidence of the first 25 emperors is shrouded in myth, there is ample historical proof of an unbroken hereditary line from A.D. 500 to today.明仁是日本的25任天皇,往前一直可以追溯到于公元前600年创建日本的神武天皇,传说他是太阳女神的后裔。尽管前25位天皇存在的据笼罩着神话色,但有充分的历史据能够明,从公元00年至今,日本的皇位世代相传,从未间断。After modern Japanese emperors die, their names are changed to reflect the era in which they ruled. Akihito will be renamed Heisei (“peace everywhere for the name of his era, which began with his coronation in 1989. His father, the wartime emperor Hirohito, is posthumously known as Showa, or “radiant Japan.”现代日本天皇去世后,人们会改用他们在位时的年号来称呼他们。明仁会被改称为“平成”,意为“内平外成”,他于1989年即位后便开始使用这个年号。他父亲,也就是战时的天皇裕仁,去世后被改称为昭和,意为“百姓昭明,协和万邦”。Gods and Men 神与人的理念The emperor is the head of state and the highest authority of the Shinto religion.天皇是国家元首,也是神道教的最高领袖。Japan is the only modern nation to still refer to the head of its royal family as emperor. In Japanese the emperor is called tenno, or “heavenly sovereign,a nod to the idea that the imperial family is descended from gods. The monarchy historically maintained a divine right to rule, but it was only in recent centuries that cults around the emperor began to deify rulers as demigods.日本是唯一一个仍对皇室首脑以“皇”相称的国家。日语“天皇”一词符合日本皇室是神的后裔这一理念。日本皇室在历史上一直坚称君权神授,但直到最近几个世纪,天皇的狂热信徒才把统治者奉为半人半神式的存在。Soon after the end of World War II, as part of Japan’s surrender, Hirohito renounced what he called the “the false conception that the emperor is divine.Under Japan’s 1947 postwar Constitution, the emperor became “the symbol of the state and of the unity of the people,a figurehead with no political authority.二战结束后不久,作为日本投降的一部分,裕仁宣称抛弃“天皇是现世神这一虚构观念”。根据日本于1947年实施的战后宪法,天皇成为了“日本国及日本国民团结之象征”,一个没有政治权力的名义上的领袖Amateur Scientists业余科学家At the beginning of each new year since 1869, just after Emperor Meiji restored the authority of the emperor and set Japan on a course of modernization and industrialization, the emperor has hosted a series of scientific lectures.自从1869年以来——当时,明治天皇刚刚恢复皇的权威,带领日本走上现代化和工业化道路——每年年初,天皇都要主持一系列科学讲座。Hirohito and his elder son, Akihito, shared an interest in marine biology. Hirohito wrote several scientific papers on hydrozoa, a class of aquatic animals related to jellyfish, and Akihito is considered an expert on goby fish. Akihito has written 38 scientific articles on the fish, and a newly discovered species of the fish was named for him.裕仁及其长子明仁都对海洋生物学很感兴趣。裕仁写过几篇关于水母类水生动物水螅虫的论文;明仁则被视为虾虎鱼研究领域的权威。明仁以虾虎鱼为题写8篇科学论文,新近被发现的一个虾虎鱼品种就是以他的名字命名的。Women in Power掌权的女性Historically, women could ascend to the throne and rule in their own right, but only eight of Japan’s emperors have been women.在历史上,女性也可以登临皇位,有资格统治天下,但日本只出过八位女天皇。Until the 20th century, Japanese emperors usually had a chief wife and several concubines, all of whom were members of noble families. Akihito was the first emperor permitted to marry a commoner, and he did, marrying Michiko Shoda in 1956 after meeting her on a tennis court, launching a tennis boom in Japan.直到20世纪,日本天皇通常有一位皇后和若干嫔妃,她们全都出身于贵族家庭。明仁是第一位获准与平民结婚的天皇,他也的确这样做了,在1956年迎娶正田美智子(Michiko Shoda)。两人此前是在网球场上相识的,因此还在日本掀起了网球热潮。Akihito’s elder son, Crown Prince Naruhito, also married a commoner, Masako Owada, a former diplomat. Princess Masako was given a diagnosis of a clinical psychiatric condition in 2006, believed to have been triggered by the pressures of delivering a male heir.明仁的长子,也就是皇太子德仁迎娶的小和田雅子(Masako Owada)同样是一位平民,曾经当过外交官006年,皇太子妃雅子被诊断出患有精神疾病,其病症据信是由生育男性继承人的压力引发的。Under the 1947 Constitution, only a male heir can inherit the throne, though a change in the law was briefly considered in 2005 to allow a woman to become emperor. When Princess Masako gave birth to a daugther, plans to amend the Constitution were dropped.根据1947年生效的战后宪法,只有男性继承人才能继承皇位,但005年曾一度考虑通过修宪让女性获得继承皇位的权利。皇太子妃雅子生下一个女儿后,修宪的计划被搁置了。The Chrysanthemum Throne菊花宝座Akihito and his family live in the Tokyo Imperial Palace, a parklike compound in Japan’s capital that is considered one of the most expensive pieces of real estate in the world.明仁及其家人生活在东京皇居里,那是一片位于日本首都的公园式建筑群,被认为是全球最昂贵的不动产之一。The palace includes residences for the imperial family, the offices of the Imperial Household Agency and museums. The monarchy is often referred to metaphorically as the Chrysanthemum Throne, but there is an actual chrysanthemum throne, an ornate chair called takamikura on which the emperor sits during his enthronement ceremony.皇居由皇室居所、宫内厅(Imperial Household Agency)办公室以及物馆组成。日本的君主政体通常被喻为菊花王朝,但在皇居里真的有菊花宝座,那是一个名叫“高御座”的华丽宝座,天皇举行登基大典时就坐在上边。来 /201608/459600上海比较的整形医院

静安区祛除胎记要的价格杨浦区彩光嫩肤多少钱 The ed States and South Korea’s recent decision to counter North Korean missile capabilities with an advanced system on the Korean peninsula left China “deeply dissatisfiedand y to take “necessary measuresa defense ministry spokesman said at the end of July.美国和韩国近期决定在朝鲜半岛部署先进的武器系统,以反制朝鲜的导弹力量。此举引发了中国的严重不满。中国国防部的一名发言人在七月底表示,中国已经准备好了采取“必要措施”加以应对。In the month since the agreement was announced many analysts have wondered how Beijing’s anger will manifest. 在美韩宣布该决定的当月,许多分析家都思考过北京将会如何表达其愤怒。One common sentiment is that the strategic collateral imposed on China by the missile system called the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense may force Chinese diplomats to reconsider their inaction on North Korea’s nuclear efforts. 一种常见的观点是,这个被称为末段高空区域防御系统(THAAD,萨德)的导弹系统对中国造成了战略上的附带伤害,也许会迫使中国外交人员重新审视他们在朝核问题上的不作为。Others fueled by an earlier Chinese warning that THAAD could “destroyrelations with South Korea “in an instantargue that China may seek to discipline Seoul with economic repercussions.另一种观点,基于中国发出的“萨德有可能会‘瞬间摧毁’中韩关系”的警告,论称中国可能寻求以经济上的回击来对首尔方面进行惩戒。Such responses fail to encompass the full scope of China’s domestic and foreign policy thinking. 这种反应不能全面涵盖中国内政外交政策考量。China will not move in a quick or meaningful fashion to oppose Pyongyang Beijing fears destabilizing the Kim regime which would risk expanding the U.S. presence in the region far beyond THAAD deployment and potentially spur an influx of impoverished North Korean refugees into China. 中国不会采取迅速或有意义的方式反对平壤——北京惧怕推翻金家政权可能会导致的风险:美国在该地区的势力会扩张至远超出萨德部署的范围,以及刺激潜在的朝鲜贫民潮涌入中国。In fact China’s THAAD-inspired refusal to support a U.N. Security Council measure on recent North Korean missile launches suggests that negotiations are even less attainable than before.事实上,中国因受萨德刺激而拒绝持联合国安委会就最近朝鲜发射导弹采取措施,表明谈判比以往更加难以实现。Likewise THAAD deployment damages Chinese trust in Seoul on security issues but it does not obscure the two countriesgrowing economic interdependence. 同样地,萨德的部署也损害了中国在安全议题上对于首尔方面的信任,但不会令两国经济上的日渐相互依赖变得前途未卜。While South Korea is asymmetrically dependent on economic relations with China it is also China’s second largest trade partner and a major source of foreign direct investment. 虽然这种经济依赖是非对称的,韩国更多地依赖与中国的经济关系,但它仍然是中国的第二大贸易伙伴和一个主要的外国直接投资来源地。Though Beijing will seek to coerce South Korea by publicly considering sanctions the risk of collateral from major economic retaliation is thus unwarrantable for China especially in the context of a slowing domestic economy.尽管中国会以公开考虑制裁措施来试图迫使韩国就范,但进行大规模经济报复的附带风险也是中国所没有把握的,尤其是在中国国内经济放缓的大背景下。来 /201608/463101长宁减肥医院哪家好

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