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阿坝州学专业绣眉多少钱广安半永久性化妆绣眉培训学校Science and Technology Bioremediation Bottom feeders科技 生物降解 ;清道夫;平菇A novel way of dealing with an unpleasant problem解决烦人难题的新颖方法DESPITE their name, disposable nappies are notoriously difficult to dispose of.一次性尿布,虽然它名字的英文含义为;可随意处理的;,然而对它的处理却是一个老大难问题。Studies of landfills suggest they may take centuries to rot away.垃圾填埋区的研究显示它们可能要花上几个世纪才会完全腐烂。But Alethia Vazquez-Morillas of the Autonomous Metropolitan University in Mexico City thinks she has found a method of speeding the process up.但墨西哥城自治都市大学的阿莱蒂娅·巴斯克斯·莫莱拉丝(Alethia Vazquez-Morillas )认为她已经找到加速此过程的方法。As she and her colleagues describe in Waste Management, cultivating the right type of mushroom on soiled nappies can break down 90% of the material they are made of within two months.正如她与其同事在《废物处理》一文中所描述,以尿布为基壤,培植恰当种类的菇类,能在两个月内将其分解90%。Within four, they are degraded completely.四个月后,它们将被完全降解。What is more, she says, despite their unsavoury diet the fungi in question, Pleurotus ostreatus (better known as oyster mushrooms), are safe to eat.她表示,尽管所讨论的糙皮侧耳(即熟知的平菇)口味不佳,但食用安全。To prove the point she has, indeed, eaten them.为了明这一点,她确确实实曾亲口品尝过。The culinary use of oyster mushrooms was one reason why she picked them for the experiment.平菇的食用价值正是她选择其进行实验的原因之一。The species is frequently used in stir-fries and is often added to soups.该食材经常用于煎炸以及常常被添加至汤中。The other reason was that Pleurotus ostreatus is widely used in what is known as mycoremediation—the deployment of fungi to clean up waste.而另一个原因是平菇被广泛用于所谓的;茵核降解;(mycoremediation)——即是使用真菌去清理垃圾。It is, for example, aly grown on agricultural materials such as wheat and barley straw, and industrial waste like coffee grounds and the leftovers from making tequila.比方说,它已经在处理诸如小麦和大麦秸秆等农业废料以及在类似咖啡渣和特基拉酒废渣等工业废料上得到逐步推广。Dr Vazquez-Morillas and her colleagues were trying to extend the oyster mushrooms own culinary range.巴斯克斯·莫莱拉丝士与其同事正试图拓展平菇原有的烹饪范围。The reason nappies are difficult to break down has nothing to do with their use.尿布难于降解跟它有没有被使用过毫无关系。Even a clean nappy would hang around for a long time in a dump.即便是干净的尿布也会在垃圾场长期留存。The main ingredient of a nappy is cellulose, an annoyingly persistent material.尿布的主要组成部分是纤维素,它是一种烦人的顽固性物质。Pleurotus, however, grows on dead or dying trees in the wild and is thus well provided with enzymes that break cellulose down.然而在野外生长在已死或将死树木上的平菇,将恰如其分地分泌出能分解纤维素的酶。And, since Mexicans alone throw away 5 billion nappies every year, there is plenty of material from this source for them to get their mycelia into.而且,既然仅墨西哥每年就有50亿张尿布被丢弃,那么必定有大量此类原料正等着它们的菌丝去分解。The idea that the result might be sold and eaten may be controversial but it is not absurd.销售并食用;尿布平菇;的想法或许具有争议性,但却并不荒唐。The nappies the researchers used were contaminated only with urine, not faeces.研究人员使用的尿布仅有尿渍,并没有粪便。A healthy persons urine is sterile and Dr Vazquez-Morillas also treated the nappies with steam, to make sure.健康人类的尿液是无菌的,而巴斯克斯·莫莱拉丝士也对尿布进行了蒸汽高温消毒以确保安全。Such treatment would kill the nasty bugs in faeces, too, though, so mushrooms grown on treated nappies should, in theory, be safe to eat.这样的处理也将杀死粪便中的肮脏虫子,如果有的话,因此生长处理过的尿布上的平菇在理论上应该是可以安全食用。In practice, overcoming the yuck factor might be an insuperable barrier to marketing nappy-grown fungi, and the cost of the steam treatment could make the exercise futile.实际上,对于销售长在尿布上的平菇而言,克这种主观上令人反感的因素或许是一道不可逾越的障碍,而且蒸汽高温消毒的花销可能是不切实际的。Mycoremediation of this sort does not, however, depend for its success on selling the results.然而,此类;茵核降解;的成功之处并不依赖于销售其产物。Merely getting rid of what would otherwise hang around indefinitely is worthwhile.仅仅是摆脱那些难处理的废物就物有所值了,不然的话那些垃圾可就要无限期地困扰我们了。And of the fungi themselves, Dr Vazquez-Morillas observes, ;they are cleaner than most of the vegetables you can find in the market, at least in Mexico.;而且对于这些菌类本身,巴斯克斯·莫莱拉丝士道,;至少在墨西哥,它们要比你在市场上能找得到的大多数蔬菜干净得多。; /201212/214615雅安半永久化妆术培训学校 Obituary;Steve Schneider;讣闻;史蒂夫·施奈德;Stephen Schneider, climate scientist, died on July 19th, aged 65.气象学家史蒂夫·施奈德,于2010年7月19日去世,享年65岁。“Mark twain had it backwards,” Steve Schneider joked, in a lecture he gave to the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in 1972. “Nowadays, everyone is doing something about the weather, but nobody is talking about it.” The lecture was on the topic that Mr Schneider, then 27, had been working on for two years and would work on for another 38: what were humans doing to the climate?1972年,史蒂夫施奈德在美国科学促进会(AAAS)演讲时开玩笑地说“马克吐温把话说反了!”“而今,每个人时时都影响着气候,但没有人时时都把气候挂在嘴边”发表此演讲时,施奈德先生仅27岁,已经工作了两年并将余下的38年为这一话题而探索:人类正对气候造成了什么影响?The 1960s had brought a new way of talking about the weather—a way of representing it in punched cards that could be fed into a computer. These models, limited though they were, let their creators ask questions no simply tabulated data could answer, and see processes that the details of the real world obscured.20世纪六十年代,一种新兴的研究气候的方式产生了:用一种可以插入计算机的穿孔卡片来演示气候变化。这些新的模型,尽管有其局限性,但是这使得模型设计者不仅可以提出总汇表中数据能回答的问题,而且可以通过模型看到现实世界中模糊细节的演变过程。As a young physical scientist on the lookout for a new field that posed big questions, a former student politician who wanted to make a difference to the world and an inveterate show-off susceptible to the charms of a high profile, these models offered Mr Schneider what he needed. But in giving him a way to play with the world and its processes they gave him something he loved, too.作为一位年轻物理学家,施奈德在其关注的新领域提出了重大问题。先前他的一位从政学生想改变这个世界和因高姿态影响带来的炫耀癖,这些原型提供给了施奈德先生所想要的研究方法。然而施奈德在得到地球研究方法的馈赠的同时,他也找到了自己所喜欢的(学术方向)。As a boy growing up on Long Island he had greeted news of hurricanes by going up to the attic to sit with an anemometer, and built his own telescope in order to gasp at the planets it revealed. When computer models gave him the power to spin up winds on planets of the mind, his first big topic was a study of the net effects of smoggy pollutants in the atmosphere, which cool the planet down, and the carbon dioxide which warms it up. Other work focused on the warming and cooling effects of clouds and the climates sensitivity to greenhouse gases.作为一位年轻物理学家,施奈德在其关注的新领域提出了重大问题。先前他的一位从政学生想改变这个世界和因高姿态影响带来的炫耀癖,这些原型提供给了施奈德先生所想要的研究方法。然而施奈德在得到地球研究方法的馈赠的同时,他也找到了自己所喜欢的(学术方向)。Public interest in his work outstripped its acceptance by the academic meteorologists Mr Schneider was working with at the beginning of his career. They found computer modelling of the climate suspicious enough in itself, and Mr Schneiders insistence that it should lead to interdisciplinary interactions with biologists interested in ecosystems—and even social scientists interested in human responses—made things worse. When he returned to his office after the AAAS talk, he found a New York Times article that ed his Twain gag pinned up on a noticeboard with “Bullshit” stamped across it. His subsequent appearances on “The Tonight Show with Johnny Carson” probably did little to improve his reputation with conservative colleagues. Nor did his fairly rapid dismissal of his early belief that cooling caused by pollution might outstrip warming due to carbon dioxide. In later years, when he and his colleagues had pushed climate change, and in particular greenhouse warming, on to the agenda, people keen to ensure a lack of action made much of his about-face over cooling, preferring to accuse him of modish inconsistency than to see him as someone who had worked to improve his models, and as a result had changed his mind.公众对他的研究很感兴趣,但施奈德先生刚参加工作时曾同为同事的气象学家们却不大认同他的工作,因为这些气象学家认为计算机模拟气候本身就值得怀疑。施奈德先生还坚持认为这将和生物学家感兴趣的生态系统跨学科互动,其后果可能使生态系统变得更糟糕;同时产生跨学科互动还有社会学家所关心的人体反应。一在美国科学促进会演讲完后他就回到了办公室,他发现纽约时报的一篇文章中以公告栏的形式引用了他当年戏谑马克吐温的话,同时在文字上方印有“一派胡言”等字。接下来他在一个名为“今晚翰尼#8226;卡森与你相约”的节目中亮相,可是在保守的同事面前他的个人名声状况基本上也没有多大改观。虽然有前期的挫折,但是这些并没有使他放弃先前的想法:即大气中污染物带来的冷却效应要超过二氧化碳带来的温室效应。在接下来的几年里,施奈德先生和他的同事将气候变化,尤其是温室效应,推上了大会议程。由于他在冷却效应上态度的急转,人们急于制定一系列的法令,结果很多人控告他的个人思想过于固执,结果导致大家并没有将其视为致力于改进模型的气象学家,最终这令他改变了自己的初衷。Mr Schneiders high profile as a proponent of action on climate change—he was the editor of an important journal, Climatic Change, and an influential member of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) more or less from its inception—would have made him a favourite target for such antagonists anyway, but he came in for particular scorn because of his willingness to discuss the inevitable tensions between advocacy and academic integrity. Critics of Mr Schneider, including this newspaper, portrayed him as giving in to this tension, and being willing to tell “necessary lies” when it suited his purposes. He countered such attacks vehemently, saying such a conclusion rested on a slanted ing of what he had said on the subject. He had no time for advocacy without truth.施奈德曾是一本重要杂志“气候变化”的主编,同时自联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会成立以来,他就是该小组中具有影响力的一员。施奈德先生对造成气候变化的行为持赞成态度的高调姿态使他成为了收到攻击最多的对象。因为他意志坚强,所以面对这些极端的嘲弄,他迎难而上,探讨学术宣传和学术诚信不可避免的紧张关系。在一份报纸中这样描述对施奈德先生的批评:他会在紧张的情况下会做出让步,同时声称施奈德先生在达到自身目的的前提下愿意捏造“必要的谎言”。但施奈德先生对这种学术攻击进行了猛烈地抨击,声称这是由于其他人对他在此主题上的言论偏见理解造成的。一旦没有了真理,学术宣传就是在浪费时间。Far from being a voice of orthodoxy, Mr Schneider encouraged debate, and doubts, on subjects that some of his colleagues thought beyond the pale. He convened meetings on the Gaia hypothesis and its notion of a self-regulating Earth; he provided space for discussions of geoengineering schemes for cooling the planet. When his friend Carl Sagan (who had recommended him to Johnny Carson) led the charge on the climatic effects of nuclear war as a case for disarmament, Mr Schneider, whose politics were close to Sagans, damaged their friendship by saying publicly that the models he worked with were considerably less prone than Sagans to the creation of “nuclear winters”.和先前大众普遍认同的观点相同,施奈德先生敢于在学术方面进行驳论、质疑,尽管有些领域他的同事们认为是越界。他召集会议讨论盖亚假说和盖亚假说中地球是具有自我调节整功能的论点。他为地球降温的抵制工程计划提供了提供了广阔的研究空间。施奈德先生的朋友卡尔#8226;萨根(后将其称为约翰尼#8226;卡森)是负责研究核裁军带来的气候效应,施奈德先生的政治观点与卡森的基本相同,但由于施奈德先生公开声称他所研究的模型比起卡森的研究更不容易造成“核战争”,这破坏了两人间的友谊。At the IPCC, Mr Schneiders deepest commitment was to candour about uncertainties and the role played by subjective expert judgment. He loved models for the patterns and ideas they revealed much more than he trusted them as detailed guides to action. He was more likely to criticise a piece of science for underestimating its own level of uncertainty than for coming to a conclusion he disagreed with.在联合国政府间气候变化专门委员会中,施奈德先生的最大的特点就是直言那些不确定因素和专家的主观臆断所起的作用。他喜欢这种方式的模型,并且他认可这些模型,可以将它们作为自己详细的行为指南。比起那些他不赞成的观点,他认为低估了不确定性科学的观点更应该受到批评。点。In his mid-50s he found his ideas about how to make weighty decisions in uncertainty tested in a more personal way. He was diagnosed with a rare lymphoma. With his wife as advocate and his doctor as expert, he tried to understand the processes involved and decide on actions accordingly. His choice of aggressive treatments helped him survive until a heart attack claimed him on an aircraft ferrying him from one climate meeting to the next.在他50岁的时候,他发现可以利用不确定因素做出更具有个性化的重大抉择。但随后施奈德先生被诊断出患有罕见的淋巴癌。在妻子的持和医生的建议下,他试着了解那些不确定性因素的过程并按其过程行事行事。他自己选择了大胆的治疗,结果活了下来,但在参加下一个会议的途中,他因心脏病飞机上逝世。 /201210/203300雅安学习纹绣要多少钱

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成都素秀DREAM半永久培训联系方式qq微信Business商业报道3D films struggle Flat expectations预期值过高3D films, cinemas great hope, have become niche products电影公司最大的希望—3D电影—让人失望了Voldemort looks no prettier in 3D3D版伏地魔并没有更好看TEN years after it took off, Hollywoods biggest film franchise has finally alighted from its broomstick.十年前首映的好莱坞最大电影系列《哈利波特》,今日终于走向尾声。Between July 15th and July 17th Americans shelled out 9m to see Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows Part 2—a record for any film, in nominal terms.7月15至7月17日,《哈利波特与死亡圣器 第二部分》从美国人的口袋中掏走了1.69亿美元—这是任何影院都无法企及的记录。But barely a third of the audience opted to watch the boy wizard battle his snake-faced foe in three dimensions.但只有仅仅三分之一的观众选择3D版。Two years ago it seemed as though a new, improved 3D projection system could rescue a film business battered by falling DVD sales.两年前3D模式看似可以挽救一个被DVD打得伤痕累累的电影行业。Fully 71% of the box-office spending on Avatar on its opening weekend, in December , went on the 3D version.年12月,《阿凡达》上映一周就有整整71%的票房来自3D影院。The 3D showings of Shrek Forever After accounted for 61% of American box-office spending.《怪物史瑞克》的美国票房有61%来自3D影院。Cinemas generally charge at least more for a 3D showing—far more than the glasses cost.一般来说,电影公司会向3D影院的观众多收取至少3美元—那副眼镜远远值不了这个价。This lucrative business is now looking flat.这个获利丰厚的行业现在看起来似乎不大乐观。Despite rapid growth in digital projectors and 3D-capable screens, the proportion of total box-office spending that goes on 3D has dropped this summer.且不说数码投影仪以及3D功能屏幕的发展迅速,今夏3D电影的总票房比例也下降了。Four of the past five 3D blockbusters—Pirates of the Caribbean, Kung Fu Panda 2, Green Lantern and Harry Potter—made more money from 2D screens on their opening weekend than from 3D ones.刚刚热映的五部3D巨片—《加勒比海盗》、《功夫熊猫》、《绿灯侠》以及《哈利波特》—上映第一个星期赚的票房更多来自2D影院,而非3D影院。That was true of only one widely released 3D film last summer, and none the year before.去年夏天热映的唯一一部3D电影的时候,情形也是这样,前年就不会这么冷淡。Richard Gelfond, the boss of IMAX, reckons customers have become picky.IMAX的老总Richard Gelfond认为消费者变得越来越精明了。People used to see something just because it was in 3D, he says.过去人们因为3D而选择3D。他说道。Now they ask how much pleasure the glasses will add.现在人们会质疑这副眼镜能带来多大的愉悦感。The explosive Transformers 3 did well in 3D; perhaps the 2D version was not sufficiently headache-inducing.巨作《变形金刚3》3D版很卖座,也许是2D版的画面不够震撼。The key to three-dimensional profits, then, is to put out hugely popular films with extraordinary special effects.这样说来,要让3D版盈利的关键,就是在那些备受欢迎的影片里加入更多特效。 点击此处下载本期经济学人讲解PDF与音频字幕 /201302/226204 达州半永久培训费用德阳纹绣师证书

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